fellmann11e ch3

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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis

2. Human Geography Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction & Spatial Behavior Insert figure 3.1 Photo by Mark Bjelland 3. Bases for Interaction

  • A Summarizing Model
    • Complementarity
    • Transferability
    • Intervening Opportunity

Human Geography11e 4. Bases for Interaction

  • A Summarizing Model
    • Complementarity
      • For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure
      • Effective supply and demand are important considerations for exchange

Human Geography11e Insert figure 3.3 5. Bases for Interaction

  • A Summarizing Model
    • Transferability
      • Acceptable costs of an exchange
      • An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three interrelated conditions:
        • The characteristics of the product
        • The distance measured in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved
        • The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of movement
        • If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are too great, exchange does not occur.

Human Geography11e 6. Bases for Interaction

  • A Summarizing Model
    • Intervening Opportunity
      • Complementarity can be effective only in the absence of more attractive alternative sources of supply or demand closer at hand or cheaper
      • Intervening opportunities serve to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas
      • For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance when a suitable nearby supply is available

Human Geography11e 7. Bases for Interaction(cont.)

  • Measuring Interaction
    • Distance Decay
    • The Gravity Concept
    • Interaction Potential
    • Movement Biases

Human Geography11e 8. Bases for Interaction(cont.)

  • Measuring Interaction
    • Friction of Distance
      • Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction because there are increasing penalties in time and cost associated with longer distance, more expensive interchanges
    • Distance Decay
      • The decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin

Human Geography11e 9. Bases for Interaction(cont.)

  • Measuring Interaction
    • The Gravity Concept
      • The physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate actions of humans
      • A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a small hamlet
    • Movement Bias
      • Predictable flows making some centers more attractive to merchants and customers

Human Geography11e 10. Human Spatial Behavior

  • Mobility vs. Migration
  • Individual Activity Space
    • Territoriality
  • The Tyranny of Time
    • Space-Time Prism
  • Distance and Human Interaction
    • Critical Distance
  • Spatial Interaction and the Accumulation of Information
    • Information Flows
  • Information and Perception
    • Perception of Environment
    • Perception of Natural Hazards

Human Geography11e 11. Migration

  • Principal Migration Patterns
    • Intercontinental
      • A reflection of massive intercontinental flows
    • Intracontinental
      • Movements between countries
    • Interregional
      • Movements within countries
    • Rural-to-Urban

Human Geography11e 12. Migration

  • Principal Migration Patterns
    • Rural-to-Urban
      • Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to cities; prominent during the industrial revolution
      • Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel, and water in the countryside

Human Geography11e 13. Types of Migration

  • Forced
    • The relocation decision is made solely by people other than the migrants themselves
      • Slaves were forcibly transferred to the Americas
      • Convicts transported to other continents
      • Communist relocations (USSR)
      • Immigrants expelled (Uganda)
      • Forced repatriation of foreign nationals
  • Reluctant
    • Less than fully voluntary
      • Aggressive governmental relocation campaigns (Indonesia)

Human Geography11e Insert figure 3.25 14. Types of Migration

  • Voluntary
    • The great majority of migratory movements are voluntary
    • Migrants believe that their opportunities and life circumstances will be better at their destination than they are at their present location.
  • Involuntary

Human Geography11e 15. Controls on Migration

  • Push & Pull Factors
  • Push factors are negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate
    • They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences
  • Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the migration destination
    • All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location:safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, and so forth

Human Geography11e 16. Controls on Migration

  • Place Utility
    • The measure of an individuals satisfaction with a given residential location
  • Step Migration
    • Place transition
    • Rural to central city
    • A series of less extreme locational changes
    • From farm to small town to suburb, and finally to the major central city itself
  • Chain Migration
    • The mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination
    • An advance group of migrants is followed by second and subsequent migrations originating in the same home district and frequently united by kinship or friendship ties
  • Counter Migration
    • Not all immigrants stay permanently at their first destination
    • Return migration

Human Geography11e 17. Controls on Migration

  • Channelized Migration
    • Areas that are in some way tied to one another by past migrations, by economic trade considerations, or some other affinity
  • Ravensteins Laws of Migration
    • Most migrants go only a short distance
    • Longer-distance migration favors big cities
    • Most migration proceeds step-by-step
    • Most migration is rural to urban
    • Most migrants are adults and males

Human Geography11e 18.

    • Insert figure 3.29

Human Geography11e 19. Globalization

  • Economic Patterns
  • Political Patterns
  • Cultural Patterns

Human Geography11e