final review: the middle ages 1250-1500

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Final Review: The Middle Ages 1250-1500. Geography. Europe in 800. Europe in 1346. European Rivers  Barriers or Highways?. Political. Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800. Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Europe in 800

  • Europe in 1346

  • European Rivers Barriers or Highways?

  • Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800

  • Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843

  • Feudalism

    Relationships between lord and vassal based on specific contractual obligations of loyalty and protectionPeasants provided labor in return for securityControlled through an intricate set of obligations, fees, rituals and taxesOnly the wealthy could engage in warfare, and society became dividedThose who fought (nobles and knights)Those who prayed (the clergy)Those who worked (peasants and artisans)

  • FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.

  • Feudalism

  • National Monarchies

    City-states lacked complexity of modern nationsRulers began to establish hereditary claims to the thronesBureaucracy of modern nation-state can be seen in several nationsMonarchs had to establish the power to tax subjectsUsually had to get support and approval from other political bodies

  • Magna Carta Great Charter Signed in 1215 Monarchs were not above the law Eventually led to the creation of Parliament Other nation-states created councils and representative bodies to limit power of monarchs

  • The Hundred Years War1337 to 1453A series of wars fought by England and France over the French throneChallenged ideas of medieval warfare as English longbows and infantry destroyed French mounted knights1429 Joan of Arc helped the French Army break the siege of OrleansHer success threatened the French Dauphin, so Joan was killedBy 1453, England held only the city of Calais

  • Schools and UniversitiesGrowth of cities quickened intellectual life Universities taught a variety of subjects, without the separation of spiritual and material subjectsTheology was the queen of the sciences and liberally borrowed from other disciplines to elaborate its truthsLed to the creation of Scholasticism

  • Medieval Universities

  • Mid-13th Century: Aristotles philosophies were rediscoveredPagan ideas regarding logic and the natural world were synthesized into Christian dogma to explain divine truthsThis intellectual system came to dominate the universities until the 18th centurySt. Thomas Aquinas Christian scholar who embraced scholasticismNote: much of the Renaissance was directed against what was perceived as the Scholastics focus on stale logic and impractical learningScholasticism

  • The Medieval Catholic Church

    At the height of its political, spiritual and cultural influencePope and Holy Roman Emperor vied for power in Central Europe, essentially checking each otherGrowing criticisms of the behavior of the clergy and the lack of regularity in church doctrine and practiceLed to the crisis of the Babylonian Captivity

  • The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism1307 Pope began exile in FranceNot a captive of the French, but prestige of the pope decreased due to increased bureaucratic apparatus necessary to run the Church and increased material wealthGreat Schism (1378-1417) resulted from efforts by French and Italian cardinals to elect a popeEnded up with two popes, then threeNations of Europe were forced to chose sides

  • Opposition to the Catholic ChurchReformers used the Great Schism as an example of why the Church had to changeJohn Wyclif (the Lollards) EnglandJan Hus (the Hussites) BohemiaAttacked the institutional power and wealth of the church and began a call for a simpler ChristianityCouncil of Constance ended the Great Schism, but the foundation was laid for the Protestant Reformation

  • Illuminated Manuscripts

  • Pointed arches.High, narrow vaults.Thinner walls.Flying buttresses.Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.Stained-glass windowsDesigned to educate the illiterate populationGothic Architectural Style

  • Obsession with Death and DyingRepresentations of death became a prominent theme in European arts throughout the plague yearsApocalyptic images featuring the allegoric figure of Death attempted to explain the importance of the Black Death for European society

  • The Danse Macabre

  • CannonsPetrarch wrote "these instruments which discharge balls of metal with most tremendous noise and flashes of fire...were a few years ago very rare and were viewed with greatest astonishment and admiration, but now they are become as common and familiar as any other kinds of arms.Beginning of the end for walled fortificationsAllowed New Monarchs to consolidate power by eliminating fortified towns and castles of nobility

  • LongbowHigh rate of fire and penetration powerContributed to the eventual demise of the medieval knightUsed particularly by the English to great effect against the French cavalry during the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). Longbow helped New Monarchs to create cost-effective standing armies, to maintain and expand power

  • Printing PressDeveloped in 1439 by Johann GutenbergMade possible the dissemination of knowledge to a wider populationLead to more egalitarian societyLaid the foundation for the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment

  • Towns and CommerceTowns acted as magnets for skilled labor, ideas, and goodsTypically lay outside of the feudal structureBanded together in leagues to protect independence and promote commerceHanseatic League German trading centers in the Baltic region, controlled the herring market

  • Hanseatic League

  • Medieval Trade

  • Medieval GuildsGuild HallCentral institutions of most towns Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece] Controlled prices [No Free Market!]Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop

  • Agricultural ImprovementsThree-crop field rotationIron plowWindmills

    More land brought under cultivationHelped produce a food surplusIncreased trade networks

    By 1300, population at an all-time high of 75 million

  • Social OrderA new social order had evolved by 900 that was distinctively medieval.Alfred the Great of England: a kingdom needs men of prayer, men of war, and men of work.Tripartite view of societyThe ClergyThe Landed Nobility (knights)The Peasantry and Village ArtisansA fourth emerged after the 13th century: middle class merchants & townspeopleburgesses in English, bourgeoisie in French, burghers in German

  • Gender RolesWomens roles limited by legal and economic prescriptionsMany women did find ways to express autonomy, initiative, and talent within these parametersNoblewomen often ran the manors in the absence of their warrior husbandsYounger noblewomen joined conventsAllowed them to pursue intellectual and spiritual pursuits outside the control of menIdeal of courtly love and chivalry placed women at the center of an important cultural tradition

  • Chivalry began as the code of conduct for mounted warriors.Chivalry highly esteemed certain masculine, militant qualities. Military prowessGenerosityLoyalty, the glue that held feudal society together.

    Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior

  • Gender RolesCities and towns relied upon the labor of women in the food preparation, brewing and the production of clothPeasant and serf women labored alongside husbands in mowing hay, tending the vegetables, or harvestingDomestic chores actually played a minor role for most women

  • The Medieval ManorA powerful lord controlling the lives of an often large number of dependents.He required payments and services from them and regulated their ordinary disputes.The structure of individual manors, and the dues owed by peasants, varied tremendously across Europe.Parallel sets of vertical bonds of associations:Feudal lords and vassals entered into political bondsLords and peasants entered into economic bonds.

  • The Medieval Manor

  • Life on the Medieval ManorSerfs at work

  • The Black Death: CausesBy 1300, the large population explosion had outgrown the food supply.Progressively weakened by malnutrition, Europes population was highly vulnerable to diseaseDevastation resulted from the Black Death (1348-1351)Killed about 40% of the European populationMore important were the psychological and social costs of the disease

  • The Black DeathDisease carried by fleas on rats, so urban areas were devastatedMany believed that this was Gods punishment for living too well60% of the clergy died treating the disease, causing people to question the power of the church

  • The Black DeathLed to persecution of Jews, who were blamed for poisoning the wellsCaused a labor shortage that undermined the feudal structureAllowed peasants to bargain for improved labor conditions and paymentNote: Did not affect Eastern Europe as much as Western/Central Europe, which allowed the feudal system to last much longer

  • Attempts to Stop the PlagueFlagellants: Self-inflicted penance for our sins!

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