fire ants & crazy ants presentation

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  • 1. Fire Ants and Crazy Ants! Dr. Paul R. NesterProgram Specialist - IPMTexas AgriLife Extension ServiceTexas A&M SystemHouston/Metro Area

2. Tramp ant Tramp species have the following common features that enable them to be highly successful invaders: Able to hitchhike with human travel and establish colonies in newregions all over the globe Are omnivores--they will eat almost anything Not aggressive to same species from different nests. Aggressive to other ant species Colonies with many queens, and many nests Will nest under or in anything Disperse by budding (queens and a group of workers separate fromthe colony and walk to a new site). 3. Tramp antsExamples include: Fire Ant Rasberry Crazy Ant Argentine Ant Rover Ant Big Headed Ant Pavement Ant 4. Aaa Basic Ant Anatomy 5. Aaa Red Imported Fire Ant 6. Lateral View Basic Ant AnatomyHeadThoraxAbdomenSetaeAntenna Coxa PetioleFemur ClypeusPostpetioleMandibule TibiaTarsumAcidopore antweb.org 7. Basic Ant Anatomy HeadFuniculusEyeScape Club Antenna ClypeusFrontal Mandibule antweb.org lobe 8. Basic Ant AnatomyPetiole/postpelioleOne node Two nodes 9. Aaa Rasberry Crazy Ant 10. Rasberry Crazy AntNylanderia sp. nr. pubens Look forStanding macrosetae1)One node 2)Macrosetae 3)AcidoporeOne node 4)Scape 5)Femur 6)ReddishLong to brownscape7)~2-3 mmLong FemurAcidopore: circle of hairsat tip of 0.5 mmabdomen J. Johnson - TAMU 11. Rasberry Crazy AntNylanderia sp. nr. pubens J. Meyers- TAMU 12. Aaa Similar Genera, Species 13. Black Crazy Ant Paratrechina longicornisDifferences from RCALong scape1)Long scape Long thorax, flattened 2)Long thorax3)Long femur4)Black, dark brown5)Eyes bigger6)~2-3 mm Bigeyes Long scapeantweb.org 14. Argentine AntLinepithema humileDifferences from RCA 1)Reduced # setaeAbdomen narrow like 2)Deep depressionbetween 1-2 pair oflegs3)Abdomen arrowshape4)Dark brown5)Thinner (body, legs)6)~3 mm Pronotum7)Head triangulardepression antweb.organtweb.org 15. Pyramid AntDorymyrmex flavusDifferences from RCASpine-like1)Spine-like in propodeum2)Reduced # setae3)Mustache on clypeus4)Long palps5)Orange6)~2 mm7)Head squaredPalpsMustache 16. 0.5 mm P. longicornis N. sp. nr. pubens L. humile D. flavus 17. T. sessileN. sp. nr. pubens P. longicornisL. humileD. flavus 18. Cover Box Red Imported Fire Ant Biology 19. Fire Ant Mating FlightQueen Ant Laying Eggs:OvipositionWorker Ant Tending Larvae 20. Argentine Ant Life Cycle 21. Cover BoxRed Imported Fire AntMound Dynamics 22. Floating Colonies 23. Cover BoxImpact of Fire Ants 24. Biting and Stinging 25. Ants in Electrical Equipment 26. Fire Ants Predation and the effect on Wildlife 27. Impact of Fire Ants on our Quality of Life! 28. Integrated Pest Management IPM - a strategy that focuses on long-term suppression of pests uses a combination of control tactics minimizes pesticides negative impact on people and the environment strives to be economical 29. Definition of IPM Integrated Pest Management: Management of pest populations using systems of complimenting control strategies that maintain pest populations at levels that can be tolerated by humans in terms of their economy, health, and/or quality of life 30. Integrated Pest management Focuses on long-term suppression of pests Proactive rather than reactive Uses a combination of control tactics Minimizes pesticides negative impact on people and the environment Strives to be economical 31. Early Use of IPM 1888: First highlysuccessful classicalbiological controlprogram:importation ofvedalia beetle tocontrol cottony-cushion scale incitrus Photo by UC Davis. 32. Knowledge is the key Knowing the pests biology and habits help in the selection of control practices 33. Proper Identification Different pests have different control strategies Important to properly identify by : Collect sample ofdamaged item ordroppings Take a digital image ofthe pest, damage ordroppings 34. Control Tactics Determine control strategies to be used- Some examples: Cultural/Sanitation: eliminating water sources and pest habitats, bed preparation, crop rotation Mechanical/Physical: trapping, removal of infested branches, hand picking Biological: introduce natural enemies Chemical: use of pesticides 35. The IPM pyramidPesticides Physical / Mechanical Biological controls controls Cultural / Sanitation Practices 36. Control Approaches Individual Mound Treatments(Granules, Drenches, Dusts, Baits, Organics) Use contact insecticides(synthetic pyrethroids, acephate, carbaryl, spinosad) 2-Step Method(Annually/semi-annually treat yard with bait, then treatnuisance mounds with spot treatment) Use long residual insecticides (fipronil, i.e., Over n Out, Top Choice) 37. Individual Mound Treatments(Granules, Drenches, Dusts, Baits, Organics) 38. Application of contact insecticide (fast acting) 39. Two-Step Method - Least toxic, cost-effective method - Most suitable for larger, fully-infested areas - Reduces surface runoff water contamination Step 1: Relies on Step 2: Uses mound periodic broadcast treatments to treat application of fire antnuisance ant mounds, bait product(s)only 40. Long Residual (fipronil, e.g., Over n Out, Top Choice) 41. Determining Fire Ant Mound DensitiesChoose areas to be surveyed r Usually 4 areas will do 59 ft Count active mounds within the 4, Area = r2 acre circlesTotal will be the # mounds/acre acre circleUsually greater than 20 mounds per acre or 4-5 mounds/residential lawn needs treatment. Broadcast fire ant bait recommended for > 20 fire ant moundsThis may vary depending upon specific needs of landowner 42. Available Baits Active ingredient Product name hydramethylnonAmdro Pro, Probait, Amdro, MaxForce methopreneExtinguish pyriproxyfenEsteem, Distance hydramethylnonExtinguish Plus, Amdro Firestrike+ methoprene fenoxycarbAward indoxacarbAdvion, Spectracide (Once & Done) spinosad Ortho, Green Light, Safer, Ferti-lome abamectin Clinch, Varsity, Ascend fipronilMaxForce FC 43. Available Baits 44. Tips for Applying Fire Ant BaitInsecticides BAIT MUST BE FRESH! (Pleasant corn-like odor, NOT sour) Temperature must be between 70F and 95F. Grass must be dry (Soil can be moist) No rain expected for 8 hours after application of bait Do Not mix bait with fertilizer Do Not use push-type spreaders 45. Bait Applicators 46. Home Remedies Product Effect, If AnyGasoline/Diesel NO! NO! NO! NO! NO! Home Cleaning AgentsNO! NO! NO! NO! NO! Grits, Sugar, BakingMoves the Mound/Not Soda, Flour, etc... deadly to ants Orange PeelsSame as above Citrus Oil60% Kill Rate in tests Mistletoe Berries Joy, Peace, Goodwill Toward ants ????? Others 47. Paratrechina nr pubens,Rasberry Crazy Ant WorkerQueen and brood 48. Colony Multiple queen (polygyne) Many nests (polydomas) Nests under any object Foraging trails plentiful in summer during cooler part of day Foraging indoors Displaces other ant species(?) 49. Argentine Ant vs Rasberry Crazy AntWorkers Queen andworkers 50. Paratrechina activity Under leaf debris Running on curb 51. Paratrechina intensity 52. Aaaaaaaa So, where are they now? Rasberry crazy ants have been found in localized spot infestations in southeast Houston (Harris County), including Houston, Pasadena, Deer Park, Friendswood, San Jacinto Port, Pearland, Seabrook, La Porte, East Columbia and Montgomery. As of September 2009, localized infestations have also been confirmed in areas of Bexar, Brazoria, Fort Bend, Chambers, Galveston, Hardin, Harris, Jefferson, Jim Hogg, Liberty, Montgomery, Orange, Walker and Wharton counties. New infestations are suspected beyond these areas. 53. 2008Key2002200520062007 54. Montgomery Elementary School20774 Eva Street Montgomery, TX 77356 Eva Street (Hwy 105)To Conroe, TX 55. Aaaaaaaa Movement? RCA has the potential to spread well beyond its current range in coastal Texas, to possibly include the southern half of Texas and the southeastern U. S. RCA is a semi-tropical ant and high populations may be limited by cooler weather conditions. 56. Aaaaaaaa Movement? These ants can be transported through movement of almost any infested container or material. The movement of garbage, yard debris, bags or loads of compost, potted plants or bales of hay by car, truck, railroad or airplane can transport ant colonies and result in new areas of infestation. 57. Aaaaaaaa Concerns Foraging ants cover the ground and readily enter structures. Are a nuisance and may affect home values in infested neighborhoods. RCA have an affinity for electrical units and will disable almost any electrical system by interfering with switches and circuits including traffic signal boxes, computers and air conditioners, leading to high repair costs and disruption of electrical services. 58. Aaaaaaaa Concerns Due to the small size of these ants, and their abilities to forage within structures, they may have potential importance in medical facilities as carriers of pathogens between patients the same way the Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) does. 59. Aaaaaaaa General Aesthetics 60. Aaaaaaaa Structures 61. Aaaaaaaa Industry 62. Aaaaaaaa Landscapes 63. AaaaaaaaWhat can you do? The best practice to prevent a Rasberry crazy ant infestation is by being ant-aware. Report suspicious ant problems, and have the ants identified by a specialist. Avoid bringing ant-infested articles onto your property. Carefully inspect new plant materials, mulch or soil brought onto you property. 64. AaaaaaaaWhat can you do? If Rasberry crazy ants are detected, practice good sanitization techniques by removing potential nesting sites, such as piles of debris (mulch, wood etc.) from around buildings, or stacks of debris from the property. Reduce aphid and honey dew forming insects on vegetation next to the structure, as

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