exposing benedict arnold's betrayal
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Exposing Benedict Arnolds Betrayal 1
Exposing Benedict Arnolds Betrayal Overview: During the Revolutionary War (1775-1783) General George Washington, Commander of the Continental Army, wrote his generals often over the years. This is the story of one general who betrayed his country and took the name traitor to his grave. Students will look at personal letters written by Arnold, Washington and others to come to their own conclusions as to why a person would betray his countrymen. Arnold wrote-Love to my country actuates my present conduct, however it may appear inconsistent to the world, who very seldom judge right of any mans actions. Students will study a brief biography of Benedict Arnolds life and also use a timeline of the Revolutionary War from the Library of Congress. Grade Range: 7-9
Objective: Students will
Analyze letters written by Washington, Arnold, and Andre.
Use their analysis to deduce the actions of Benedict Arnold and understand his motives.
Participate in small learning groups, in whole class discussion, report to the class, and reflect together a timeline of these documented events.
Time Required: Two class periods of 50 minutes. Discipline/Subject: Social Studies, American History, Colonization Topic/Subject: War, Military Era: The American Revolution, 1763-1783 Illinois Learning Standards: Social Studies: 14.C.3-Compare historical issues involving rights, roles and status of individuals in relation to states and nations 16.A-Apply the skills of historical analysis and interpretation. 18-B-Understand the roles and interactions of individuals and groups in society. Language Arts: 5.A-Locate, organize, and use information from various sources to answer questions, solve problems. And communicate ideas. 5.C-Apply acquired information, concepts and ideas to communicate in a variety of formats.
Handouts: Copies of primary sources for learning groups- 4 copies per group (five to six) groups per class.
Analysis Tools: Analyzing Photographs and Prints The More You Look Photo Analysis Written Document Analysis
Other: Smartboard or document camera for displaying the investigative questions and primary sources for the entire class during discussion and group presentations.
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Library of Congress Items: Title of Source: Letter, Benedict Arnold to George Washington, pleading for mercy for his wife, Sept 25,1780 Creator of Source: Arnold, Benedict Date of Creation: Sept 25, 1780 URL of Source: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mcc:@field([email protected](mcc/054)) Title of Source: Benedict Arnold, 1741-1801 Date of Creation: 1894 URL of Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004668503/ Title of Source: Benedict Arnold, September 15, 1775, Journal Creator of Source: Arnold, Benedict Date of Creation: September 15, 1775 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw4&fileName=gwpage034.db&recNum=103 Title of Source: George Washington to Benedict Arnold, May 7, 1779 Creator of Source: Washington, George Date of Creation: May 7, 1779 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw3&fileName=mgw3b/gwpage008.db&recNum=346 Title of Source: George Washington to Benedict Arnold, May 15, 1779 Creator of Source: Washington, George Date of Creation: May 15, 1779 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw3&fileName=mgw3b/gwpage008.db&recNum=387 Title of Source: George Washington to Benedict Arnold, August 3, 1780 Creator of Source: Washington, George Date of Creation: August 3, 1780 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw3&fileName=mgw3b/gwpage012.db&recNum=128 Title of Source: George Washington to Benedict Arnold, September 14, 1780 Creator of Source: Washington, George Date of Creation: September 14, 1780 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw3&fileName=mgw3b/gwpage012.db&recNum=212 Title of Source: By Brigadier-General Arnold, A proclamation to the officers and soldiers of the Continental army who have the real interest of their county at heart, and who are determined to be no longer the tools and dupes of Congress or France. Creator of Source: Arnold, Benedict Date of Creation: 1780 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/rbpebib:@field([email protected](rbpe+11100200)) Title of Source: General Arnold Date of Creation: 1778 URL of Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001697060/ Title of Source: Major General Arnold Wounded Dec. 31-1775 at the attack of Quebec Date of Creation: 1780 URL of Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001697061/ Title of Source: Le General Arnold un des chefs de larmee Anglo-Americaine. Creator of Source: Esnauts de Rapilly
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Date of Creation: Between 1770-1780 URL of Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001697050/ Title of Source: George Washington, October 19, 1780, General Orders Creator of Source: Washington, George Date of Creation: October 19, 1780 URL of Source: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw3&fileName=mgw3g/gwpage005.db&recNum=197 Title of Source: Looking up the Hudson, West Point Online Resources: 1909 URL of Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007664421/ Title of Source: The Capture of Andre, 1780 Creator of Source: Currier & Ives Date of Creation: 1845 URL of Source: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93510375/
Procedure Step # Resource or Material Used
1. Previous to this lesson, the class will have been studying the Revolutionary War including Benedict Arnolds role in the Battle of Saratoga as a war hero. Students will have been placing key events on a timeline on the bulletin board as we learn about them.
2. The class is divided into six cooperative learning groups. Each group is given one image (such as a print of Benedict Arnold) and one letter written about a key event, and an analysis sheet. Students will work together to analyze their assigned primary sources, use the analysis sheets to drive discussion and complete the tasks of the analysis sheet, and discuss the letter and the image.
LOC Items Analysis Tools
3. When all groups have completed their analysis, discussion, and analysis guide sheet, each group will create a summary of their findings and where they think this evidence fits on the timeline displayed n the bulletin board. Each group will share their primary source on the Smartboard, or under the document camera and reveal their findings to the class. The whole class will then engage in discussion and questions about the primary source projected, led by the cooperative learning group presenting that particular source. Other
1. Continue step three until everyone has presented.
2. At the conclusion of the group presentations, the teacher will guide a class discussion to connect all of the events that lead to Major J. Andre being executed and Benedict Arnold becoming a Brigadier General for the British.
The teacher will evaluate the lesson through engagement during learning group activities, time on task in groups, group summaries to the class, class participation in discussion, and individual work on analysis sheets. The letters can become evidence in a mock trial of Benedict Arnold. Students can act out various parts such as General Washington, Peggy Shippen, Benedict Arnold, and Major John Andre. Other students can become the jury and decide if Arnold was indeed guilty of treason. Author Credits: L. St. Gemme Charleston Middle School
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THE MORE YOU LOOK, THE MORE YOU SEE PHOTO ANALYSIS
What I See (observe)
Describe exactly what you see in the photo. What people and objects are shown? How are they arranged? What is the physical setting? What other details can you see?
What I Infer (deduction)
Summarize what you already know about the situation and time period shown and people and objects that appear. I see ___ and I think ___
Write what you conclude from what you see. What is going on in the picture? Who are the people and what are they doing? What might be the function of the objects? What can we conclude about the time period?
Why do you believe the photo was taken?
Why do you believe this photo was saved?
What I Need to Investigate
What are three questions you have about the photo?
Where can you research the answers to your questions?
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WRITTEN DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
Type of Document (Check):
Newspaper Letter Patent
Map Telegram Press Release
Report Memorandum Advertisement
Congressional Record Census Report Other ________________
Unique Physical Characteristics of the Document (check one or more):
Interesting Letterhead Handwritten
Notations Received stamp
Date(s) of the Document;
Author (or Creator) of the Document:
For what audience was the document written?
Document Content Information
List three phrases or statements that caught your attention or you think are important.
1. 2. 3.
Why do you think this document was written?
What in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from the document.
Why do you think this document was saved?
Was the document meant to be viewed by the public or a specific person or group?
List two things the document tells you abut life in the Unites States at the time it was written.
Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document.
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