g & d ch. 10

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Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

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  • 1. CHAPTER 10 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
  • 2. Social & Personality Development
    • Self-Concept
    • Identity is the important issue
    • Able to distinguish between ones self and others & take others views into account
    • Self-Esteem
    • Knowing ones self & liking ones self are two different things
    • Liking ones self is self-esteem
    • Liking ones self involves seeing ones self with all your faults and accepting it
  • 3. Identity Formation
    • Identity v. Identity Confusion
    • Stage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinct
    • They adopt different roles
    • Confusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identity
    • A good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage
    • Social Pressures
    • Career or occupation
    • The future us now up to them
    • Reliance on friends & peers for information
    • Psychological Moratorium
    • Period when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities
  • 4. Marcias Identity Development
    • Identity Achievement
    • Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitments
    • Identity Foreclosure
    • Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goals
    • Identity Moratorium
    • Currently going through an identity crisis
    • Identity Confusion
    • Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goals
  • 5. Identity, Race, & Ethnicity
    • Cultural Assimilation Model
    • Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture
    • Pluralistic Society Model
    • Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features
    • Bicultural Identity
    • Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture
    • Identity Formation & Racial & Ethnic Groups
    • Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groups
    • There are contradictory social values
    • A society should be color-blind but opportunities differ for races & ethnic groups
  • 6. Relationships
    • Changing Family Relationships
    • Seeking autonomy: control over ones life
    • Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy
    • Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence
    • Changes the relationship with the parents
    • The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture
  • 7. Family Changes
    • Generation Gap
    • The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview
    • The actual gap is very narrow
    • On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree
    • Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well
    • Theres a deep love, affection, & respect for parents
    • Most relationships are more positive than negative
  • 8. Relations with Peers
    • Social Comparison
    • Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical changes of others
    • Reference Group
    • Groups of people with whom you compare yourself
    • Clique
    • Group of from 2 12 whose members have frequent social interactions
    • Crowd
    • Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with each other
  • 9. Popularity
    • Controversial Adolescents
    • Those liked by some peers & disliked by others
    • Rejected Adolescents
    • Those actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner
    • Neglected Adolescents
    • Those receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions
  • 10. Peer Relations
    • Peer Pressure
    • Influence of ones peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes
    • Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers
    • What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to
    • Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity
    • Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy
  • 11. Teen Dating
    • Liking & Loving
    • By 6 th grade liking a special person develops
    • By 10 th grade of adolescents have had a romantic relationship that lasted 2 months or longer
    • Gays & Lesbians
    • Many date the opposite sex
    • Sociocultural Contexts & Dating
    • Values, religious beliefs, & tradition are strong influences
  • 12. Rites of Passage
    • Tribal Initiation Rites
    • In many native cultures when a boy or girl enters adolescence, they must undergo an initiation into the tribe. At this time, they assume the responsibilities of an adult.
    • What remnants of adolescent initiation rites do we have in our modern society?
  • 13. Delinquency
    • Undersocialized Delinquents
    • Adolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision
    • Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior
    • Socialized Delinquents
    • Adolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically
    • Adhere to social norms
    • Behavior Patterns
    • 16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years
    • Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent
    • May also have psychological disorders
    • Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically
    • Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood
    • Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups
  • 14. Depression
    • Who is Depressed?
    • 25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activities
    • Girls experience depression more often than boys
    • Girls coping skills different than boys
    • Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outward
    • African Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites
    • Not supported by studies
    • Changes in the environment & social factors related to much depression
  • 15. Leading Causes of Death: 15 to 24 Year Olds
    • Top 5
    • 1. Accidents
    • 2. AIDS
    • 3. Cancer
    • 4. Heart Disease
    • 5. Suicide
  • 16. Suicide
    • Why?
    • 3 rd major cause of death among 15 24 age group
    • 12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents
    • Girls attempt; boys complete
    • Increase in suicides in the last 30 years
    • Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse