germanic kingdoms - middle ages i
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Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Charlemagne Unites Germanic KingdomsEuropean Middle Ages500-1200
The Middle AgesEra of European history from 500-1500Rooted in:Classical heritage of RomeBeliefs of Roman Catholic ChurchCustoms of Germanic tribes
Why Study the Middle AgesChristianity - dominant religion in EuropeRepresentative government similarities to feudalismChivalry shaped modern ideals of romance
Germanic Invasions in EuropeGermanic tribes overran western half of Roman empire, causing major changes:Disruption of tradeDownfall of citiesPopulation shiftsInvaders were illiterate - learning sankCommon language of Latin, no longer understood, different dialects developedEx: French, Spanish
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge400-600 B.C. - Roman provinces were replaced with small Germanic kingdomsBoundaries changed, so did governmentGermanic people were used to:Living in small communities Family ties, personal loyalty held society togetherGoverned by locally by traditions, unwritten rulesFelt no obligation to a king or emperor they had never met
Clovis and the FranksIn Gaul, Germanic people called the Franks were in control under Clovis496 - Clovis and troops convert to ChristianityThe Church in Rome welcomed his conversion and supported him in military campaigns against other Germanic peoplesBy 511, Clovis united Franks into one kingdomThe alliance marked the start of a partnership between two powerful forces
Germans Adopt ChristianityThe Church, Frankish rulers, missionaries spread Christianity to Germanic peoplesThe Church built monasteries:Religious communities where Christian men, called monks, gave up possessions and devoted their life to serving GodConvents for women, called nuns
Contributions of MonasteriesMonk Benedict and his sister Scholastica established strict, practical set of rules for monasteries/conventsOpened schools, maintained libraries, copied books, beautified religious writingsEnglish monk wrote a history of England that is still considered the best historical work of the early Middle Ages
Papal Power Under Gregory I590, Gregory I (the Great) became PopeThe papacy (popes office) became secular by becoming a political powerBelieved the region from Italy to England and from Spain to Germany fell under his responsibility - a spiritual kingdomThe idea of a churchly kingdom, ruled by a pope, became a central theme of the Middle Ages
Charles Martel EmergesBy 700, the major domo (mayor of the palace) became the most powerful figure in the Frankish kingdomControlled royal household and estatesUnofficially led armies and made policiesIn 719, Charles Martel took over this roleExtended the Franks reign to the N,S,EDefeated Muslim raiders at Battle of ToursMade him a Christian hero
Carolingian DynastyCharles Martel died, passed power to his son Pepin the ShortCooperated with the pope to fight the Lombards, and in exchange, the pope declared him king by the grace of GodBegan the Carolingian Dynasty (751-987)
Charlemagne Becomes EmperorPepin --> Carloman --> Charlemagne771, Charlemagne became ruler of the Frankish kingdomLed armies against enemies surrounding his kingdomConquered new lands to the south and eastSpread Christianity during conquestsUnited W. Europe for the first time since the Roman EmpireBecame the most powerful king in W. Europe
CharlemagneIn 800, he helped defeat an unruly mob that had attacked the pope and was crowned emperor by Pope Leo IIPopes had never before claimed the political right to give the title of Roman EmperorSignaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church and the heritage of the Roman Empire
Charlemagne Leads a RevivalLimited the authority of noblesSent out royal agents to make sure landholders (counts) governed justlyRegularly visited every part of his kingdomMonitored the management of his estatesEncouraged learning!!!!!!
Charlemagnes HeirsCharlemagne --> Louis the Pious --> (3 sons)Divided the empire into three kingdomsCarolingian kings lost power, controlLack of strong rulers led to feudalism
For Next ClassRead Chapter 13, Section 2 and 3
*With the decline of the Roman empire, a new era in European history began. It is known as the Middle Ages, also known as the Medieval period. That is what we will be spending our last unit studying. This period lasted from around 500-1500 AD and was rooted in the classical heritage of Rome, the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church and customs of various Germanic tribes (western Europe)*Here are some reasons why we study the Middle Ages:Christianity is still the dominant religion in Europe. European immigrants and their descendents have made Christianity the dominant religion in N. and S America (us)Todays forms of representative government include mutual rights and responsibilities, as feudalism didChivalry has shaped modern ideas of romance in Western culture, as shown in love songs, novels, tv shows, movies and playsTodays epic films celebrate the lives of heros, just as they did in medieval literatureAlthough women today have more power than they did in the Middle ages, wealthy and poor women still lead very different livesReligious leaders still speak out on political issues such as war and poverty
*In the 5th century (400s) Germanic tribes overran the wesern half of the Roman empire. Repeated invasions and constant warfare caused a series of chnages that altered the economy, government and culture. Disruption of trade: merchants faced invasions by land and sea, businesses collapsed and the breakdown in trade destroyed the empires cities as economic centers
Downfall of cities: As a result of the Roman empire falling, cities were abandoned as cetners of government administration
Population shifts: As centers for trade and government collapsed, people moved to rural areas. Roman cities were left without strong leadership, other city dweelers moved to the countryside because that way they could grow food. And the population in Europe became mostly rural.
Germanic invades couldnt read or write (they were illiterate). Among the Romans, learning sank as more families left for rural areas. Other than some priests and church officials, few people were literate. Knowledge of Greek was almost lost. Few people could read Greek works of since, lit and philo. But the Germanic tribes did carry songs and legends through the oral tradition.As German speaking people mixed with the Roman population, Latin changed. It was no longer understoof. New dialects developed and new words and phrases became part of everyday speech. French and Spanish emerged around 800 AD as well as other Roman based languages. Languages, like the empire, has broken apart into smaller sections*The one thing that stayed constant was the church. And to many people it provided them with order and security in a time of political chaos.
In Roman remember, loyalty was to the public government, written law and the state. But Germanic tribes felt loyal only to family ties and personal connectsions. Also Germans were used to living in small communities, unlike the Romans. Each German chief led a band of warriors who pledged their loyalty to him. In peacetime, these followeres lived in the lords hall. He gave them food, weapons, treasure. In battle warriors fought to the death. Dying after their lord was considered disgraceful. The Germans were not interested in obeying a king they didnt know or paying taxes and keeping order in the name of someone they had never met. So because of these issues, it made it nearly impossible for them to establish governments in large territorties.*Gaul was a Roman province (now modern day France and Switzerland) - the Franks held power. Their leader was Clovis - Clovis would bring Christianity to the region. According to legend, his wife urged him to convert to her religion (christianity. And in 496, Clovis led his warriors against another tribe. In the face of defeat Clovis prayed to a Christian god and the tide of the battle turned. The Franks won and afterward Clovis and 3000 of his men converted to Christianity and were baptized.The Church welcomed the conversion and supported his other military campaigns against Germanic peoples. By 511, Clovis united all the Franks into one kingdom. And had made a strategic alliance between the Church and the frankish kingdom (a partnership between two very powerful forces)*Politics played a key role in the spread of Christianity. New converts had settled all throughout Romes former lands. Missionaries also worked to spread Christianity. They traveled, risking their lives to bring religious beliefs to other lands. In the 300s and 400s they worked among many Germanic and Celtic groups that bordered the Roman Empire. In southern Europe, the fear of coastal attacks by Muslims also spurred many people to become Christian in the 600s.
To adapt to rural conditiions, the Church built monasteries- smaller religious communities all throughout the lands. *Around 520, Italian monk Benedict began writing a book that outline a strict but practical set of rules for monasteries. Scholastic adapted them for women in the convent. These rules became a model for many religious communities in western Euopre.
Monasteries also became hugely important to education. Monks opened schools, maintained libraries, copied books. 731 B.C. book of history of England. From 600-700 monks made beautiful copies of religious writings decorated with ornate letters, pictures, etc. Theses were called illuminated manuscripts and they preserved much of Romes proud heritage*Gregory, as head of the church in Rome, broadened the authority of the papacy (popes office) way beyond its spiritual role. Under Gregorys control the papacy became secular - worldly, dealt with politics. The popes palace was the center