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  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A Exam 2 Section 3 November 4, 2014 Instructions:

    You can write on this test booklet. Choose the best answer. All answer must go on the scantron. Calculators are NOT allowed. Sign the academic integrity code on the

    bottom of this page. Make sure to write your name, form

    letter, and section number on the scantron

    University Code on Academic Integrity On this date of November 4, 2014 understand the University Code on Academic Integrity, and here by abide by all sections. I will not aid or be assisted by colleagues within this class, which may infringe upon violating both Rutgers and NJIT Integrity codes. Print Name:____________________________________ Signature:______________________________________ YOUR EXAM WILL NOT BE GRADED UNLESS THE ACADEMIC

    INTEGRITY STATEMENT IS SIGNED

    FORM A

  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A Figure 1: This phylogeny show the evolutionary relationship of several groups of animals. The cartoons represent living groups of animals. The letters lower on the tree represent ancestral species. For 1 & 2 indicate whether the statement is correct by circling the letter next to the TRUE or FALSE statement with the correct reason. 1. According to Figure 1, Newts are more closely related to Sunfish than to Chimpanzees. A) TRUE, because newts share a common ancestor with sunfish. B) TRUE, because newts are closer to sunfish in the tree. C) TRUE, because the ancestor of sunfish (Q) is connected to the ancestor of newts (R) whereas the ancestor of chimpanzees (T) is separated by one ancestor (S). D) FALSE, because newts share a more recent common ancestor with chimpanzees than with sunfish E) FALSE, because newts are much more primitive than chimpanzees 2. According to Figure 1, newts evolved from sunfish A) TRUE, because sunfish came first. B) FALSE, because sunfish evolved from newts. C) FALSE, because newts evolved from lizards. D) FALSE, because neither evolved from the other. 3. In figure 1, Chimpanzees, bears, and ancestral species T are the only members of the mammal clade. If a trait is a synapomorphy of mammals, then A) It should be present in the ancestor S B) It should be present in the ancestor T C) It should be present in both S & T D) It should not be present in either S or T

  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A 4. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in evolution of life on earth (from most ancient to most recent)? I. origin of mammals II. origin of arthropods III. origin of life on land IV. origin of photosynthesis A) I, II, III, IV B) III, II, IV, I C) IV, III, II, I D) I, III, IV, II E) IV, II, III, I 5. Which of the following is NOT an example of sympatric speciation? A) a few individuals of a species start a new population on an island, after 2 million years, this new population has become reproductively isolated from the mainland population. B) a species of insect diverges into two species while living in the same area due to a preference for feeding on different substrates. C) a species of fish living in a lake diverges into two species because a dam is build that divides the lake into two and keeps the two populations separated. D) a species of plant diverges into two after a meiotic mutation leads to the production of individuals with the wrong number of chromosomes, these individuals then form a new breeding population . E) Both A & C are NOT examples of sympatric speciation. 6. The figure above shows the decay of C-14 to N-14. If you have a fossil that is 10,000 years old, approximately how much C-14 should be left compared to the original amount the fossilized remain started with? A) Between 100 50% B) Between 50-25% C) Between 25 12.5% D) Between 12.5 7.25% E) Less than 7.25%

    Years elapsed

  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A

    7. The group shaded in the tree above is a __________________ group. This group includes only species B & C. A) Monophyletic B) Paraphyletic C) Polyphyletic 8. The basic diploid chromosome number in Rye (Secale cereal) is 14. A new species of rye is found that has 28 chromosomes. This species is said to be _________ A) haploid B) diploid C) triploid D) tetraploid E) octoploid 9. Which of the following occurred during the Paleozoic? A) Origin of life B) Origin of multicellular life C) Origin of photosynthesis D) Origin of amphibians E) Origin of mammals 10. Why would natural selection favor lactase persistence in some populations but not others? A) In some populations people might be lactose intolerant, so drinking milk would not provide a selective advantage. B) If a mutation enabling lactase persistence occurred in a population that did not have access to dairy animals, it would not be selected for (i.e., there would be no positive selection). C) Any mutations altering the production of lactose would be selected against D) This mutation only occurred because of the presence of dairy animals near the human population. E) lactase persistence is a ancestral trait that has been lost in several population of humans because they no longer needed this trait.

    E

  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A 11. The proliferation of a large number of daughter species from a single ancestor is known as A) an adaptive radiation. B) the Cambrian explosion. C) sympatric speciation. D) disruptive selection. E) cospeciation. 12. Which of the following is the most likely sequence of events in allopatric speciation? A) Geographic separation, reproductive isolation, genetic divergence B) Geographic separation, genetic divergence, reproductive isolation C) Genetic divergence, geographic separation, reproductive isolation D) Genetic divergence, reproductive isolation, geographic separation E) Reproductive isolation, genetic divergence, geographic separation 13. Similarity of phenotypes may bot always reflect evolutionary relationships A) due to convergent evolution. B) due to homologous traits. C) due to both of the above. 14. Two species of wild lettuce grow in the same areas, but one flowers in early spring and the other flowers in summer. This is an example of a A) postzygotic isolating mechanism B) geographical isolating mechanism C) behavioral isolating mechanism D) temporal isolating mechanism E) Both A & D 15. Currently, two extant elephant species (X and Y) are placed in the genus Loxodonta, and a third species (Z) is placed in the genus Elephas. Thus, which statement should be true? A) Species X and Y are not related to species Z. B) Species X and Y share a greater number of homologies with each other than either does with species Z. C) Species X and Y share a common ancestor that is still extant (in other words, not yet extinct). D) Species X and Y are the result of artificial selection from an ancestral species Z. E) Species X, Y, and Z share a common ancestor, but nothing more can be claimed than this. 16. Which of the following is true about life in the Precambrian? A) There were only single-cell organisms on earth B) There was no oxygen on earth throughout the entire Precambrian C) There were no animals on earth D) All life was marine (i.e., found in the ocean) E) All living organisms on earth at this time had a nucleus

  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A 17. According to the principle of parsimony, the best phylogenetic hypothesis is the one that requires the A) fewest homologies. B) most evolutionary steps. C) fewest evolutionary steps. D) most clades. E) fewest clades. 18. The antifreeze proteins found in fish that live in very cold waters has evolved independently in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and not because of shared ancestry. Which of the following can be said about its evolution? A) The antifreeze proteins in Arctic and Antarctic fish are homologous traits. B) The antifreeze proteins in Arctic and Antarctic fish are analogous traits. C) The Arctic and Antarctic fish form a clade. D) Both a and c E) None of the above 19. According to the diagram below, which of the three phylogenetic trees of the Drosophila species is different from the other two?

    A) Tree 1 B) Tree 2 C) Tree 3 D) All of the trees are the same

  • Foundations of Ecology and Evolution Fall 2014 Form A 20. Which of the following statements about oxygen and ancient Earth is true? A) The atmosphere of early Earth contained almost as much free oxygen as present-day Earth, but most of this oxygen was lost in the Cambrian. B) Early bacteria generated free oxygen as a product of photosynthesis. C) The oxygen-generating cyanobacteria have gone extinct. D) All of the above E) None of the above 21. You are studying a hypothetical virus VIR. This virus has jumped into the human population twice, once from gorillas and once from orangutans. You have categorized the virus in humans into two types: VIR-G (the one that came from gorillas), and VIR-O (the one that came from orangutans). In VIR-O there is a huge variety in strains (lots of genetic diversity), however in VIR-G there is very little diversity. This suggests: A) that VIR-O entered the human population more recently than VIR-G B) that VIR-G entered the human population more recently than VIR-O C) that both viruses entered the human population around the same time 22. The common ancestor of humans and the other great apes walked on all fours, while humans are bipeds. Bipedalism is thus the _______ trait. A) ancestral B) homologous C) paraphyletic D) derived E) monophyletic 23. You are confronted with a box of preserved grasshoppers of va