fractional distillation (1903)
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DESCRIPTIONAbout Fractional distillation
PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, BRISTOL.
WITH SEVENTY-TWO ILLUSTRATIONS
MACMILLAN ANDNEW YORK:
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1903All rights reservtd
RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, BREAD STREET HILL, B.C., ANDBUNGAV, SUFFOLK.
PREFACEDURING the past eighteen years I have been engaged in investigations which necessitated the preparation of chemical materials in the purest possible state, and as theof fractional distillation had, in
great majority of these substances were liquids, the process most cases, to be resortedto for their purification.
of the separations led
make a careful investigation of the whole subject, was thus enabled to devise some new methods and
forms of apparatus which have been described from time to time in various scientific journals.
hope that the solution of the which so often occur in carrying out a fractional
It is in the
be rendered easier, and that the value and economy of
highly efficient still-heads in laboratory work
be more widely recognised than is generally the case at present, that this book has been written.
J. Campbell works by Libavius and Ulstadius, from which Figures 2 and 34 have been
thanks are due to Professor
for the loan of valuable ancient
colleague, Dr. F. E. Francis, for reading the much valuable assistance in compiling the
Professor R. A. Gregory andfor
Mr. A. T,
the arrangement of the
suggestions regarding the perusal of the
In the description and illustration of the stills employed commerce I have derived much assistance from articlesThorpe's
" Precis de Chimie Industrielle." Payen's I have made much use of the experimental data of
Brown, Konowaloff, Lehfeldt, Zawidski and other observers, and have, as far as possible, made due acknowledgment, but in some of the tables this has not been practicable.Several fractional distillations and numerous experiments have been carried out while the book was being written and the results have in many cases not been publishedelsewhere.S.
CHAPTERTHE BOILING POINT OF A PURE LIQUID
CHAPTERVAPOUR PRESSURES OF MIXED LIQUIDS
CHAPTER IVBOILING POINTS OF MIXED LIQUIDS
CHAPTER VCOMPOSITIONOFLIQUID AND VAPOUR PHASES;
CHAPTER VICOMPOSITION OF LIQUID AND VAPOUR PHASES, CONSIDERED THEORETICALLY89
DIRECTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT A FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
THEORETICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE WEIGHT AND COMPOSITION OF DISTILLATE
CHAPTER IXRELATION BETWEEN THE BOILING POINTS OF RESIDUE AND DISTILLATE 150
CONTENTSCHAPTER XMODIFICATIONS OF THE STILL-HEADPAGE 154
CHAPTER XIMODIFICATIONS OF THE STILL-HEAD (continued)',
MODIFICATIONS OF THE STILL-HEAD (continued); "REGULATED" OR "CONSTANT TEMPERATURE" STILL-HEADS
CHAPTER X[VFRACTIONAL DISTILLATION WITH AN IMPROVED STILL-HEAD.
CHAPTER XVDISTILLATION ON THE MANUFACTURING SCALE196
CHAPTER XVIFRACTIONAL DISTILLATION ANALYSISAS .A
CHAPTER XVHMETHODS BY WHICH THE COMPOSITION OF MIXTURES OF CONSTANT BOILING POINT MAY BE DETERMINED223
CHAPTER XVIIIINDIRECT METHOD OF SEPARATING THE COMPONENTS OF A MIXTURE OF CONSTANT BOILING POINT 231.
CHAPTER XIXGENERALPURPOSES FOR WHICH FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION IS REQUIRED. INTERPRETATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS. CHOICE OF STILL-HEAD, NUMBER OF FRACTIONS, ETC. 239
OF ILLUSTRATIONSPAGE 33
employed by the Alexandrian Chemists Water condenser described by Libavius (1611)Still
Ordinary modern apparatus for distillation Another ordinary form of apparatus Inner tube of condenser, bad and good forms (a and b). Guard for Bunsen burnerStill
heated by steamvolatile liquids
Distillation under reduced pressure Modified receiver for above (Thome's),, ,,
18 19 19
Vapour pressure curve Vapour pressures of mixturesMixtures ofAnilineStill
of alcohols with water
Boiling points of mixtures of chlorobenzene and bromo-
Apparatus for determining the boiling points of mixturesDeviation of boiling point-molecular composition curve
from straightness (methyl and propyl acetates) ... Brown's of liquid and vapour phases.6
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSPAGKComposition of liquid and vapour phases.apparatus Composition of liquid and vapour phases.apparatus Composition ofLehfeldt's
Composition ofapparatus Variation ofc
and vapour phases.
82with molecular percentage of
alcohol and benzene)26.
total pressures against
A (ethylene dichloride
Fractional distillation of mixture of benzene and toluene.
Total weight of distillate plotted against temperature28. (a
Fractional distillation of mixture of methyl, Total weight of distillate ethyl and propyl acetates.b).
plotted against temperature29.30.
137 and 138 139
Separation of pentanes from petroleum Relation between weight of liquid distilled and compositiontillation
31 and 32.
Relation between weight of liquid distilled and composition of distillate Two components. Laterdistillations
33 (a to/).34.
between weight of liquid distilled and composition of distillate Three componentsRelation.
147 154 163165
35. (a and
" Rod aad Discstill-head
166 166 168171
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSFIG.
Le Bel-Henninger dephlegmator (, 6, c). Young and Thomas dephlegmator" Brown's " regulated temperature still-head Combined dephlegmator and regulated temperaturestill-
Lord Rayleigh's apparatus, modicomponents189197
fied so as to separate three
Section of dephlegmator Dubrunfaut's and 6). Section of dephlegmator Egrot's,, ,, ,,
53 and 220.127.116.11.
Section of Pistorius still-head(modified)
The " Coffey
Specific gravities of distillates
from mixtures of ethyl226;
alcohol and water60.
Vapour pressure-molecular composition curvedisulphide and methylalDistillation of
aqueous hydrochloric acid. Composition of liquid and vapour Carbon disulphide and methylal. Relative weights inliquid and vapour Carbon disulphide and methylal.
Carbon disulphide and methylal. Relation between c (Brown) and molecular percentage of carbon disulphide 230CurveCurveillustrating the distillation of a substance
less volatile impurities
illustrating the distillation of a substance
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSPAGE