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  • FictionTHE ART

  • What is Fiction? The name for stories not entirely factual

    May be based on facts, but must at least be partially made up or imagined

    From the Latin fictio meaning a sharpening, a counterfeiting

  • Reading a StoryCHAPTER 1

  • Types of Short Fiction1. Fable brief humorous narrative told to

    illustrate a moral (message). Animals represent human qualities

    The North Wind and the Sun pg. 8

    The Tortoise and the Geese pg. 9

    2. Parable brief narrative to teach a moral, but the plot is plausible and the characters are human.

    Independence pg. 11

  • Types of Short Fiction (continued)3. Tall Tale fold story that recounts the

    deeds of a superhero or of the storyteller.

    4. Fairy Tale story set in a world of magic and wonder

    Godfather Death Pg. 12

  • Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. It shows the a causal arrangement of events and actions within a story.

    Teaching Plot Structure Through Short Stories

  • Types of Linear PlotsPlots can be told in

    Chronological order


    In media res (in the middle of things) when the story starts in the middle of the action without exposition

  • Elements of Plot1. Protagonist The main or central character in a narrative.

    Usually initiates the main action of the story

    2. Antagonist The most significant character or force that opposes the protagonist in a narrative. Does NOT have to be a person.

    3. Exposition Opening portion of a narrative. Sets the scene, introduces the protagonist, and discloses background.

  • Conflict

    Conflict is the dramatic struggle between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no plot.

  • Elements of Plot (con.)5. Complication The Introduction of a significant development in the central

    conflict between characters (or a character and his situation) Can be EXTERNAL or INTERNAL

    6. Crisis The part of the narrative when the crucial action, decision, or realization must take place.

    7. Climax The moment of greatest intensity in a story, which almost inevitably occurs toward the end. May be a confrontation between the protagonist and the antagonist.

    8. Conclusion the logical end or outcome Resolution or denouement

  • Types of Complications

    Human vs Nature

    Human vs Society

    Human vs Self

    Internal Conflict

    Human vs Human

  • Narrative TechniquesFlashback action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding.

    Foreshadowing A suggestion of what is going to happen in a story.

    Epiphany a moment of profound insight or revelation by which a character's life is greatly altered

  • Point of ViewCHAPTER 2

  • Types of Narrators1. All-knowing or omniscient-

    sees into any or all of the characters.

    2. Limited omniscience- sees into one character

    3. Objective - does not see into any characters, reports events from outside

  • Poe The Tell Tale Heart

  • CharactersCHAPTER 3

  • Types of Characters

    1. Flat character with only one outstanding trait or feature and stay the same throughout the storyStock characters stereotype characters

    2. Round Have many characteristics and tend to change throughout the story

    3. Dynamic character that changes

    4. Static character that does not change

  • Hero v. Anti-hero

    Hero bravery, skill, idealism, sense of purpose

    Antihero unglorious citizen of the modern world, usually drawn as someone groping, puzzled, cross, mocking, frustrated, and isolated (OFaolain). Often a loner.

  • Cause of a characters actions

    1. Animates a story

    2. Justifies the behavior of each character

    3. Not always pure or simple

    4. Makes the plot feel inevitable

  • Everyday Use Alice WalkerCharacters Mama, Maggie, Dee (Wangero), and Hakim-a-Barber

    Setting Small town Georgia

    Protagonist Mama

    Antagonist Dee

    Conflict True meaning of valuing heritage represented by the quilts

    Film Clip

    Climax Mama takes the blankets from Miss Wangero to give to Maggie

  • SettingCHP 3

  • Setting -Time and place of a story. May also include the climate and even the social, psychological, or spiritual state of the characters

    Locale location where the story takes placeAtmosphere dominant mood or feeling that pervades all or part of a literary work. Conveyed by language, images, and physical settingRegionalism The literary representation of a specific locale that consciously uses the particulars of geography, custom, history, folklore, or speech. Naturalism social and economic setting is important to story; grim realism

  • DURING the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country; and at length found myself, as the shades of the evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher. I know not how it was -- but, with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit. I say insufferable; for the feeling was unrelieved by any of that half-pleasurable, because poetic, sentiment, with which the mind usually receives even the sternest natural images of the desolate or terrible. I looked upon the scene before me -- upon the mere house, and the simple landscape features of the domain -- upon the bleak walls -- upon the vacant eye-like windows -- upon a few rank sedges -- and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees -- with an utter depression of soul which I can compare to no earthly sensation more properly than to the after-dream of the reveller upon opium -- the bitter lapse into everyday life -- the hideous dropping off of the veil. There was an iciness, a sinking, a sickening of the heart -- an unredeemed dreariness of thought which no goading of the imagination could torture into aught of the sublime. What was it -- I paused to think -- what was it that so unnerved me in the contemplation of the House of Usher?

  • There was music from my neighbor's house through the summer nights. In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars. At high tide in the afternoon I watched his guests diving from the tower of his raft, or taking the sun on the hot sand of his beach while his two motor-boats slit the waters of the Sound, drawing aquaplanes over cataracts of foam. On week-ends his Rolls-Royce became an omnibus, bearing parties to and from the city between nine in the morning and long past midnight, while his station wagon scampered like a brisk yellow bug to meet all trains. And on Mondays eight servants, including an extra gardener, toiled all day with mops and scrubbing-brushes and hammers and garden-shears, repairing the ravages of the night before. The Great Gatsby

  • To Build a Fire Jack London

  • What is the place like?

  • To Build a Fire Jack London1. How much of the story is devoted to the

    setting? What details make it memorable?

    2. What is the conflict? To what extent does setting determine what happens in the story?

    3. From what point of view is the story told? Does this make a difference?

    4. Why is the protagonist simply called the man?

    5. What are the most serious mistakes the man makes? Why?

  • To consider1. Is the Man American?

    2. Why is the man nameless?

    3. Should we be ashamed that we Americans are likely to be motivated more by material or commercial impulses than by other more exalted motives (e.g., religious piety, love of justice)? Why, or why not?

  • A Man Without an Imagination

  • Tone and StyleCHP 5

  • ToneTone Whatever leads to infer the authors attitude; like a tone of voice.

    Shown through Dialogue - talking Descriptions authors diction [word choice]

    May be objective or subjective, logical or emotional, intimate or distant, serious or humorous. It can consist mostly of long, intricate sentences, of short, simple ones, or of something in between.

  • Amused
























    Words that describe TONE

  • *Mood is the feeling the reader gets from a story.

    *Mood is shown through Setting

    AtmosphereRemember Hawthorne yesterday?


  • Light-hearted
























    Words to describe MOOD

  • Diction Word choice or vocabulary. The class of words that an author decides is appropriate.

    Style - The way in which something is written, as opposed to the meaning of what is written

    Example:Formal Diction Casual Diction Slang (very informal)are not angry aren't mad ain't ticked

    Besides the level of formality, also consider positive or negative connotations of the words chosen.Examples:Positive Negativepruning the bushes slashing at the bushesthe politician's stance the politician's spin


    ToneThe tone could be serious but

    the mood could be ridiculous.


  • IronyLiterary device in which a discrepancy of meaning is masked beneath the surface of the language. Dramatic Irony When the reader understands the implication and

    meaning of a situation and may foresee the oncoming disaster or triumph while the character does not.

    Cosmic Irony Situational irony that emphasizes the discrepancy between what characters deserve and what they get.

    Verbal Irony Speaker or write says the opposite of what is really meant.

    Sarcasm Bitter irony in which the ironic statement is designed to hurt or mock

  • Label each sentence as formal, casual, or slang based on its diction.1. Lets go get some dinner.

    2. It is vital to understand the text one reads.

    3. Computers are a pain in the neck.

    4. The Mona Lisa looks weird from up close.

    5. Picketts charge at the Battle of Gettysburg was surely an awe-inspiring sight.

  • In the following sentences, choose between the words in parentheses to make the sentence have as negative a connotation as possible.

    1. The leader was his nations most (notorious, well-known, famous) advocate.

    2. Immigrants (thronged, flocked, swarmed) to the large cities.

    3. A (trim, skinny, slender) woman entered the room.

    4. The man was (inebriated, drunk, intoxicated).

    5. Where did you find that (outfit, get-up, attire)?

  • Questions A Clean, Well-Lighted Place

    8.5 million people died and 21 million were wounded

    Lost generation

    Questions pg. 155

  • ThemeCHP 6

  • ThemeSummary a brief condensation of the main idea or plot of a literary work

    Theme The main idea or larger meaning of a work of literature. A theme may be a message or a moral, but it is more likely to be a central, unifying insight or viewpoint. It is intended to provide a relevant source of reflection in relation to the text.

  • How do I find theme?1. Did the main character in the story

    change? If so, what did he/she learn?

    2. What was the main conflict? How was it solved?

    3. Does the title have a meaning that goes beyond the literal?

  • Science Fiction

    What is it? What is it not?

    What do you have to have in the story to be Sci Fi?

  • Harrison Begeron Kurt VonegutSatire - the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.

    How is Harrison Bergeron satire?

    The Onion

    A theme is intended to provide a relevant source of reflection in relation to the text.

  • Harrison Bergeron Questions1. Define the central theme of Harrison Bergeron. Is Vonneguts

    early 1960s vision of the future still relevant today? Why or why not?

    2. Think of a social trend that worries you. With Harrison Bergeron in mind, write a brief science fiction parable to warn against this danger to society. Try to pick a less familiar or surprising trend instead of one of the hot-button social issues that immediately pop into your mind.

  • Symbols CHAPTER 7

  • SymbolsA person, place, or thing in a narrative that suggests meanings beyond it literal sense. Related allegory, but works more complexly. Often contains multiple meanings and associations.Conventional symbol A literary symbol that has a conventional or

    customary meant for most readers Example: black cat, white dressSymbolic act Significant action goes well beyond it literally meaning.

    Often involves some conscious or unconscious ritual element such as rebirth, purification, etc.Archetypes patterns in literature that suggest that the author is

    writing a story that has a much larger meaning. Some patterns are common across all types and genres of literature.

  • AllegoryWHAT IS IT?

  • Allegory Definitiona narrative in which literal events consistently point to a parallel sequence or symbolic equivalent.

    A story-long, extended metaphor

    A figurative way of story telling; conveys a meaning other than the literal.

    The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or event

    Reveals the artists intent or worldview.

  • Modern ExamplesSuperman, Spiderman, and Batman, for example, are all allegorical representations of the everyman.

    In Star Wars, Kylo Ren (the First Order) and Rey (the resistance) and their struggle for power are allegorical representations ofgood and evil.

  • AllegoryRead literally:

    Boys are stuck on an island

    Ralph is the leader

    Jack is always fighting Ralph for power

    Simon is kind of strange

  • Lord of the FliesCan also be read as an allegory:


    Christ Figure




    EvilReligious Allegory





    Political Allegory

    JACK =


    RALPH =





    SIMON =

    SOULMoral Allegory

    Social Allegory

    Psychological Allegory

  • What sin or vice

    is depicted in

    the painting?

    Why is this

    painting an


  • PaintingsIm going to show you a series of 4 paintings.

    Silently look at each painting without commenting aloud. Look for:

    1. Symbols

    2. Archetypes

    What is the allegory of these paintings?

  • Ursula Le Guin

    American author of fantasy and social science fiction

    Famous works: The Earthsea Triology, The Lathe of Heaven, The Dispossessed, The Word for World Is Forest and The Left Hand of Darkness.

    What is a Scapegoat?

  • The Lottery - Questions1. Take a close look at Jacksons description of the black wooden box

    (para 3) and of the black spot on the fatal slip of paper (para 72). What do these objects suggest? What are the other symbols in the story and what do they represent?

    2. The following is from Ruth Franklins biography of Shirley Jackson.She wrote spare, idiosyncratic, unsettling fiction, tinged with a hectic misanthropy, about misfits, oddballs, and...


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