folds and folding

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Folds and folding. In Ductile processes, deformation is retained. Plastic if permanent strain increases at same stress. Some types of folds. Folds and Folding. Folds and folding. Convexity and Age of Beds. Anticline - a fold that is convex in the direction of youngest beds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Folds and foldingIn Ductile processes, deformation is retained.Plastic if permanent strain increases at same stress

  • Some types of folds

  • Folds and Folding

  • Folds and folding

  • Convexity and Age of Beds Anticline - a fold that is convex in the direction of youngest beds Syncline - a fold that is convex in the direction of oldest beds

  • Folds - Definitions Antiforms are anticline-shaped folds (convex-down) whose stratigraphic order has not been determined. Synforms are syncline-shaped folds (convex-up) whose stratigraphic order has not been determined. We apply these terms to any fold in which facing direction and/or stratigraphic order is unknown or uncertain.Determining stratigraphic succession - which way is up!

  • Direction of Fold Closinginflection point - change in curvature (i.e., concave to convex) inflection point

  • Folds - Definitions Overturned folds are those who have a limb that is upside down, it has rotated beyond vertical, i.e. dipping past 90o from its original horizontal position.

  • Folds - Geometric Properties

    The most basic element of a fold is the folded surface We usually describe folds in normal profile view as seen by looking down the fold axis or down plunge.

  • In normal profile view, folded surfaces can be divided up into limbs and hinges.Hinge: Region of Greatest Curvature If the hinge is sharp, that point is called the hinge point otherwise it is called a hinge zone. Fold limbs commonly curve, and the location where segments of opposite convexity join is called the inflection point. Folds - Geometric Properties

  • Folds - Geometric PropertiesMultiple hinge points along a single folded surface, taken together, define a hinge line.

    The orientation of a folded surface can be defined by the orientation of a hinge line, using plunge & trend.

    The hinge line of a fold is defined by successively connecting the hinge points of the fold. The orientation of the hinge line is recorded as a lineation (plunge (angle) & trend (compass direction)). Hinge lines are typically not straight and their orientations can vary considerably.

  • To establish the orientation or attitude of a fold, it is necessary to know its hinge orientation and the orientation of the axial plane or axial surface.The trend and plunge of a hinge line of a fold does not uniquely define the orientation of the foldFolds - Geometric PropertiesFolds with the same hinge line

  • Same hinge line direction Same axial surfaceWe need more information to distinguish these, maybe orientations of the limbs

  • Folds - Geometric Properties The axial surface of a fold connects all the hinge points in all successive layers. It may be planar - an axial plane, or a curvi-planar surface - an axial surface.

  • Determining the Fold Axial Surface

  • Determining the Fold Axial Surface

  • Folds - Hinge lines & Axial SurfacesHinge lines are lines described by a lineation that lies on the axial surface, which is itself described by local strike and dip.Axial surface - Surface created by the hinge lines of consecutive layers within the fold area - it may be planar or curved. Described by strike and dip

  • We can measure its dip direction and the angle of dip Strike can always be determined by remembering that strike is perpendicular to dipHow can we measure the axial surface?

  • Profile Plane of a Fold

  • Interlimb angle fold tightness, four categories

  • Angularity of Interlimb Angle

  • Attitude of Axial Surface

  • Cylindrical or Non-Cylindrical Folds

  • Stratigraphic FacingGraded Bedding

  • Parasitic Folds

  • Parasitic folds Give us information about sense of shear on the fold limbs as well as the location of larger-scale fold hinges.

    Think of S and Z folds, their asymmetry will give a sense of rotation, when viewed down plunge.

    Vergence

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