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DESCRIPTIONGlobal Beginnings. Drive to Explore. New Routes. Faith, Curiosity. Search for wealth Europeans desired expensive luxury goods Flow of goods controlled by Italian merchants Charged high prices for these rare goods. Hoped to find new, faster routes to Asia to gain trade foothold - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Renaissance spirit of discovery and innovation in EuropeSpirit led Europeans to set sail on voyages of discovery Period is sometimes called the Age of Exploration Foundations of Exploration
What is the easiest way to remember it all?The Three Gs:GoldGloryGodAlthough a little simplistic, this mnemonic is a great way to remember the main motivations of the European explorers.
Two Factors Stimulated ExplorationNeed for new trade routesHigh price of goodsImprovements made travel easierCompass Portolan chartsShip design
Europeans Discover New LandsPortugal became leader of exploration in the 1400sPrince Henry Prince Henry the NavigatorHelped improve navigational equipmentOpened a naval schoolSponsored exploration of the African coast
The Portuguese Explore Africa1487-1488 Bartholomeu Dias led exploration along African coastBecame first to sail the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da GamaSent on an expedition around the Cape of Good HopeLeft in July 1497; arrived in India May 1498Portugal won race for a sea route to AsiaGoverned small colony in IndiaThis trip was very profitableSpices were worth 60X the cost of the trip27,000 miles round trip
Columbuss Voyages to the CaribbeanChristopher ColumbusBelieved that he could reach India by sailing west (did not know about American continents)Convinced Queen Isabella to back his voyage (after several years) Studied sailing and navigation techniques and read books about travel and geography
Columbuss Voyages to the CaribbeanThe first voyageSet sail on August 3, 1492Crew of 90 men, two caravels (the Nia and the Pinta) and his flagship, the Santa MariaReached land after 3 weeks (San Salvador in the Caribbean)Called the local people los Indios. They were Tainos.Always thought he had explored part of Asia
Results of VoyagesColumbusthree more voyages to Americas Still believed he had reached Asia Error not realized until about 1502Explorer Amerigo Vespucci sailed coast of South America, concluded it was not AsiaMapmakers later named land America in his honor
Results of VoyagesKnowing they had found new land, Spanish set out to explore it 1513, Nez de Balboa led expedition across Isthmus of PanamaAfter more than three weeks of travel, Balboa became first European to see Pacific Ocean
Papal Line of DemarcationNews of Columbus spread
Line of Demarcation created by Pope Alexander VI imaginary boundary showing the land that Spain could explore and claim
Spain claimed land to the west, Portugal to the eastPortugal was unhappy with the lineTreaty of Tordasillas moved the Line of Demarcation almost 800 miles west
Ferdinand MagellanPortuguese Sailor - Ferdinand Magellan
Believed he could sail to Asia through the South Sea
Spain provided 5 ships for his voyage
He set sail September 1519
Sailed South down the coast of South AmericaDiscovered a Strait Became known as Strait of Magellan
Ferdinand MagellanTrip to the Southern Tip of South America took 130 days
Sailed across the Pacific and landed in present day Philippines where he was killed in battle
Ferdinand MagellanSeptember 1522 -18 of the original 250 member crew returned to Spain on 1 of the original 5 ships
These 18 sailors were the first to Circumnavigate the globe
40,000 mile trip across 3 oceans finally found a western passage to Asia that Columbus began searching for in 1492.
West African Trading Kingdoms
Portuguese in Africa1400s exploring for water route to AsiaMombasa and Malindi coastal cities on African coast hubs of international trade expelled Arabs & took control over trade routes Set up and maintained forts along African Coast
Nature of slavery changed when Europeans began to view slaves as important to African trade.
Portuguese established large-scale farms, or plantations, first in Africa, then in Caribbean islands and in the Americas; later the Spanish, British, French, and Dutch did the same.
The Portuguese in West Africa
Portuguese in Africa
Affonso I ruler of Kongo resisted slave tradeTutored by Portuguese missionariesHoped to establish Christian state with help of Portuguese
Pg. 95 primary source reading
New African StatesAsante kingdom present day Ghana
Osei TutuMilitary leaderUnites kingdomCreates wealthy powerful state
Oyo EmpirePresent day Nigeria
Europeans in South & Southeast AsiaAfonso de Albuquerque , Portuguese, explored Indian OceanGoa trading postsMalacca port city seized by Portuguese
Muslim rulers established Mughal Empire through much of India
In 50 years Portugal established trading kingdom controlling much of spice trade between Europe and Asia for most of 1500s.
Europeans in South & Southeast AsiaThe Dutch Northern protestant provinces win independence from Holy Roman Empire in early 1500sAs Portuguese power declined in Africa during 1600s Dutch (and others) took over their forts.1652 Settled Cape Town - 1st permanent settlement Boers Dutch farmers settling around Cape Town
Europeans In South & Southeast AsiaIn India wealthy Dutch merchants formed the Dutch East India CompanySovereign powerGained control of Portuguese postsBy 1700s growing power of English and France led to decline in Dutch influence.
1521 Magellan claimed Philippines for Spain
Used Philippines as midway pointShip silver mined in America to PhilippinesBuy goods in China from PhilippinesEuropeans In South & Southeast Asia
Mughal India = larger, wealthier, & more powerful than any kingdom in Europe.
Saw no threat from European traders.
Declined Internal war and economic problems
Europeans In South & Southeast Asia
Europeans in South & Southeast AsiaFrench & English established East Indian companies (similar to Dutch) and organized sepoys
Mid 1700s struggle between British and French for dominance (Seven Years War/French & Indian War)British win
Europeans in East Asia - ChinaPortuguese reach China in 1514Ming ruler allows them to set up trading posts at Macao (Guangzhou)1644 Manchus overrun Ming empireCall themselves Qing empireUnder Kangxi & Qianlong Chinese economy expandedLord Maccartney led British diplomatic mission to China in attempt to expand trade Mission failed.
Europeans in East Asia Korea & JapanKoreaOverrun by Manchus in 1636 Restricted trade became known as the Hermit KingdomJapanWelcomed tradersJesuit missionaries converted many Japanese to ChristianityJapanese shoguns fearful of allegiance to Pope expelled foriegnersLimited trade to 1-2 Dutch ships
Global Beginnings Chapter 3
First Encounters1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue and landed in Caribbean.
Spanish conquistadors, or conquerors, followed in the wake of Columbus. Seized gold from the Tanos Converted them to Christianity.
Native Americans had no immunity, or resistance, to such diseases. Small pox, measles and influenza wiped out native villages
The ConquistadorsHernan Corts landed on the Mexican coast in 1519.
Corts arranged alliances with discontented peoples who hated their Aztec overlords.
The Aztec emperor, Moctezuma, thought Corts might be a god. He offered tribute to Corts and welcomed him to Tenochtitln.
When relations grew strained, the Aztecs drove the Spanish out of Tenochtitln.
In 1521, Corts returned and captured and demolished Tenochtitln.
CORTS IN MEXICO
The ConquistadorsFrancisco Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532, just after the conclusion of a bloody civil war.
Helped by Indian allies, Pizarro captured the new king, Atahualpa, and killed thousands of his followers.
The Spanish then overran the Incan heartland
Ruling the Spanish EmpireSpain closely controlled economic activity, especially trade.
The Spanish grew sugar cane, which was grown on plantations and required large numbers of workers.
At first, the Spanish forced the Native Americans to work under brutal conditions.
Later, the colonists began shipping slaves from Africa to do their work.The Church worked with the government to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
Church leaders often served as royal officials.
Spanish missionaries forcibly imposed European culture over Native American culture. Spain was determined to maintain strict control over its empire.
The empire was divided into five provinces, each of which was ruled by a viceroy.
The Council of the Indies helped pass laws for the colonies.THE ECONOMYTHE CATHOLIC CHURCHGOVERNMENTIn the 1500s, Spain claimed a vast empire stretching from California to South America.
Colonial Society In Spanish America, the mix of diverse people gave rise to a new social structure.
Mulattoes were people of African and European descent.
Challenging Spanish PowerTo get around Spains strict control over colonial trade, smugglers traded illegally with Spanish colonists.
Dutch, English, and French pirates preyed on Spanish treasure ships. Some of these pirates, called privateers, even operated with the approval of European governments.
The Dutch, English, and French hunted for other gold empires and for a northwest passage to Asia.
Spanish and Portuguese did not remain alone in their efforts. By early 1500s the English and French were exploring northern parts of the Americas.Dutch later joined in explorations.Explorers from the Rest of Europe
Sir Francis Drake