gamifying the language classroom

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Gamifying the Language Classroom Graham Stanley [email protected] http://blog-efl.blogspot.co m 7 th Virtual Round Table, April 27 th 2014 http://bit.ly/1mMHshB

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Keynote presentation given at the 7th Virtual Round Table conference - April 27th 2014

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Page 1: Gamifying the Language Classroom

Gamifying the Language Classroom

Graham [email protected]

http://blog-efl.blogspot.com

7th Virtual Round Table, April 27th 2014 http://bit.ly/1mMHshB

Page 2: Gamifying the Language Classroom
Page 3: Gamifying the Language Classroom

https://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelhall

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https://www.zombiesrungame.com/

Run for points or run for your life?

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Page 7: Gamifying the Language Classroom

http://foursquare.com/

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What is Gamification the application of typical elements of game

playing (e.g., point scoring, competition with others, rules of play) to other areas of activity

gamification usually encourages behaviour with instant, positive feedback

https://www.flickr.com/photos/lalie_mslee

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Gamification in language teaching is not new

https://www.flickr.com/photos/benchun/

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So, what is new?

http://www.theoryoffun.com/

http://artofgamedesign.com/

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What Gamification can you do in the Language Classroom?

“Instead of bookwork, homework and tasks” set “missions, quests and challenges...instead of grades” give “points and badges” Shelly Terrell (2014) http://www.slideshare.net/ShellTerrell/gamifying-learning

By the “changing of what may seem a dull learning exercise into something which seems fun instead because it can be played" and provide students with the "illusion of game play...by adding game elements, dynamics and mechanics to the learning activity.Karenne Sylvester (2014)http://blog-efl.blogspot.com/2014/04/iatefl-harrogate-online-karenne.html

Introduce levels to your classroom and use “achievements for classroom management situations, such as everyone completing homework assignments on time or full class attendance for a lesson. Successfully earning an achievement results in gaining a ‘level’ and repeating the same achievement will mean ‘levelling up’.” Dave Dodgeson (2012)http://www.davedodgson.com/2012/09/taking-classroom-management-to-next.html

Introduce “experience points (XP)...in place of...a grading system” James York (2012) http://www.digitalplay.info/blog/2012/02/24/gaming-the-efl-classroom/

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Gamification & adaptive learning

http://adaptivelearninginelt.wordpress.com/2014/01/27/part-3-gamification/

https://www.duolingo.com/

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http://gamingtheclassroom.wordpress.com/

http://www.digitalplay.info/blog/2012/04/20/unlocked-achievements/

2012 Unlocked achievements

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https://game.classcraft.com/

http://worldofclasscraft.com/

http://3dgamelab.com/

sincethen...

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2013

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Results Few of the learners (12-13 years-old) liked reading books (Q4) or writing extended texts (Q7). Speaking for an extended time (Q11 & Q12) was also disliked by most of the class.

The learners also perceived reading books (Q4), producing long pieces of written work (Q7) and speaking for an extended time (Q11 & Q12) as being very difficult to do.

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Leaderboards

It's common for participants at lower levels in a leaderboard to become demotivated – this happened and can be seen left.

5 out of the 13 learners started to feel that writing a lot didn't really matter and that they could not catch up to the others.

I tried to help counter this by making more than one way of 'winning' the game. To some extent, adding 'Achievement' badges helped do this and those learners who had lost interest started to participate with enthusiasm again.

Towards the end of term though, the same learners, and one more (Marina) has started to lose interest again, so I did not continue the speed-writing in the second term.

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Results: Writing

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Results: Speaking

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Using the IWB to

support gamification in

order to enhance writing

fluency in the second

language classroom

2014

Page 25: Gamifying the Language Classroom

https://www.flickr.com/photos/centralasian/8218050435/in/photostream

http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullshit.shtml

The Case Against “Gamification is marketing bullshit, invented by consultants as a means to capture the wild, coveted beast that is videogames and to domesticate it for use in the grey, hopeless wasteland of big business, where bullshit already reigns anyway.”

“Game developers and players have critiqued gamification on the grounds that it gets games wrong, mistaking incidental properties like points and levels for primary features like interactions with behavioral complexity. “Ian Bogost (2011)

“With most gamified systems and processes the feedback is provided in the form of a simple, superficial layer of points, badges and other rewards that are not contextually integral to the activity itself..”

“Over the short term this approach may lead to measurable outcomes as students make an effort to perform better in order to achieve better results, or more attendance points. The unintended consequence of this is that it frames learning as being an action of accumulation...the age-old carrot and stick metaphor in which learners are conditioned to act and behave in certain ways...which externalizes motivation through the promise of extrinsic reward.” Paul Driver (2012) http://digitaldebris.info/2011/12/31/the-irony-of-gamification-written-for-ied-magazine.html

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Motivation & teenagers

In the classroom, when an activity is not intrinsically motivating as a video game is, other strategies are necessary.

In an ideal world, inborn curiosity would be enough to make all learners eager to learn (Dornyei, 2001) and the classroom would be a constant source of intrinsic pleasure.

However, this is usually far from the reality a teacher, in particular a teacher of teenagers, finds in the classroom.

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Extrinsic Motivation

Early research indicates that extrinsic rewards were to be avoided because they undermine intrinsic interest

This overly simplistic view has now been modified with researchers believing that extrinsic motives which have been 'sufficiently internalised' are now seen being complimentary to intrinsic interest.

What does seem important to avoid is rewarding learners to simply participating in an activity rather than for achieving specific goals.

(Dorneyei, 2001)

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Extrinsic Motivation

Early research indicates that extrinsic rewards were to be avoided because they undermine intrinsic interest

This overly simplistic view has now been modified with researchers believing that extrinsic motives which have been 'sufficiently internalised' are now seen being complimentary to intrinsic interest.

What does seem important to avoid is rewarding learners to simply participating in an activity rather than for achieving specific goals.

(Dorneyei, 2001)

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Motivation and games

Games are primarily motivating when players experience large degrees of autonomy, competence and relatedness when playing.

Ryan, Rigby & Przybylski (2006)

Final words Gamification has much to offer the teacher when it

comes to using extrinsic motivators, especially when used to make something that usually isn't fun into something that is fun.

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Further Reading: Gamification & ELT

Gamifying ELT http://gamifyingelt.wordpress.com/

Digital Play blog (Gamification) http://www.digitalplay.info/blog/?s=gamification

Gamification in TESOL (Facebook group) https://www.facebook.com/groups/Gamification.in.TESOL/

'Gamification and language learning', ELTJam: http://www.eltjam.com/its-in-the-game-gamification-and-language-learning-pt-1-of-2

Driver (2012) 'The Irony of Gamification' http://digitaldebris.info/2011/12/31/the-irony-of-gamification-written-for-ied-magazine.html

Stanley (Bloomsbury Academic, 2014) 'Using the IWB to support gamification in order to enhance writing in the secondary language class ' in Cutrim Schmidt & Whyte Teaching Languages with Technology: Communicative Approaches to Interactive Whiteboard Use

York (2012) 'English Quest' Modern English Teacher, Vol.21 No.4

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Further Reading: Gamification & ELT

Gamifying ELT http://gamifyingelt.wordpress.com/

Digital Play blog (Gamification) http://www.digitalplay.info/blog/?s=gamification

Gamification in TESOL (Facebook group) https://www.facebook.com/groups/Gamification.in.TESOL/

'Gamification and language learning', ELTJam: http://www.eltjam.com/its-in-the-game-gamification-and-language-learning-pt-1-of-2

Driver (2012) 'The Irony of Gamification' http://digitaldebris.info/2011/12/31/the-irony-of-gamification-written-for-ied-magazine.html

Mozuku (blog) Gamification & ELT http://mozuku.edublogs.org/category/gamification/

Stanley (Bloomsbury Academic, 2014) 'Using the IWB to support gamification in order to enhance writing in the secondary language class ' in Cutrim Schmidt & Whyte Teaching Languages with Technology: Communicative Approaches to Interactive Whiteboard Use

York (2012) 'English Quest' Modern English Teacher, Vol.21 No.4

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Further Reading: Gamification

Kapp (2012) The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education

Marczewski (2012) Gamification: A Simple Introduction & A Bit More

Sheldon (Cengage, 2012) The Multiplayer Classroom: Designing coursework as a Game Werbach & Hunter (Wharton Digital Press, 2012) For the win Zichermann & Cunningham (O'Reilly, 2011) Gamification by Design

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Further Reading: Game-Based Language Learning

Mawer & Stanley (2011) Digital Play http://www.deltapublishing.co.uk/titles/methodology/digital-play

Reinders (ed.) (Palgrave, 2012) Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching Sykes & Reinhardt (Pearson, 2013) Language at Play: Digital Games in Second and Foreign

Language Teaching and Learning

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Further Reading: Game-Based Learning

Bartle (New Riders, 2004) Designing Virtual Worlds Gee (Palgrave, 2003) What Digital Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy Gee (Routledge, 2004) Situated Language and Learning: A critique of traditional

schooling Gee (Peter Lang, 2007) Good Video Games + Good Learning: Collected Essays Gee (Common Ground, 2005) Why video games are good for your soul Prensky (Paragon House, 2001) Digital game-based learning Prensky (Paragon House, 2006) Don't Bother Me Mom – I'm Learning!

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Further Reading: Game-Based Learning

Bartle (New Riders, 2004) Designing Virtual Worlds Gee (Palgrave, 2003) What Digital Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy Gee (Routledge, 2004) Situated Language and Learning: A critique of traditional

schooling Gee (Peter Lang, 2007) Good Video Games + Good Learning: Collected Essays Gee (Common Ground, 2005) Why video games are good for your soul Prensky (Paragon House, 2001) Digital game-based learning Prensky (Paragon House, 2006) Don't Bother Me Mom – I'm Learning!

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Further Reading: Motivation

Deci & Ryan (Plenum, 1985) Intrinsic motivation and self determination in human behavior

Dörnyei, Z. (CUP, 2001) Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom Dörnyei, Z. (Longman, 2001) Teaching and Researching Motivation Rigby & Ryan (Praeger, 2011) Glued to games: how video games draw us in and hold us

spellbound Ryan, Rigby & Przybylski (2006) 'The motivational pull of video games: A self-

determination theory approach' Motivation and Emotion, 30, 347-364