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EXPERIMENT NO.1 AIM:To familiarize with the various basic tools (crimping, krone, etc.) used in establishing a LAN.

CRIMPING TOOL:Crimping is joining two pieces of metal or other malleable material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp.

Uses:A crimping tool is a tool designed to crimp or connect a connector to the end of a cable. For example, network cables and phone cables are created using a crimping tool to connect the RJ-45 and RJ-11 connectors to the end of the cable. Crimping is most extensively used in metalworking. Crimping is commonly used to join bullets to their cartridge cases, and for rapid but lasting electrical connectors. Because it can be a coldworking technique, crimping can also be used to form a strong bond between the work piece and a non-metallic component. Sometimes, a similar deformity created for reasons other than forming a join may also be called a crimp.

The Crimping Tool for RJ45/RJ12/RJ11 Modular Connectors is made from very high quality of tool steel which ensures high durability at its user end. This Crimping Tool for RJ45/RJ12/RJ11 Modular Connectors is in high demand in the market. Different sizes and designs are easily available in the market. Crimping Tool for RJ45/RJ12/RJ11 Modular Connectors is available at industrial leading prices. This crimping tool for RJ45/12/11 modular connector is with high standard. The driving part is made of high quality tool steel, 40 Crtool bit and 45 steel with quenching procesing.Plactic parts are injected and molded of inflaming fetarding PC,

suitable for the site construction of the engineering of various weak electric wiring system full functions good practicality adaptable to fit with the operation with different plugs, blocks, modules and distnbution frames of clamping, cutting, shearing and crimping.

How to use crimping tool: Use the cable stripper to remove two-inches of the outer jacket from the end of the cable. Untwist and separate the individual conductors. Arrange the conductors in the desired order. Trim the ends of the wire evenly to within 1/2-inch of the outer jacket with electrician's scissors. Insert the conductors into the RJ45 plug. Push the wires into the jack until they reach the end of the slots in the plug. When you are finished, the outer jacket of the cable should at least 1/4-inch inside the opening of the plug. Insert the RJ45 plug into the die (opening) of the crimping tool. The die is shaped like a jack so it will only fit in the correct position. Squeeze the handles of the crimping tool together firmly. Release the handles of the crimping tool and remove the jack.

KRONE TOOL:A punch down tool, also called a punchdown tool or a krone tool (named after the KRONE LSAPLUS connector), is a small hand tool used by telecommunication and network technicians. It is used for inserting wire into insulation-displacement connectors on punch down blocks, patch panels, keystone modules, and surface mount boxes .

Most punch down tools is of the impact type, consisting of a handle, an internal spring mechanism, and a removable slotted blade. To use the punch down tool, a wire is pre-positioned into a slotted post, and then the punch down tool is pressed down on top of the wire, over the post. Once the required pressure is reached, the internal spring is triggered, and the blade pushes the wire into the slot, cutting the insulation, and securing the wire. For light-duty use, there are also less expensive punch down tools with fixed blades and no impact mechanism.

To accommodate different connector types, 66, 110, BIX and krone require different blades. Removable blades for 66 or 110 are often double-ended, with one end that only inserts the wire for daisy-chain wiring from post to post, and another end that inserts wire and trims the excess length for termination at a post.[3] The trimming blade cutting edge works against the plastic insulating post. Krone blades require a separate scissor-like mechanism for trimming the wire.


AIM:To study various topologies for establishing various computer networks.

NETWORK TOPOLOGY:Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a biological network. Topology can be understood as the shape or structure of a network. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. The computers on a home network can be arranged in a circle but it does not necessarily mean that it represents a ring topology. Any particular network topology is determine d only by the graphical mapping of the configurat ion of physical and/or logical connections between nodes. The study of network topology uses graph theory. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, and/or signal types may differ in two networks and yet their topologies may be identical. A local area network (LAN) is one example of a network that exhibits both a physical topology and a logical topology. Any given node in the LAN has one or more links to one or more nodes in the network and the mapping of these links and nodes in a graph results in a geometric shape that may be used to describe the physical topology of the network. Likewise, the mapping of the data flow between the nodes in the network determines the logical topology of the network. The physical and logical topologies may or may not be identical in any particular network.

Topology classification:There are two basic categories of network topologies: Physical topologies Logical topologies

Physical topology: The physical topology refers to the physical design of a network includingthe devices, location and cable installation the shape of the cabling layout used to link devices is called the physical topology of the network. This refers to the layout of cabling, the locations of nodes, and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling. The physical topology of a network is determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media, the level of control or fault tolerance desired, and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits. It relates to the core network.

Logical topology: Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network asopposed to its physical design. The logical topology, in contrast, is the way that the signals act on the network media, or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices. A network's logical topology is not necessarily the same as its physical topology. For example, the original twisted pair Ethernet using repeater was a logical bus topology with a physical star topology layout. Token Ring is a logical ring topology, but is wired a physical star from the Unit. It relates to the basic network. The logical classification of network topologies generally follows the same classifications as those in the physical classifications of network topologies but describes the path that the data takes between nodes being used as opposed to the actual physical connections between nodes. The logical topologies are generally determined by network protocols as opposed to being determined by the physical layout of cables, wires, and network devices or by the flow of the electrical signals, although in many cases the paths that the electrical signals take between nodes may closely match the logical flow of data, hence the convention of using the terms logical topology and signal topology interchangeably. Logical topologies are often closely associated with Media Access Control methods and protocols. Logical topologies are able to be dynamically reconfigured by special types of equipment such as routers and switches.

The study of network topology recognizes seven basic topologies: Point-to-point Bus Star Ring Mesh Tree Hybrid Daisy chain.

POINT TO POINT TOPOLOGY:The simplest topology is a permanent link between two endpoints. Switched point-topoint topologies are the basic model of conventional telephony. The value of a permanent pointto-point network is unimpeded communications between the two endpoints. The value of an on-

demand point-to-point connection is proportional to the number of potential pairs of subscribers, and has been expressed as Metcalfe's Law. .

BUS TOPOLOGY:It is also known as Horizontal topology. This arrangement is quite popular in Local Area Network (LAN).It is a point to multipoint topology. A bus topology consists of a single central cable to which all computers and other devices connect. A bus topology is also known as a bus network. A bus refers to the main physical pathway or central cable where all other devices are connected to it. Like a major motor highway, all traffic flow will be affected if this main road is broken. One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in the network. Nodes are connected to bus by taps and drop lines. A drop line is a connection between device and the main bus cable. A tap is a connector that either punctures the sheathing of a cable to create a contact with the metallic core or splice into the main cable to create a contact with core. As a signal travels along the backbone some energy loss takes place and signal becomes weaker and weaker farther it has to travel. Therefore, these are a limit on the number of taps a bus can support and on the distance between those taps.

A network terminator is required at both the ends of the bus to avoid any reflection of signal from the open end, which may lead to wrong signal on the bus. It is relatively simple to control traffic flow between DTEs because the bus permits all stations to receive every transmission .That is a single station broadca