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Petroleum Geology and Total Petroleum Systems of the Widyan Basin and Interior Platform of Saudi Arabia and Iraq

By James E. Fox and Thomas S. Ahlbrandt

U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2202E

U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

U.S. Department of the Interior Gale A. Norton, Secretary U.S. Geological Survey Charles G. Groat, Director

Version 1.0, 2002

This publication is only available online at: http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/pub/bulletins/b2202-e

Any use of trade, product, or rm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government

Manuscript approved for publication July 24, 2002 Published in the Central Region, Denver, Colorado Graphics by Margarita Zyrianova Photocomposition by Norma J. Maes Edited by L.M. Carter

ContentsForeword................................................................................................................................................ Abstract ................................................................................................................................................. Geology of the Widyan BasinInterior Platform Province ............................................................ Structural Setting ......................................................................................................................... Petroleum Occurrence ................................................................................................................ Paleozoic Qusaiba/Akkas/Abba/Mudawwara Total Petroleum System .................................... Stratigraphy ................................................................................................................................... Source Rocks ................................................................................................................................ Stratigraphy ............................................................................................................................ Petroleum Geochemistry ...................................................................................................... Maturation .............................................................................................................................. Migration ................................................................................................................................ Reservoir Rocks ............................................................................................................................ Unayzah Formation ................................................................................................................ Pre-Unayzah Formations ...................................................................................................... Hydrocarbon Traps....................................................................................................................... Structural Traps ..................................................................................................................... Stratigraphic Traps................................................................................................................ Seals and Overburden Rocks ..................................................................................................... Timing and Critical Events........................................................................................................... Jurassic Gotnia/Barsarin/Sargelu/Najmah Total Petroleum System.......................................... Source Rocks ................................................................................................................................ Stratigraphy............................................................................................................................ Petroleum Geochemistry...................................................................................................... Oil to Source Rock Correlation............................................................................................ Maturation ............................................................................................................................. Migration................................................................................................................................. Reservoir Rocks ........................................................................................................................... Hanifa Formation, Tuwaiq Mountain Formation, and Arab Formation ......................... Sargelu Formation, Naokelekan Formation, and Najmah Formation............................ Hydrocarbon Traps....................................................................................................................... Platform Horst/Graben-Related Oil Assessment Unit (20230201).................................. Basinal Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (20230202)............................................................. Seals and Overburden Rocks ..................................................................................................... Timing and Critical Events........................................................................................................... Petroleum Assessment. ...................................................................................................................... Summary................................................................................................................................................ References Cited ................................................................................................................................. 1 1 2 2 2 4 6 7 7 11 11 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 20 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25

Figures14. Maps showing: 1. Structural provinces of Arabian Peninsula ..................................................................... 2. Widyan BasinInterior Platform Province; Paleozoic Qusaiba/Akkas/Abba/Mudawwara Total Petroleum System, and Horst/Graben-Related Oil and Gas Assessment Unit .................................................... 3. Major tectonic regions and petroleum elds of Iraq ..................................................... 4. Major petroleum elds in western Arabian Gulf region ................................................ 5. Paleozoic stratigraphic column of Jordan, Southwestern Desert of Iraq, and northern Saudi Arabia................................................................................................................ 3

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III

6. Subsurface composite reference section for the Qalibah Formation in central Saudi Arabia ........................................................................................................... 7. Map showing time at which signicant volumes of oil were generated from Lower Silurian strata .......................................................................................................... 8. Map showing present-day levels of thermal maturity of Lower Silurian source rock in Arabian Peninsula ................................................................................................. 9. Diagrammatic burial history model of Akkas-1 well of western Iraq ......................... 10. Diagrammatic model for migration of hydrocarbons generated from basal Qusaiba hot shale in central Saudi Arabia ................................................................ 11. Events chart showing events critical to petroleum accumulation in the Paleozoic Qusaiba/Akkas/Abba/Mudawwara Total Petroleum System ...................................... 12. Map showing Widyan BasinInterior Platform Province, Jurassic Gotnia/ Barsarin/Sargelu/Najmah Total Petroleum System, Platform Horst/Graben- Related Oil Assessment Unit, and Basinal Oil and Gas Assessment Unit ................. 13. Map showing Gotnia, Arabian, and Southern Arabian Gulf Basins in which Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks accumulated ...................................................... 14. Correlation chart of Jurassic strata of western and southern Arabian Gulf region 15. Graph showing burial history of the Hanifa and Sargelu Formations ........................ 16. Map showing distribution of the Jurassic Tithonian evaporite seal lithofacies in Arabian Gulf region ............................................................................................................ 17. Events chart for that part of the Jurassic Gotnia/Barsarin/Sargelu/Najmah Total Petroleum System that lies in Arabian Basin..................................................................

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Tables1. Widyan BasinInterior Platform, Province 2023, Assessment Results Summary Allocated Resources ................................................................................................................... 5 2. Paleozoic Qusaiba/Akkas/Abba/Mudawwara, Total Petroleum System 202301 Assessment Results Summary................................................................................................... 8 3. Jurassic Gotnia/Barsarin/Sargelu/Najmah, Total Petroleum System 202302 Assessment Results Summary................................................................................................... 18

IV

Petroleum Geology and Total Petroleum Systems of the Widyan Basin and Interior Platform of Saudi Arabia and IraqBy James E. Fox1 and Thomas S. Ahlbrandt

ForewordThis report was prepared as part of the World Energy Project of the U.S. Geological Survey. For this project, the world was divided into eight regions and 937 geologic provinces, which were then ranked according to the discovered oil and gas volumes within each (U.S. Geological Sur