extrasolar planets: past, present, and future

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Extrasolar Planets: Past, Present, and Future. The Formation of Planetary Systems Heretic’s Approach to Solar System FormationFForm. Alan P. Boss Carnegie Institution of Washington. A Decade of Extrasolar Planets Around Normal Stars Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Extrasolar Planets: Past, Present, and Future The Formation of Planetary SystemsHeretics Approach to Solar System FormationFFormAlan P. BossCarnegie Institution of WashingtonA Decade of Extrasolar Planets Around Normal StarsSpace Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MarylandMay 2, 2005

  • The Presidents Vision for U.S.Space Exploration (January 2004)B. Space Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit [Mars and other destinations]: * Conduct advanced telescope searches for Earth-like planets and habitable environments around other stars

  • Charbonneau et al., 2000HD 209458b

  • Microlensing detection with Warsaw 1.3m telescope, Las Campanas - 2004

  • Secondary eclipse of a hot Jupiter by its host star

  • Spitzer Space Telescope - first direct detection of a planets light - 2005

  • GQ Lup b 1 Myr-old gas giant planet at 100 AU? (Neuhauser et al. 2005)

  • brown dwarfsgas giant planetsExtrasolar Planet Discovery Space

  • IAU Working Group on Extrasolar PlanetsGroupe de Travail sur les plantes extra-solairesMembers of Working Group (2003-2006) Chair (and Web Page Master): Alan Boss Members: Paul Butler, William Hubbard, Philip Ianna, Martin Krster, Jack Lissauer, Michel Mayor, Karen Meech, Francois Mignard, Alan Penny, Andreas Quirrenbach, Jill Tarter, Alfred Vidal-Madjar ChargeThe WGESP is charged with acting as a focal point for research on extrasolar planets and organizing IAU activities in the field, including reviewing techniques and maintaining a list of identified planets. The details of the Terms of Reference are available. Definition of a "planet"The WGESP has developed a Working Definition of a "planet", subject to change as we learn more about the population of very low mass companions. List of PlanetsThe WGESP has developed a Working List of extrasolar planet candidates, subject to revision. In most cases, the orbital inclination of these objects is not yet determined, which is why most should still be considered candidate planets. http://www.dtm.ciw.edu/boss/iauindex.html

  • 2004

  • (2004)low Zhigh Zmetallicity-period correlation

  • Highest Metallicities Correlation: Migration or Formation?* Higher metallicity higher opacity hotter disk midplane higher sound speed (cs ) thicker disk (h) higher disk kinematic viscosity (n = a cs h) shorter time scale for Type II inward migration more short period giant planets * Uncertain magnitude of migration effect, but goes in the right direction to explain the correlation* Migration consistent with absence of short-period giants in low-metallicity globular cluster 47 Tuc * Migration consistent with long-period pulsar giant planet in M4 globular cluster (1/30 solar [Fe/H])

  • Discovery space with latest discoveries addedDiscovery space with Neptune-mass planets prior lowest m sin i

  • Neptune-mass, but what composition?[Need to discover 10 or more so that at least one will transit its star]-mass

  • Discovery space with latest discoveries addedDiscovery space with Neptune-mass planets and their siblingsMu Ara55 Cnc

  • G. W. Wetherill, 1996, Icarus, 119, 219-238.1 Earth mass Assuming surface density proportional to 1/radius, rock surface density of 9.3 g cm-2 at 1 AU should be increased by a factor of about 7 to account for rock/ice surface density needed at 5 AU of 25 g cm-2 to form Jupiter by core accretion (Inaba et al. 2003)3 Earth masses Since mass of the terrestrial planets is roughly proportional to the surface density of solids, raising the solid surface density by a factor of about 7 should result in the formation of rocky planets with masses as high as about 21 Earth masses

  • Habitable Planets per SystemChambers 2003[defined as terrestrial planets with masses greater that 1/3 that of Earth and Earth-like orbits]Normal Jupiter and SaturnJupiter only, mass x 3Jupiter only, eccentricity = 0.4Jupiter & Saturn, both mass x 3Jupiter normal, Saturn mass x 3Jupiter & Saturn, both mass/31.0 0.6 0.70.8 0.5 0.70.1 0.2 0.40.0 0.0 0.00.3 0.6 0.40.8 0.9 0.9Giant Planet System Configuration: Giant Planet Formation Time: 0 Myr 3Myr 10Myr

  • KNASAs Kepler Mission

  • Space Interferometry MissionSalient Features3 parallel Michelson Stellar Interferometers10 meter baselineVisible wavelengthLaunch Vehicle: Space Shuttle or EELVEarth-trailing solar orbit5 year mission life with 10 year goalSIM is a JPL, Caltech, Lockheed Martin, NGST, and SIM Science Team partnershipSciencePerform a search for other planetary systems by surveying 2000 nearby stars for astrometric signatures of planetary companionsSurvey a sample of 200 nearby stars for orbiting planets down to terrestrial-type massesImprove best current catalog of star positions by >100x and extend to fainter stars to allow extension of stellar knowledge to include our entire galaxyStudy dynamics and evolution of stars and star clusters in our galaxy to understand how our galaxy was formed and how it will evolve.Calibrate luminosities of important stars and cosmological distance indicators to improve our understanding of stellar processes and to measure precise distance in the distant universeNASAs Space Interferometry Mission

  • Discovery space for extrasolar planetsby ground-based Doppler spectroscopy and by space-based astrometry (SIM)

  • TPF Coronagraph

  • NASAs Coronagraphic Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission

  • TPF Interferometer

  • Earth as seen by TES onMars Global Surveyor

  • Terrestrial Planet Imager?

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