flooding in nigeria

FLOODING IN NIGERIA Risk Chain and Management By Adeyi Joel O.

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The risk of flood


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FLOODING IN NIGERIARisk Chain and Management

By Adeyi Joel O.

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Nigeria - Disaster StatisticsData related to human and economic losses from disasters that have occurred between 1980 and 2010.

Natural Disasters from 1980 - 2010

OverviewNo of events: 94No of people killed: 21,002Average killed per year: 677No of people affected: 6,306,441Average affected per year: 203,434Economic Damage (US$ X 1,000):


Economic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000):


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Natural Disaster Occurrence Reported

Drought: 0.03Earthquake*: ...Epidemic: 1.58Extreme temp:


Flood: 1.13Insect infestation:


Mass mov. dry:


Mass mov. wet:


Volcano: ...Storm: 0.06Wildfire: ...

Average Disaster Per Year

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Top 10 Natural Disasters Report

Disaster Date Affected

Drought 1983 3,000,000Flood 2010 1,500,200Flood 1994 580,000Flood 1988 300,000Flood 2003 210,000Flood 2009 150,000Flood 1998 100,000Flood 1999 90,000Flood 2001 84,065Flood 2007 50,000

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Killed PeopleDisaster Date Killed

Epidemic 1991 7,289Epidemic 1996 4,346Epidemic 2009 1,701Epidemic 1996 1,193Epidemic 1986 1,000Epidemic 2005 561Epidemic 1991 400Epidemic 2010 353Epidemic 1999 350Epidemic 2001 340

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Economic DamagesDisaster Date Cost (US$ X

1,000)Drought 1983 71,103

Flood 1994 66,500

Flood 2010 30,000Flood 1985 8,000

Flood 2000 4,805

Flood 2001 3,000

Flood 2003 2,570

Flood 2000 1,900

Flood 2005 147

Epidemic 1986 0

Source of data from slide 3-7: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, Universit� catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Bel." Data version: v11.08 

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The rainy season (2012) in Nigeria has delivered more

precipitation than earlier years, causing flooding in 18

of 38 states. The excessive water run-off was initially

contained through contingency measures, but the

heavy rain in 2012 had led to the overflow of water

reservoirs, forced release of dam water and breaching

of river boundaries and banks, resulting in damage to

roads, bridges and other infrastructure, loss of

property and livestock and displacement of people. The

floods affected over 134,371 people, displaced 64,473

people, injured 202 and killed 148 people. The

displaced population resorted to residing with host

families or in makeshift camps.

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THE RISKThe pictures presents a clear view of the country’s poor drainage and waste management system which exposes its citizen and the country as a whole to a variety of risks ranging from health (individual) risk to systematic risks.

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The role of the interlinked components of risk management cannot be

overemphasized. Knowledge helps to understand shocks, internal

conditions, and potential outcomes, thus reducing uncertainty.

Protection helps to reduce the probability and size of losses and increase

those of benefits.

Insurance is the transfer of resources across people and over time, from

good to bad states of nature.

Coping on the other hand is to recover from losses and make the most of


In contrast, when preparation is limited, or a shock is unexpectedly large,

coping can be haphazard and require costly measures leaving few resources

for future risk, worsening vulnerability to shocks, and weakening the

household's ability to undertake new opportunities.

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Displaced Kids Lost Displaced Parents

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Obstacles to Effective Risk Management in Nigeria

The major factors impeding effective risk management as regards flood in Nigeria lies

both on individuals and the governments’ path.

On the individual’s path is the lack of resources, lack of information and cognitive failures

i.e. majority of homeowners in flood-prone areas are unaware of the risk of flood, and

also behavioral failures suggesting that in many cases, individuals seem to have short

memories regarding origins of, or prior crisis of various sort.

On the other hand is the failures on the path of the government. These could stem from

capture of interest groups, corruption of government officials, and distortionary policies.

From the ongoing it is therefore conclusive that the Nigeria government faced with the

tradeoffs of preparing for risk and coping with its consequence is better at the latter as

evidenced in the next slides which shows the role of the external environment in reducing

the impact of shocks.

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Victims Find Shelter in Makeshift Camps

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Victims Receive Relief Material

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External Environment Help To Reduce Shock

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The Way Out Developing countries are already suffering from the impacts of climate change and are

the most vulnerable to further change. Flooding is the common and most costly natural

disaster, though its impacts are also exacerbated by anthropogenic sources. Quality

assessment of the risk impacts of flood will facilitate countries to plan adaptation

measures and adapt effectively.

Risk management helps to prepare for the shock that could undermine development.

That is, effective combination of capacities (research, protection, insurance) with an

ability to cope with the aftermath of the shock. Thus risk management helps in

effectively combining capacities thereby setting priorities and making choices which are

both unavoidable and necessary so as to effectively employ and manage resources.

To overcome flooding in Nigeria, we need to learn the process of effective risk

management which begins with the understanding of risk embodied in a situation, and

then how to effectively prepare for the risk by allocating limited resources between

combined capacities and in essence striking a perfect balance without halting


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