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  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Foodservice Organizations

    CHAPTER

    Ninth Edition

    The Menu

    3

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    3.1

    3.2

    3.3

    Differentiate menu-related terms such as static, cycle, and single-use menus and la carte versus table dhte.

    Evaluate the aesthetic characteristics of a menu.

    Describe the menus role as a primary control for the foodservice system.

    3.4 Describe culture and ethnic impacts on menu planning.

    3.5 Plan a static or cycle menu for a foodservice operation.

    Learning Objectives

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Menu Presentation

    Menus can be handwritten on chalkboards, fluorescent illuminated blackboards, or electronic plasma screens.

    Many operations post their menus on their Web site as well.

    Table dhte (the hosts table) is a complete meal consisting of several courses at a fixed price.

    la carte is where food items are priced individually.

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Menu Psychology

    Font Size & StyleColor &

    Brightness

    Spacing & Grouping

    Eye Gaze MotionPrimacy &

    RecencyMenu

    Psychology

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Menu Psychology

    These techniques include print style and size, paper type and color, ink color, graphic illustrations

    and designs, and placement on a page.

    showcase items in such a way as to encourage customers to give thought to items they

    otherwise might not have considered.

    Key elements used in menu psychology include:

    Eye gaze motion: The eye will travel in a set pattern when viewing a menu (see Figure 3-2 in

    text).

    Thus the center of a threefold menu is considered the prime menu sales area.

    Primacy and recency: Position menu items you want to sell more of in the first and last

    positions within a category as the first and last things a customer reads.

    These are the items more likely than others to be chosen.

    Font size and style: Increase the size of font to attract the customers attention to an item;

    decrease the size to deflect attention from an item.

    Avoid use of fonts that are difficult to read, especially in dim lighting.

    Color and brightness: Increase the brightness, color, or shading of visual elements to attract

    customer attention.

    Spacing and grouping: Use borders around items or placement of items together within a

    space to draw attention to items.

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Types of Menus

    Static

    CycleSingle Use

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Types of Menus

    Static. A static menu is one in which the same menu items are

    offered every day.

    Traditionally, the static menu has been characteristic of many

    restaurants; however, many hospitals are using restaurant-type

    menus as well.

    Cycle. A cycle menu is a series of menus offering different items

    each day on a weekly, biweekly, or some other basis, after which the

    cycle is repeated.

    In many onsite foodservice operations, seasonal cycle menus

    are common.

    Single Use. The last of the three basic menu types, the single-use

    menu, is planned for service on a particular day and is not used in

    the exact form a second time.

    This type of menu is used most frequently for special events.

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Factors Affecting Menu Planning

    AestheticFactors

    SustainabilityManagement

    DecisionsGovernmentRegulations

    NutritionalInfluence

    SocioculturalFactors

    CustomerSatisfaction

    Food Habits& Preferences

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Factors Affecting Menu Planning

    Customer Satisfaction. Sociocultural factors should be considered in planning menus to

    satisfy and give value to the customer.

    Nutritional needs provide a framework for the menu & add to customer satisfaction.

    Probably the most important aspects for satisfying customers are the aesthetic

    factors of taste and appearance of the menu items.

    Sociocultural factors. Includes the customs, mores, values, and demographic

    characteristics of the society in which the organization functions.

    Sociocultural processes are important because they determine the products and

    services people desire.

    Customers have food preferences that influence the popularity of menu items.

    Food Habits and Preferences. Consideration of food habits and preferences should be

    a priority in planning menus for a particular population.

    Cultural food patterns, regional food preferences, and age are related

    considerations.

    Too often, menu planners are influenced by their own likes and dislikes of foods and

    food combinations rather than those of the customer.

    Food habits are the practices and associated attitudes that predetermine what,

    when, why, and how a person will eat.

    Food preferences express the degree of liking for a food item.

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Factors Affecting Menu Planning

    Nutritional Influence. Nutritional needs of the customer should be a primary concern for planning

    menus for all foodservice operations, but they are a special concern when living conditions constrain

    persons to eat most of their meals in one place.

    In healthcare facilities, colleges and universities, and schools, for example, most of the

    nutritional needs of the customer are provided by the foodservice.

    Increasing public awareness of the importance of nutrition to health and wellness also has

    motivated commercial foodservice operators to consider the nutritional quality of menu

    selections.

    Aesthetic Factors. Flavor, texture, color, shape, and method of preparation are other factors to

    consider in planning menus.

    Sustainability. Sustainability concepts are having an increased influence on menu planning in

    many foodservice operations.

    Government Regulations. Menu planning in some foodservice organizations will be impacted by

    local, state, and/or federal regulations governing the types and quantities of food items to be served

    at a meal.

    Schools and long-term care facilities that receive state and/or federal funding are required to

    meet menu planning guidelines.

    Management Decisions. The menu should be viewed as a managerial tool for controlling cost and

    production.

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    MyPyramid

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Aesthetic Factors

    Consistency Color

    Shape

    Flavor Texture

    Aesthetic Factors

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Aesthetic Factors

    Flavor. Flavor is the taste that occurs from a product in the mouth and often is

    categorized as salty, sour, sweet, or bitter.

    A balance should be maintained among flavors, such as tart and sweet, mild and

    highly seasoned, light and heavy.

    Texture. Texture refers to the structure of foods and is detected by the feel of foods in

    the mouth.

    Crisp, soft, grainy, smooth, hard, and chewy are among the descriptors of food

    texture, which should be varied in a meal.

    Consistency. Consistency of foods is the degree of firmness, density, or viscosity.

    Runny, gelatinous, and firm describe the characteristics of consistency, as do

    thin, medium, and thick when referring to sauces.

    Color. Color on the plate, tray, or cafeteria counter has eye appeal and helps to

    merchandise the food.

    The combination of colors of foods always should be considered in selecting

    menu items.

    Shape. The shape of food also can be used to create interest in a menu through the

    variety of forms in which foods can be presented.

  • Foodservice Organizations, 9eGregoire

    2017 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All Rights Reserved

    Sustainability

    Use of locally grown/produced items

    Use of in season foods

    Use of sustainable seafood

    Limited use of p

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