geophysical investigations of submarine prolongations elib.suub.uni- ?· geophysical...

Download Geophysical Investigations of Submarine Prolongations elib.suub.uni- ?· Geophysical Investigations…

Post on 10-Jul-2018

218 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Geophysical Investigations of Submarine Prolongations of Alluvial

    Fans on the Western Side of the Gulf of Aqaba-Red Sea

    Dissertation

    zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der N aturwissenschaften

    im Fachbereich 5 der Universitat Bremen

    vorgelegt von Mohamed Salem

    Bremen 2003

  • Tag des Kolloquiums: 12.11.2003

    Gutachter:

    1. Professor Dr. V olkhard SpieB

    2. Dr. Jurgen Patzold

    Prtifer:

    1. Prof. Dr. H. Villinger

    2. Prof. Dr. T. von Dobeneck

  • To all staff members of Geological Department,

    Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Benha

    Branch) and also to my parents, wife and kids

  • Contents

    Table of contents

    Chapter 1: General Introduction ..................................................................... 1 1.1 Submarine fans ................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Geological setting of the Gulf of Aqaba ............................................................................ 6

    1.3 Aims of this study ............................................................................................................. 11 1.4 Methods ............................................................................................................................ 13

    1.4.1 Hydrosweep and Parasound ...................................................................................... 13 1.4.2 High-resolution multi-channel reflection seismics ................................................... 14

    1.5 Outline of this study ......................................................................................................... 15 References .............................................................................................................................. 16

    Chapter 2: Submarine prolongation of alluvial fans into the Gulf of Aqaba: results from Parasound and bathymetric studies ........................... 19 Abstract .................................................................................................................................. 20 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 21

    2.2 Geological setting, previous investigations ...................................................................... 23

    2.3 Data collection and data processing ................................................................................. 24 2.4 Results .............................................................................................................................. 25

    2.4.1 Ras El Burka ........................................................................................................... 25

    2.4.2 Wadi Watir ............................................................................................................. 28 2.4.3 Wadi Dahab ............................................................................................................ 33

    2.4.4 Sedimentary structure of the fans ........................................................................... 33 2.4.5 Distribution of acoustic facies ................................................................................ 37

    2.5 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 37 2.5.1 Sediments in the fans .............................................................................................. 37

    2.5.2 Size and volume of the fans ................................................................................... 39

    2.5.3 Key processes for the formation of the fans .......................................................... .41 2.6 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 42

    Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ 43 References .............................................................................................................................. 43

    Chapter 3: Growth and development of the submarine prolongation of Wadi Watir alluvial fan into the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, deduced from high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data ................................. 47 Abstract .................................................................................................................................. 48

    3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 49 3.2 Geological Setting, previous studies ................................................................................ 51

    3.3 Methods ............................................................................................................................ 52 3.4 Results .............................................................................................................................. 52

    3.4.1 Description of seismic reflection profiles .............................................................. 52

  • 11 Contents

    3.4.1.1 Seismic reflection profiles running parallel to the coast of the Gulf of

    Aqaba ....................................................................................................................... 53

    3.4.1.2 Seismic reflection profiles running perpendicular to the coast of the Gulf of Aqaba ........................................................................................................... 56

    3.4.2 Definition and distribution of seismic facies ......................................................... 65

    3.5 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 66 3.5.1 Seismic facies interpretation of the fan .................................................................. 66

    3.5.2 Slides and Slumps in the Wadi Watir fan .............................................................. 68

    3.5.3 Faults and tectonic activity ..................................................................................... 70 3.5.4 Evolution of the fan ................................................................................................ 71

    3.6 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 74

    Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ 74 References .............................................................................................................................. 74

    Chapter 4: Influence of tectonics on the origin of canyons in submarine prolongations of alluvial fans in the Gulf of Aqaba-Red Sea ...................... 77 Abstract .................................................................................................................................. 78

    4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 78 4.2 Geologic setting of the Gulf of Aqaba ............................................................................. 80

    4.3 Methods ............................................................................................................................ 80 4.4 Results .............................................................................................................................. 81

    4.4.1 Wadi Watir canyons ............................................................................................... 81

    4.4.2 Wadi Dahab canyons .............................................................................................. 84

    4.5 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 86 4.5.1 Canyon forming processes ..................................................................................... 86

    4.5.2 Scenario for the canyon evolution .......................................................................... 89 4.5.3 Significance of the canyons ................................................................................... 89

    4.6 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 91

    Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ 92 References .............................................................................................................................. 92

    Chapter 5: Final conclusions and future perspectives ................................. 95 5.1 Final conclusions .............................................................................................................. 96

    5.2 Future perspectives ........................................................................................................... 98

    Acknowledgements ........................................................................................ 100

  • CHAPTER ONE

    General introduction

  • 2

    1 General introduction

    1.1 Submarine fans

    1. Introduction

    Submarine fans have been intensively studied for more than three decades (e.g. Normark,

    1970; Walker, 1978; Bouma et al., 1985; Reading and Richards, 1994; Richards et aI,

    1998, Bouma, 2000

Recommended

View more >