food safety and food quality

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ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCEAND TECHNOLOGYEDI TORS: R. E. HES TER AND R. M. HARRI SON15Food Safety andFood QualityISBN 0-85404-270-9ISSN 1350-7583A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library@ The Royal Society of Chemistry 2001All rights reservedApart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review aspermitted under the terms of the U K Copyright, Designs and Patent.~ Act, 1988, this publication may notbe reproduced, stored or transmitted, in an y form or b y an y means, without the prior permission in writingof The Royal Society ofChemistry, or in the case ofreprographic reproduction only in accordance withthe terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the U K, or in accordance with theterms of the licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the U K.Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to The Royal Society ofChemistry at the address printed on this page.Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House,Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 OWF, UKFor further information see our web site at www.rsc.orgTypeset in Great Britain by Vision Typesetting, ManchesterPrinted and bound by Bookcraft Ltd, UKISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGYEDITORS:R. E. Rester, University of York, UKR. M. Harrison, University of Birmingham, UKEDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD:Sir Geoffrey Allen, Executive Advisor to Kobe Steel Ltd, A.K. Barbour, Specialist in EnvironmentalScience and Regulation, UK, N.A. Burdett, Eastern Generation Ltd, UK, J. Cairns, Jr., VirginiaPolytechnic Institute and State University, USA, P.A. Chave, Water Pollution Consultant, UK,P. Crutzen, Max-Planck-lnstitut fur Chemie, Germany, S. J. de Mora, International Atomic EnergyAgency, Monaco, P. Doyle, Zeneca Group PLC, UK, G. Eduljee, Environmental ResourcesManagement, UK, M.J. Gittins, Consultant, UK, J.E. Harries, Imperial College of Science,Technology and Medicine, London, UK, P.K. Hopke, Clarkson University, USA, Sir JohnHoughton, Meteorological Office, UK, N.J. King, Environmental Consultant, UK, P. Leinster,Environment Agency, UK, J. Lester, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, UK,S. Matsui, Kyoto University, Japan, D.H. Slater, Oxera Environmental Ltd, UK, T.G. Spiro,Princeton University, USA, D. Taylor, AstraZeneca PLC, UK, T. L. Theis, Clarkson University,USA, Sir Frederick Warner, Consultant, UK.TITLES IN THE SERIES:1 Mining and its Environmental Impact2 Waste Incineration and the Environment3 Waste Treatment and Disposal4 Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere5 Agricultural Chemicals and the Environment6 Chlorinated Organic Micropollutants7 Contaminated Land and its Reclamation8 Air Quality Management9 Risk Assessment and Risk Management10 Air Pollution and Health11 Environmental Impact of Power Generation12 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals13 Chemistry in the Marine Environment14 Causes and Environmental Implications of Increased UV-B Radiation15 Food Safety and Food QualityFORTHCOMING:16 Reclamation of Contaminated Land- An UpdateH ow to obtain future titles on publicationA subscription is available for this series. This will bring delivery of each new volume immediatelyupon publication and also provide you with online access to each title via the Internet. For furtherinformation visit or write to:Sales and Customer Care Department, Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House,Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 OWF, UKTelephone: +44 (0) 1223420066Fax: +44 (0) 1223423429Email: sales@rsc.orgPrefaceAmong the popular concerns about the environment, none ranks higher than thesafety and quality of the food that we eat. Issues relating to genetically modified(GM) crops, pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables, cancer-causing chemicals,hazardous micro-organisms such as E. coli, the incidence and control oftransmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as BSE and CJD, are but a fewof the problem areas that receive frequent and widespread coverage in the media.In this book we have brought together a group of experts to present an up-to-dateand balanced overview of a wide range of these issues, providing authoritativedetail in a readily accessible way.Andrew Chesson of the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen has providedan assessment of the safety of G M food crops which addresses this controversialsubject rationally. His account gives careful consideration to the identification ofpossible hazards, however remote or implausible, but also to the analysis of risk.He concludes that although the present generation ofGM crops may pose somerisks to the wider environment, there is, in fact, no evidence that suggests theypose any risk to human health. .On a broader front, the views of the UK food industry on safety and qualityresearch priorities are represented in an article by Geoff Andrews of NorthernFoods, Alistair Penman of Unilever and Chris Hart of Weetabix Ltd. They reviewa wide range of microbiological agents known to be involved in food poisoningincidents (e.g. Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium, Salmonella spp., E. coli 0157)and discuss the use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) as arisk management tool. Chemical safety issues also are addressed, such as thoseassociated with veterinary residues (hormones, antibiotics), GMOs, dioxins fromincinerators, and marketing considerations such as 'shelf-life'.A more detailed examination of the food safety issues associated with thewidespread and increasing practice of recycling biosolids (sewage sludge,agricultural wastes and exempt industrial wastes) to agricultural land is providedin the following article by Jim Wright, Technical Director of a major globalconsultancy organization, Environmental Resources Management. He comparesthe legislative framework and industry practice in the UK and USA, and providesa wealth of detail on the pathogens present in sewage sludge and other suchbiosolids, identifying the benefits of applying HACCP methods to the recyclingprocess.vPrefaceDavid Taylor, who currently runs the consulting service SEDECON2000,draws on his long experience in researching the nature, causes and treatment oftransmissible degenerative encephalopathies (TDEs) in a vividly explicit reviewof the BSE/CJD problem which continues to excite much public debate andconcern. Under the title 'Mad Cows, Demented Humans, and Food' he takes aserious and wholly authoritative look at the many aspects of this disease, from theprion proteins believed to be essential components of the infectious agents to thepractical measures introduced to enhance the safety ofbovine-derived food products.Next comes a stimulating and thought-provoking article on the natural andsynthetic chemicals in the normal diet that may cause cancer. This is by LoisGold, Thomas Slone and Bruce Ames of the University of California, Berkeley,and other collaborating institutions in California, USA. The article examinescritically the assumptions, methodology, results and implications of regulatorycancer risk assessments of synthetic chemicals and compares these with naturallyoccurring chemicals in food. Extensive listings with hazard assessments for thechemical components of potatoes, coffee, bacon, bread and very many othercommon foodstuffs are given. Their critical evaluation of the available data leadsthe authors to conclude that standard methods for cancer risk assessment ofsynthetic chemicals are flawed and can greatly exaggerate risks, while, conversely,the risks associated with many natural chemicals that are found widely in foodare commonly underestimated.The current aim of the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food(MAFF) is 'To ensure that consumers benefit from competitively priced food,produced to high standards of safety, environmental care and animal welfare andfrom a sustainable, efficient food chain; and to contribute to the well-being ofrural and coastal communities'. Christina Goodacre, who is the Head of the FoodTechnology Unit, has provided an account of some of the research funded byMAFF through their Food LINK Programmes. These examples involve theareas of food flavour and polymer science as well as vision-based modelling offood quality.Finally, from Peter Lillford of Unilever Research, we have a view of theassessment of food quality. This addresses the issues of quality control andquality assurance, underlines the important role of the consumer and experttasting panels, and discusses such difficult concepts as perceived flavour andtexture, odour perception and 'taste in the mouth'.The book does not pretend to be fully comprehensive, but we believe it doesprovide an authoritative, in-depth but thoroughly readable account of a set oftopics which are of central importance to both producers and consumers of food,i.e. to all of us. We anticipate that it will be of inte


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