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  • This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020

    research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 640401.

    Author(s): Laurent Franckx, VITO

    Contributor(s): Inge Mayeres, VITO

    Project: MIND-sets | www.mind-sets.eu

    Grant Agreement N°: 640401

    Project duration: 01.12.14 – 30.11.17

    Project Coordinator:

    Silvia Gaggi, ISIS

    T: 0039 063 212 655 F: 0039 063 213 049 E: sgaggi@isis-it.com

    Future trends in mobility: the rise of the

    sharing economy and automated

    transport - Annex A

    Deliverable no. 3.3

    Date: 14/07/2016 Version: 1.1

  • Document / version / etc.

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation Programme under grant agreement No 640401. Page 2

    Contents

    Preface __________________________________________________________________________ 5

    Chapter 2: The rise of the sharing economy: implications for transport _____________________ 6

    1. Introduction ____________________________________________________________________ 7

    2. Carsharing ____________________________________________________________________ 10

    Definitions ______________________________________________________________ 10

    Key advantages and drawbacks _____________________________________________ 11

    A (very short) history of carsharing ___________________________________________ 12

    Round trip carsharing _____________________________________________________ 14

    One way carsharing _______________________________________________________ 15

    Personal vehicle sharing ___________________________________________________ 17

    Characteristics of the supply side ____________________________________________ 18

    Characteristics of the demand side __________________________________________ 19

    The B2B market __________________________________________________________ 20

    Assessing the impacts ___________________________________________________ 21

    Organisational and institutional issues _____________________________________ 28

    3. Scooter sharing ________________________________________________________________ 31

    4. Bicycle sharing _________________________________________________________________ 32

    Definitions ______________________________________________________________ 32

    History __________________________________________________________________ 32

    Usage __________________________________________________________________ 33

    User socio-demographic profiles _____________________________________________ 33

    Barriers _________________________________________________________________ 34

    Impacts _________________________________________________________________ 34

    Logistics ________________________________________________________________ 35

    Perspectives _____________________________________________________________ 36

    5. On--demand ride services ________________________________________________________ 37

    5.1. The traditional taxi market _________________________________________________ 37

    5.2. Ridesourcing/Transportation Network Company (TNC) Services ___________________ 38

    5.3. Ridesplitting within TNC services ____________________________________________ 41

  • Document / version / etc.

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation Programme under grant agreement No 640401. Page 3

    5.4. E--Hail Services for regulated taxis ___________________________________________ 41

    5.5. Impacts _________________________________________________________________ 42

    6. Ridesharing ___________________________________________________________________ 49

    6.1. Definitions ______________________________________________________________ 49

    6.2. Benefits _________________________________________________________________ 49

    6.3. Organisation and technology ________________________________________________ 50

    6.4. Dynamic ridesharing ______________________________________________________ 51

    6.5. Perspectives _____________________________________________________________ 51

    7. Alternative transit services _______________________________________________________ 54

    7.1. Demand Responsive Transit (DRT) ___________________________________________ 54

    7.2. Jitneys __________________________________________________________________ 58

    7.3. Shuttles _________________________________________________________________ 58

    7.4. Microtransit _____________________________________________________________ 58

    7.5. Impacts _________________________________________________________________ 59

    8. Courier network services ________________________________________________________ 62

    9. Trip planning apps ______________________________________________________________ 63

    9.1. Definitions ______________________________________________________________ 63

    9.2. Advantages ______________________________________________________________ 64

    9.3. Challenges and emerging services ___________________________________________ 65

    9.4. Mobility as a Service ______________________________________________________ 66

    10. Automated mobility ____________________________________________________________ 70

    10.1. Definitions, history and current status ______________________________________ 70

    10.2. Potential impacts _______________________________________________________ 74

    10.3. Long term outlook ______________________________________________________ 79

    10.4. Synergies with shared mobility ____________________________________________ 81

    10.5. Legal and regulatory hurdles ______________________________________________ 89

    11. Implications for transport modelling ______________________________________________ 90

    11.1. Growth potential ________________________________________________________ 90

    11.2. Valuation of time _______________________________________________________ 90

    11.3. Modelling of parking ____________________________________________________ 91

    11.4. What is a “travel mode”? _________________________________________________ 91

    11.5. Impacts on road capacity ________________________________________________ 91

    11.6. Reactions from other economic actors______________________________________ 91

    11.7. Impact on the built environment ___________________________________________ 92

    11.8. Ownership versus sharing ________________________________________________ 92

  • Document / version / etc.

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation Programme under grant agreement No 640401. Page 4

    11.9. The importance of stated preferences ______________________________________ 92

    12. Implications for transportation demand management _______________________________ 93

    12.1. Shared mobility as complement or substitute ________________________________ 93

    12.2. The regulation of on-demand ride services __________________________________ 94

    12.3. Alternative powertrains __________________________________________________ 94

    12.4. Pricing policies _________________________________________________________ 95

    12.5. Public transit___________________________________________________________ 95

    12.6. Accessibility ___________________________________________________________ 96

    References ______________________________________________________________________ 97

    Policy documents _____________________________________________________________ 112

    The sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the

    opinion of the European Union. Neither the EACI nor the European Commission are responsible for any use that

    may be made of the information contained therein.

  • Preface

    This document is a technical annex to Deliverable 3.3 of the MIND-SETS project. This annex follows

    the same structure as the main document, but delves deeper into the arguments, tackles the

    technical issues in greater depth and contains a full reference list.

  • Document / version / etc.

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation Programme under grant agreement No 640401. Page 6

    Chapter 2: The rise of the sharing economy: implications

    for transport

    Authors: Laurent FRANCKX, VITO

  • Document / version / etc.

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation Programme under grant agreement No 640401. Page 7

    1. Introduction

    It was easy to predict mass car ownership

    but hard to predict Walmart

    Carl Sagan

    Previous Deliverables in the MIND SETS projects1 had already pointed to the rise of the “sharing

    economy” in Europe. For instance, between 2006 and 2014, the number of users of carsharing

    systems has increased from 0.36 million to 4.95 million. Bike ridership has also experienced a sharp

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