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  • 1

    Food Matrices: A Review of Critical Factors Impacting

    Nutritional Bioavailability

    A Report from the Food Aid Quality Review

    PREPARED BY:

    MICHAEL JOSEPH

    SAJID ALAVI

    QUENTIN JOHNSON

    SHELLEY WALTON

    PATRICK WEBB

    This report was produced for the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared under the terms of contract AID-OAA-C-16-00020 awarded to the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University.

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    This report is made possible by the generous support of the

    American people through the support of the Office of Food for

    Peace (FFP) of the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and

    Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), under terms of Contract No. AID-

    OAA-C-16-00020, managed by Tufts University. The contents are

    the responsibility of Tufts University and its partners in the Food Aid

    Quality Review Phase III (FAQR Phase III) and do not necessarily

    reflect the views of the United States Agency for International

    Development (USAID) or the United States Government.

    Recommended citation: Joseph, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Johnson,

    Quentin; Walton, Shelley; and Webb, Patrick. 2018. Food matrices:

    A review of critical factors impacting nutritional bioavailability,

    Report to USAID. Boston, MA: Tufts University.

    This document may be reproduced without written permission by

    including a full citation of the source.

    For correspondence, contact:

    Patrick Webb

    Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy

    Tufts University

    150 Harrison Avenue

    Boston, MA 02111

    E-mail: Patrick.Webb@tufts.edu

  • 3

    States AFP-C-00-09-0001

  • Food Matrices: A Review of Critical Factors Impacting Nutritional Bioavailability

    4

    Acronyms

    aw Water Activity

    BHA Butylated Hydroxyanisole

    BHT butylated hydroxytoluene

    BMI Body Mass Index

    BV Biological Values

    Ca Calcium

    CSB Corn-Soy Blend

    CSB + Corn-Soy Blend Plus

    CSB++ Corn-Soy Blend Plus Plus

    CSM Corn-Soy Milk

    Cu Copper

    DCHA Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance

    DIAAS Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score

    EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

    ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

    FAQR Food Aid Quality Review

    FBFs Fortified Blended Foods

    Fe Iron

    FePP Ferric Pyrophosphate

    FeSO4 Iron II Sulfate

    FFA Free Fatty Acids

    FFP Office of Food for Peace

    GIT Gastrointestinal tract

    HEB High-Energy Biscuit

    HPP High Pressure Processing

    IAA Individual Limiting Amino Acids

    IGF-1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1

    LNS Lipid-Based Nutritional Supplement

    MAM Moderate Acute Malnutrition

    MDFP Micronized Dispersible Ferric Pyrophosphate

    Mn Manganese

    MNP Micronutrient Powder

    MUAC Mid-Upper Arm Circumference

    MUFA Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

    NaFeEDTA Ferric Sodium EDTA

    NAL National Agriculture Library

  • Food Matrices: A Review of Critical Factors Impacting Nutritional Bioavailability

    5

    PDCAAS Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score

    PER Protein Efficiency Ratio

    PG Propyl Gallate

    PUFA Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    RBV Relative Bioavailability

    RDA Recommended Daily Allowance

    RDS Rapidly Digestible Starch

    RNI Recommended Nutrient Intake

    RS Resistant Starch

    RUSF Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food

    RUTF Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food

    SC Supercereal

    SC+ Supercereal Plus

    SDS Slowly Digestible Starch

    TBHQ Tertiary Butylated Hydoxyquinone

    TIM In vitro Gastrointestinal Model

    USAID United States Agency for International Development

    UV Ultraviolet

    WFP World Food Programme

    WSB Wheat-Soy Blend

    WSM Wheat-Soy Milk

    Zn Zinc

    ZnO Zinc Oxide

    ZnCO3 Zinc Carbonate

    ZnSO4 Zinc Sulfate

  • Food Matrices: A Review of Critical Factors Impacting Nutritional Bioavailability

    6

    Table of Contents

    Acronyms………………………………………………………………………………….3

    1.Executive Summary .................................................................................................................... 8

    2. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 9

    3. Methods ...................................................................................................................................... 9

    4. Macronutrient Digestibility and Bioavailability .................................................................... 10

    4a. Starch .................................................................................................................................. 10

    4b. Proteins................................................................................................................................. 9

    4c. Lipids ................................................................................................................................... 13

    5. Effect of Processing on Macronutrient Digestibility........................................................... 14

    5a. Starch .................................................................................................................................. 14

    5b. Protein ................................................................................................................................ 19

    5c. Lipids/Fats/Oils ................................................................................................................... 19

    6. Processes Used in Food Aid Products ................................................................................. 20

    6a. Extrusion ............................................................................................................................. 20

    6b. Roasting and Baking .......................................................................................................... 21

    6c. Macronutrient Bioavailability from Food Aid Products ............................................... 21

    7. Micronutrient Bioavailability .................................................................................................. 25

    7a. Food Matrices and Micronutrient Bioavailability .......................................................... 25

    Iron (Fe)................................................................................................................................ 25 Effect of Dephytinization on Micronutrients .................................................................. 27

    Riboflavin .............................................................................................................................. 27

    Vitamin A.............................................................................................................................. 27 Vitamin E .............................................................................................................................. 28

    Thiamin ................................................................................................................................. 28

    Niacin .................................................................................................................................... 28 Biotin ..................................................................................................................................... 28

    Folate .................................................................................................................................... 29

    Vitamin B12 .......................................................................................................................... 29 Vitamin C ............................................................................................................................. 30

    7b. Nutrient Interactions ........................................................................................................ 30

    7c. Micronutrients Used in Fortified Foods (different chemical forms).......................... 33

    7d. Processing and Its Role in Affecting Micronutrient Bioavailability............................. 36

    Washing, Blanching, Cooking ............................................................................................ 37

    Extrusion and Drum Drying .............................................................................................. 37

    Milling .................................................................................................................................... 37 Aqueous Medium ................................................................................................................ 38

    7f. Other Constituents Affecting Nutrient Bioavailability ................................................. 38

    Gut Health .......................................................................................................

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