exploring photography: an introduction to cameras pinhole, film, digital created by nicole schrensky

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Exploring Photography: An Introduction to Cameras Pinhole, Film, Digital Created by Nicole Schrensky. c lick the camera to begin. Welcome to the wonderful world of photography!. After completing this program you will be able to: Identify different types of cameras - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Exploring Photography: Cameras Pinhole, Film, Digital created by Nicole Schrensky

The black, faded edges of this image is referred to as

Pinhole effectUnderexposureVignettehttp://www.unionactions.com/wp-content/themes/UA_Child_Theme/images/Vignette-Barn-Normal.jpg86Which image is an example of double exposure?

De: http://www.telovation.com/photos/double-exposure-photography.jpgVignette: http://www.wirefresh.com/images/android-vignette-htc-desire.jpg83Sorry that is not the correct answer. Try again!Click to go back and try againCorrect! The black faded edges are called vignette. Click to continueSorry that is not the correct answer. Try again!Click to go back and try againShutterThe shutter is a set of curtains that opens to let light into the camera. The speed these curtains open and close determines how much light may enter the camera.

FilmFilm is a piece of plastic that is coated with emulsion. Emulsion is light sensitive and records any light that hits it.

Main MenuOn this page you can select what kind of camera you want to learn about. You may also choose to skip ahead to the final assessment. At any point during this program you may return to this menu by clicking the camera at the bottom of the screen.Before you begin it may be a good idea to review some photographic terms!

Which camera would you like to discover?PinholeFilmDigitalSkip ahead to the final assessment

Pinhole CamerasA pinhole camera is a very basic camera. It has no lens and only one aperture. Every pinhole camera is different and as a result every pinhole image is too!

Dissecting the CameraA pinhole camera has three main parts:The light tight chamber-most commonly a cardboard boxThe image plane-where the film is placed The pinhole-where the light enters the box


How it WorksThe shutter is lifted and the pinhole is exposedLight reflects off of the objects in front of the camera and enters the pinholeThe light sensitive paper or film on the image plane collects the lightThe image is recorded upside down and backwards on the film or paperThe shutter is placed over the pinhole to prevent more light from entering

Camera ObscuraPinhole cameras were created based off of the knowledge of camera obscura. Camera obscura is the term used to describe the way light flips and the colors invert when it enters through the pinhole. This is why film contains negative images!

Camera ObscuraHeres a fun fact:If you were to have a black room with no light leaks and you cut a hole the size of a quarter in one of the walls, the outside image would reflect onto the opposite wall upside down and inverted!


Qualities of a Pinhole ImageThere are three main aspects of a pinhole image:Light LeaksOverlapVignette


Light LeaksLight leaks occur when the camera is not light-tight. Light enters the camera through seems or cracks and it appears on the image as an over exposed mark. They may also occur once the film is out of the camera if the film is not rolled tightly.

Image 1: http://www.squarefrog.co.uk/uploads/images/Gallery/leaks-top/leaks-ex4.jpgImage 2: http://www.flickr.com/photos/melzphotos/3681689155/Image 3: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeneawhat/5362488363/20

OverlapSome pinhole cameras cause images to overlap. This means that the film was not fully advanced after a frame was shot so one frame lays partially on the other. This can also be called double exposure.

Overlap image: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Cy93HeLa2wc/TA3el0nddRI/AAAAAAAABII/G5A5f3HN6Tg/s1600/holga_pano_zinkwazidotcom.jpgDouble exposure: http://microsites.lomography.com/holga/content/galleries/multiple-exposure/multiple_10.jpg21

VignetteThe vignette of a photograph refers to the edges when they are faded or blacked out. This occurs because of the edges of the pinhole. It can also be done by exposing the sides of the film when it is rolled up.

Plant: http://nenuno.co.uk/creative/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/mental_vignette.jpgPier: http://www.ephotozine.com/articles/how-to-create-a-vignette-in-photoshop-18261/images/whitby_vignette.jpg22

Types of Pinhole CamerasBecause pinhole cameras are so simple they can be made of almost anything!

2 of the most popular pinhole cameras that can be bought are:

Pepper: http://fototapeta.art.pl/2007/i/phr/03c_eryk10.jpgMouth: http://files.petapixel.com/assets/uploads/2011/10/mouth1_mini.jpgIphone: http://beastlybird.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/4512807209_f2bd7c1c11_m1.jpgHolga: http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51m2dQkME7L._SL500_AA300_.jpgDiana: http://www.stevehuffphoto.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/DIANAFRONTYF.jpg

23Now you will be asked a few questions about pinhole camerasFor this section simply click the answer you think is right!

Pinhole cameras are very technologically advanced.TrueFalseIm sorry but that is not the correct answer. Click to go back and try againFilm CamerasA film camera exposes light to light sensitive film in order to record an image. The film must then be developed in order to see the images.

Dissecting the Camera

http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/camera-diagram4.gif36How it WorksLight enters the camera through the lens.The light is reflected off of a mirror system so the image can be shown in the view finder.The shutter released is pushed an the shutter opens.Light enters through the shutter and hits the film.The film collects the image.The film advances to the next frame.

Qualities of a Film ImageThere are 3 common qualities that can be found in film images:NoiseHighlightsResolution

Types of Film Cameras35mm Medium Format

Large Format

35mm: http://oliviahalvorsenphotography.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/ts.jpegMed: http://www.bjp-online.com/IMG/329/104329/gf670-front.jpg?1276871789Large: http://vnbphoto.com/workshops/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Toyo1.jpg42Now you will be asked a few questions about film camerasFor this section simply click the answer you think is correct!

Because film cameras are old they produce images that are poor quality with very low resolution.TrueFalseDigital CamerasRather than storing images on film, a digital camera stores images digitally. The images can be downloaded and edited on computers very easily.

Dissecting the Camera


How it WorksA digital camera operates very similarly to a film camera

Light enters the camera through the lens.The light is reflected off of a mirror system so the image can be shown in the view finder.The shutter released is pushed an the shutter opens.Light enters through the shutter and hits the sensor.The sensor collects the image and stores it on the digital memory

Qualities of a Digital ImageThere are two very distinct aspects that you may see in some digital images:


PixelDigital images are created by tiny squares called pixels. The higher the pixel count the better the image. If an image has a low resolution it has a low pixel count and the individual squares will be visible.


ZoomThere are two types of zoom, digital and optical. An optical zoom changes the focal length of the lens where as a digital zoom crops the image. Because the image is cropped the pixels become visible.

http://photo.net/equipment/digital/basics/57Types of Digital CamerasTwo of the most popular types of digital cameras are:CompactSLR (Single Lens Reflector)

CompactCompact cameras are the most popular cameras. They are very easy because they use an auto focus lens, auto exposure, and a built in flash. All the user simply has to do is turn it on, point, and shoot. This is why they are often called point and shoot cameras!


SLR SLR stands for single-lens reflex. This type of camera uses a mirror and prism system to reflect the light entering the lens to the view finder allowing the photographer to see exactly what will be captured. Although equipped with automatic settings the camera is set up for everything to be manually operated.

http://microscopeinternational.com/image/cache/data/Products/ND3000,%20MSDCA-SLR-350x350.jpg60Now you will be asked a few questions about digital cameras!For this section simply click the answer you think is correct!

Digital cameras are easier to use because of todays technology.True False

Final EvaluationYou will now be asked questions to evaluate what youve just learned! You may return to the main menu at any point by clicking the camera at the bottom of the screen!

Are you ready? Good luck!

Define exposureThe amount of light that enters the camera and is collected by the film or sensorThe most illuminated parts of an image.What the photographer sees in the viewfinder

Sorry that is not correct. Try again!Click to go back and try againCongrats!Youve completed Exploring Photography: Cameras!

Now go and explore the world with your camera!