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  • JOHN KNIGHT OF WOLVERLEY ANDSIMONSBATH:AN OUTLINE BIOGRAPHY

    Exmoor National ParkHistoric Environment Report Series No 25

  • JOHN KNIGHT OF WOLVERLEY ANDSIMONSBATH:AN OUTLINE BIOGRAPHY

    Exmoor National ParkHistoric Environment Report Series No 25

    Exmoor National ParkHistoric Environment Report SeriesAuthor: Rob Wilson-NorthDesign: Pete RaeAugust 2017

    The research which underpins much of this report was carried out by theauthor independently in order to answer some fundamental questions aboutJohn Knight and his work on Exmoor. It was party facilitated by a grant from theExmoor Society as part of the Brian and Mary Chugg Conservation Award whichenabled some of the research in Worcestershire to be carried out. It seemedappropriate to bring that research together in an interim report to support thecurrent work of the Simonsbath Programme which is being carried out by aSteering Group supported by Exmoor National Park Authority.

    This report series includes interim reports, policy documents and otherinformation relating to the historic environment of Exmoor National Park.

    Further hard copies of this report can be obtained from the Exmoor National Park Historic Environment Record:Exmoor House, Dulverton, Somerset. TA22 9HL email her@exmoor-nationalpark.gov.uk, 01398 322273

    FRONT COVER:John Knight 1767-1850. This portrait was probably drawn when he was in his mid 70s. It is found in acommonplace book - now in the British Museum - which belonged to his daughter, Isabella Jane

    Exmoor National Park Authority & the author

  • Jenkyn Knight of Salop(family coat of arms and tree in the possession of Enid Teague Knight)

  • ContentsPage

    SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

    KNIGHT FAMILY TREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

    JOHN KNIGHT: EXPERIENCE, MOTIVATIONS, TASTE, ARTISTIC ANDARCHITECTURAL COMMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

    JOHN KNIGHTS FAMILY: SOCIAL STANDING AND CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

    AFTER EXMOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

    RESTING PLACE OF JOHN AND JANE KNIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

    CHILDREN OF JOHN AND JANE KNIGHT; KNIGHT FAMILY LIFE IN ROME;EDWARD LEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

    Margaret Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

    Frederic Winn Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

    Charles Allanson Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

    Isabella Jane Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

    Edward Lewis Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

    Helen Georgiana Knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

    LINES OF DESCENT OF JOHN KNIGHTS FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

    CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

    MODERN RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

    REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84

    APPENDIX 1: CATALOGUE OF KNIGHT ARCHIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

  • Portraits of two men (or the same man?) in Isabella Knights commonplace book, with the laterinscription 'John Knight 90' on the profile at the bottom of the page

  • SUMMARY

    John Knight purchased most of the former Royal Forest of Exmoor by 1820 andbegan an ambitious land reclamation project the single biggest of its kind inEngland. After 17 years he left Exmoor and never lived there again; his sonFrederic Winn Knight continuing the endeavour, which subsequently developedin a very different way. No one person has done more to shape the direction ofExmoors landscape than John Knight; yet he is poorly understood and relativelylittle known. What kind of man was he? Who and what influenced him before hecame to Exmoor? And how did these factors shape the Exmoor enterprise?

    This report necessarily an interim statement on John Knight because of thedispersed, fragmentary and emerging documentary evidence provides anoutline biography of the man and his close family and attempts to apply somecolour and focus to the shadowy figure we have known until now. The reportincludes new research, which has uncovered the only two portraits of JohnKnight, a previously unrecognised James Ward drawing of the Exmoor coast andalso a substantial collection of papers forming the entire residue of the Knightfamily archive from the seat at Wolverley when it was disposed of in 1944. Thislatter was formerly in the principal residence at Wolverley (Worcestershire) and,on its disposal, remained with the last descendant of John Knight in Englanduntil his death in 1961. They then remained in the possession of his widow untilnow (she has kindly agreed for the papers to be deposited at the South WestHeritage Trust, and hereinafter it will be referred to as the Knight Archive seeAppendix 1 for a Catalogue of the material).

    The report therefore uses this newly discovered information to present anoutline chronology of the Knight familys interaction with Exmoor, it sheds lighton the true significance of the physical remains on the ground, and it also placesJohn Knights Exmoor in its context. The importance of John Knights creation isstill underestimated nationally due largely to the fact that it is still poorlyunderstood; this report identifies where some new avenues of research maylead us in the future. In particular it points out the need for more historicalresearch, analysis of the existing historical information and further recording ofthe standing buildings, boundaries and archaeology associated with this period,and also a more analytical assessment of how John Knights estate would havefunctioned if it had been developed further in his time.

    JOHN KNIGHT OF WOLVERLEY AND SIMONSBATH: AN OUTLINE BIOGRAPHY

    Page 1

  • Knight of Wolverley

    Page 2

    EXMOOR NATIONAL PARK

    INTRODUCTION

    John Knight of Wolverley, Worcestershire was born on 24th August 1767 anddied on 24th January 1850 in Rome. He is the central figure in the Exmoor landreclamation story, which is described by Charles Orwin in Reclamation ofExmoor Forest (1929) as one of the greatest achievements ...that the nineteenthcentury has to show. Despite this, John Knight has remained in the shadows. Hismotives and intentions are poorly documented, leaving researchers, as well asthose concerned with the modern management of Exmoor, a huge challenge inunderstanding the landscape he created and, of course, the man at the centreof the story. This report provides an outline biography of John Knight, for the firsttime, and offers a broader perspective than has hitherto been available. It doesthis through looking at some aspects of his younger life and by following theKnight family after most of them left Exmoor in 1837. It provides a timeline ofevents to put the Exmoor Experiment into context, rather than exhaustivelyanalysing what happened on Exmoor.

    No formally attributed portrait of John Knight is known to survive (see below for aconvincing, but currently unattributed, contender which was sold in London in2008), but a sketch profile of him has been found in his daughter, Isabellas,scrapbook, in the British Museum. The likeness was probably taken around 1840(when he was in his mid-70s) and shows John Knight facing to the right with headbowed perhaps he is asleep (Wilson-North 2016). There is a likeness of JohnKnights father (below left), also called John (attributed to Joseph Wright of Derby),(www.christies.com/lotfinder/paintings/attributed-to-joseph-wright-of-derby-portrait-5018574-details.aspx).

    Another image is John (ii) Knights son, Edward Lewis Knight (below right), onthe grounds of the resemblance to a pencil portrait of him discussed later).Described Portrait of a gentleman of the Knight family, it was sold in 2008 withfour other portraits of the Knight family (Johns children: his son Frederic, and histhree daughters, Margaret, Isabella Jane and Helen Georgiana).

    John Knight senior (1740-95) Edward Lewis Knight

  • Page 3

    JOHN KNIGHT OF WOLVERLEY AND SIMONSBATH: AN OUTLINE BIOGRAPHY

  • Page 4

    EXMOOR NATIONAL PARK

    JOHN KNIGHT: EXPERIENCE, MOTIVATIONS, TASTE, ARTISTIC ANDARCHITECTURAL COMMISSIONS

    John Knight was born on 24 August 1767 (http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=genesearcher&id=I9

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