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  • 1 1

    2 2

    3 33.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    4 4

    5 55.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    6 76.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    7 8

    8 9

    9 10

    10 11

    11 12

    12 13

    13 14

    14 15

    15 16

    16 1716.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1716.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1716.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1716.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    i

  • ii

    17 18

    18 19

    19 20

    20 () 21

    21 22

    22 2322.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    23 24

    24 25

    25 26

    26 27

    27 28

    28 29

    29 () 3029.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    30 31

    31 32

    32 33

    33 34

    34 35

    35 36

    36 37

    37 38

    38 ( ) 39

    39 4039.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4039.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    40 41

  • iii

    41 42

    42 4342.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    43 45

    44 () 46

    45 47

    46 4846.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    46.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4846.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    46.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4946.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5046.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5046.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5046.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5046.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    47 51

    48 52

    49 ( ) 53

    50 5450.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5450.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5450.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    51 55

    52 5652.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5652.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5652.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    53 57

    54 ( ) 58

    55 () 59

    56 60

  • iv

    57 61

    58 62

    59 63

    60 6460.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6460.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6460.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6460.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    61 65

    62 6662.1 (elves) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6662.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    62.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6662.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6662.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6762.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6762.2.5 , . . . . . . . 6762.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    62.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    63 6963.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6963.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    64 70

    65 7165.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7165.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7265.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7365.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7365.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7565.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    66 7666.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7666.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7666.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7666.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7666.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

  • v

    66.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    67 7767.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7767.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    68 78

    69 7969.1 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7969.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8069.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8069.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    70 8170.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

    71 8271.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

    72 8372.1 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    72.1.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8472.1.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8772.1.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

  • 1

    (Andhrmnir) . , , , . - . .

    1

  • 2

    (Astrild), , . 17 - , , . -.

    2

  • 3

    (Aurvandil) , . - . , - , . - - ' . - , , - . . . - , , - .

    3.1 http://www.ealdriht.org/earendel.html

    3

  • 4

    , .

    (gir) - . -. . , .

    , XXXVI (), .

    4

  • 5

    .

    (Baldr Balder Baldur) , , , . . . , , -. . . -

    - .

    5.1

    .

    . , , . , , , .

    5

  • 6 5.

    . - , . , , - , .' - , , . , , . , , - .

  • 6

    (Bor Borr) , . . (Buri). - [1] - Gylfaginning[2] . - , - , - . - .

    6.1 [1] The Poetic Edda, by Henry Adams Bellows sacred-

    texts.com ()

    [2] ()

    7

  • 7

    () . . - -. bragr .

    8

  • 8

    (Bri) . . . :

    9

  • 9

    Dagr (1874) .

    , (Dagr,Dag Dagur ) , ( ) ( ). , , , . .

    10

  • 10

    (Delling) . () - , ().

    11

  • 11

    (Eir), - '' '', . . -. .

    12

  • 12

    (Elli) . , .

    13

  • 13

    (Forseti) (" ") , , - . . . . - - . , - - . - . , .

    14

  • 14

    (Freyja), - . Freyja - , . - . , . .

    . - , , 4 -. : - . . - - . -. , -.

    76 (76 Freia), - 1862, .

    15

  • 15

    (Freyr) , - . -. , . . . , , / . , , (veraldar go). , -

    , . , . - . , , . . - .

    16

  • 16

    " " J. C. Dollman.

    (Frigg Frigga) , , . , -, , , - , -

    16.1 - -, -. , , , .

    16.2 , . , ,, , . . ( ), (- ) ( ).

    16.3 , , .

    16.4 - , . - - . , , . , , , . . - . , , - . . - , , .

    77 (77 Frigga), - 1862, .

    17

  • 17

    (Fulla Fylla) , . . fullr - (: full).

    18

  • 18

    (Mimir) - . , , . , .

    19

  • 19

    (Miming) . . , - . . , , .

    20

  • 20

    ()

    (Mani) . . - . . .

    21

  • 21

    (Magni) . . ( ) . .

    22

  • 22

    (Loki Laufeyjarson) "" , . . (Jotun) ( - - ). . Loki - , . - .

    , . , . - . , . , , , . - . , . , , , . - , , . . Loge .

    22.1 Our Troth chapter on Loki Loki - A Paean in Progress The Lokasenna - Lokis Wrangling": a veryamusing insult competition between Loki and theother gods in Asgard

    23

  • 23

    (Lofn) . .

    tta Lofn, hon er sv mild ok g til heita athon fr leyfi af Alfr ea Frigg til mannasamgangs, kvenna ok karla, tt r s bannatea vertekit. Fyrir v er af hennar nafni lofkallat, ok sv at er lofat er mjk af mnnum.

    " . - . - .

    . .

    24

  • 24

    (Laga) .

    25

  • 25

    (Kvasir) - - . - , . . . - . - , - , .

    26

  • 26

    (Jord) . - . - , . : Hldyn, Fjrgyn, Jrd. (Jorden) , .

    27

  • 27

    (Iunn) . . , . . - - . -. .

    28

  • 28

    (huldra, - ) / (skogsr skogsfru, ) (Tallemaja), - . - , - , - . , -. - . . . , . . - . - - . , - . , . - , - - . - .

    29

  • 29

    ()

    , . . [1].

    29.1 -[1] Encyclopedia Mythica: Holler.

    30

  • 30

    (Hnir) . . - , - , - . .

    31

  • 31

    (Hod Hr) . , , . . - . . -. , , ( -

    ) . . - .

    32

  • 32

    (Hln) , . , - - .

    33

  • 33

    (Hermd Hermr) , . - . - . , , -, . - , . , , - . . - - . - , , . . . .

    34

  • 34

    (Heimdallr, Heim- dallr -, , ) . - . - . . ( ) - . - .

    35

  • 35

    , (Hel) (Helheim), - . . , - . . . hell().

    36

  • 36

    (GefjunGefjon Gefyon Gefn) , - . - , . Gefn - . , . , , .

    37

  • 37

    (Mi) , . , . - - . - . - .

    38

  • 38

    ( )

    (Nanna) , . - . , . - .

    39

  • 39

    (Nerthus) - [1]. , (Fyn) . - , . - . - , [2], - [3], -. , , . , [2].

    39.1 [1] , Germania, 1.40

    [2] Encyclopedia Mythica - Nerthus

    [3] Behind the Name

    39.2 Anglosaxon Heathenism - Nerthus Timeless Myths - Teutonic Deities

    40

  • 40

    (Njord Njrr) . , . , - . . - .

    41

  • 41

    , .

    (Ntt) . , , (). 24 . , , - . .

    42

  • 42

    Georg von Rosen - Oden som vandringsman, 1886 (,)

    [1] - . (Bestla) (Borr), (sir), -. - - ( ), - - (Ymir). - inn, r , "". : inn , Oden ,Wden -, Wuodan , Wotan Wothan

    , Godan . 5 8 .[2]

    , -, : , , -. -. , .[3] , -. -, , , - . , - , - . - -. (.. , ) , - . , , . . Odinkar, - .[4]

    - . , . , , , -.

    43

  • 44 42.

    -, -. - Hvaml- (Yggdrasil) . , ( ), - . : Rognir, Sann, Omi, Ohinn, Oer,Sidhott, Thund, Haptagod, Sidskegg, Sigtyr, Unn,erran, Herteit, Hropt, Herian, Ialg, Iolf, Ialk, Iolnir,Sigfadhir, Skilfing, Svipal, Blindi, Nikar, Nikuz, Oski,Svidur, Svidrir, Thunn, Vakr, Fiolsvinn, Hergaut, Grim,Yggr, Grimnir, Valfadhir, Haer, Alfader, Haerbardhr,Ganglari, Hroptr, Fiolnir, Gaut. , - . ( , o trisquetra), ( ) (Gungnir) ( , - , - 7 , ).

    42.1 - [1] . Odin forvo.

    [2] Anders Bksted, Nordiske guder og helte, 2001, (, ) . 73

    [3] Davidson,H. R. Ellis;Gods and myths of Northern Europe,1979 ISBN 0-14-020670-1, . 140-141.

    [4] Anders Bksted, Nordiske guder og helte, 2001, (, ) . 69

  • 43

    , , . - (Hildisvn), , . - - . .

    45

  • 44

    ()

    (Ran und dieWellenmdchen), Alkuna: -.

    (Ran), " -", . . - - , - . .

    46

  • 45

    (Sif) . . - - . , .

    47

  • 46

    (1863) (Mrten Eskil Winge).

    (Sigyn : [1]) - . - , 13 , , 13 . , - . , , - ,[. 1] . [. 2] - - .

    46.1

    " " (1892) .

    46.1.1 35 - , (Vlva) , - , - , , .[2] - - . , , , , ,

    48

  • 46.2. 49

    , -. , . , , , - .[3]

    46.1.2

    " ( )" (1908)W. G. Collingwood.

    - . , - 31. , , .[4] 50, - . , , , , .[5] - - . , - , . . -, . - , -. , .[5]

    (synja) , - ,[6] : ,[7]

    [] [],[8] 9 , .[9] - , 75.[10]

    46.2

    .

    ( ) 11 , , - . -,

  • 50 46.

    . . .[11]

    46.3 (Sigyn) - (sigr , vina), , - (Haustlng) 9 , . , - .[12]

    46.4 , Loke och Sigyn (1850) , Lokeoch Sigyn (1863) , Lokioch Sigyn (1879) , - Loki und Sigyn; Hel mit dem HundeGarm (1883) . .[12] - , Sigyn I Sigyn II,[13] - 1978,[14] - MS Sigyn, - , [15] -.[16]

    46.5 [1]

    [2]

    46.6 [1] Orchard (1997:146).

    [2] Larrington (1998:8).

    [3] Larrington (1998:95-96).

    [4] Byock (2006:31).

    [5] Byock (2006:70).

    [6] Faulkes (1995:59).

    [7] Faulkes (1995:76).

    [8] Faulkes (1995:83).

    [9] Faulkes (1995:87)

    [10] Faulkes (1995:157).

    [11] Orchard (1997:13).

    [12] Simek (2007:284).

    [13] Belderok (2000:95).

    [14] Sigyn. Marvel Directory. Marvel Character, Inc.. http://www.marveldirectory.com/individuals/s/sigyn.htm. 29 2008.

    [15] () Bten som fraktarkrnbrnslet. SverigesRadio. http://www.sr.se/cgi-bin/uppland/program/artikel.asp?ProgramID=3199&Artikel=2129516. 28 2008.

    [16] Sigyn Glacier. Geographic Names Information System.U.S. Geological Survey. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=108:3:7765058062182435821::NO::P3_ANTAR_ID:13823. 29 2008.

    46.7 Belderok, Bob. Mesdag, J. Mesdag, Hans. Donner,Dingena A. (2000). Bread Making Quality ofWheat: A Century of Breeding in Europe. Springer.ISBN 0-7923-6383-3

    Byock, Jesse (Trans.) (2006). The Prose Edda.Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044755-5

    Faulkes, Anthony (Trans.) (1995). Edda.Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3

    Larrington, Carolyne (Trans.) (1999). The PoeticEdda. Oxford Worlds Classics. ISBN 0-19-283946-2

    Orchard, Andy (1997). Dictionary of Norse Mythand Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2

    Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall.Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer.ISBN 0-85991-513-1

  • 47

    , (Sjfn) - . :

    Sjaunda er Sjfn, hon gtir mjk til at snahugum manna til sta, kvenna ok karla, ok afhennar nafni er elskuginn kallar sjafni.

    " ( ) . , , // sjafni.

    - . - .

    51

  • 48

    (Snotra) (synjur) . (snotr), '' ' '. -:

    rettnda Snotra, hon er vitr ok ltpr. Afhennar heiti er kallat snotr kona ea karlmars er vitr mar er.

    " ( ) . . snotr.

    52

  • 49

    ( )

    (Sol) , . , . , , -. . , , . . , , - . Sunna Sunne, Frau Sunne, sun () Sunday ().

    53

  • 50

    , Mrten EskilWinge, 1872

    (Thor Donar/Donner) . . , , - - . - (Jormungand) .

    50.1 , , - . : , , .

    50.2 , (Mjollnir), , . - .

    50.3 (Tors Day Thors Day) Thursday (. ) , Donnerstag ( ) , Donderdag Torsdag , .

    299 (Thora), - 1890, .

    54

  • 51

    (-,rr) . . , , . - . . . - . -.

    55

  • 52

    (Tr) , . . Tyz, Ty, Ti, Tiw, Tiu, Tew Ziu.

    52.1 Tyr - Tiwaz, --Dyeus, , Dyaus Pitar .

    52.2 , -

    (Fenrisulfr Fenris), . , , - . - . , , - . - . . , .

    52.3 (Tuesday = Tiw) . ( Martisdies .)

    56

  • 53

    O

    . - . - .

    Ullr heitir einn, sonr Sifjar, stjpsonr rs.Hann er bogmar sv gr ok skfrr sv atengi m vi hann keppask. Hann er ok fagrlitum ok hefir hermanns atgervi. hann er okgott at heita einvgi.

    " , , . . - .

    . "

    , , -. .

    57

  • 54

    ( )

    , (Vali) . - . - . - . , . .

    58

  • 55

    ()

    (Var) . .

    59

  • 56

    (Ve) , , . . .

    60

  • 57

    (Vidar Var Viarr Widar) . , . - . - .

    61

  • 58

    (Vor) . - .

    62

  • 59

    (Vili) , . - . . , . - . Willio.

    63

  • 60

    (valkyrjur, : valkyrja) . .

    60.1 - , . , . .

    60.2 - , . , . . , . .

    60.3 - :

    (Brynhildr)

    (Hildr) (Sigrdrfa) (Sigrn) (Svva) (rr)

    - - , (Gunnr) - (Skgul). - .

    60.4 - (Die Walkre) (Gtterdmmerung). (Wotan /) (Erda/, ) Brnnhilde, Helmwige, Ortlinde, Gerhilde, Waltraute,Siegrune, Rossweisse, Grimgerde Schwertleite.

    64

  • 61

    Grottisng.

    - (Jotun) , , . (Utgard), (Jotunheim), - . - (Midgard), , . , - . - (Ragnark).

    65

  • 62

    ngslvor, , (Nils Blommr- 1850)

    , . -, , , . . -, . O "" - " " . (dain) , Maiar Valar, .

    62.1 (elves) -

    : elfe, elfes : Elfen, Elben Alben

    : lfar, lfaflk hulduflk (- )

    : elf : Elfen, Alfen, Elven : alfer, elvere, elverfolk, ellefolk huldrer , alver, alfer elvefolk alfer, alver lvor

    , elf, lf *albh, - albus ().[1]

    62.2 -

    62.2.1

    . - lfar - - . . , "sir and the elves, " ".[2] , - .[3] - : . - , .

    62.2.2 , - -

    66

  • 62.2. 67

    , elver , alv alv lva . - . - elvere. , : - , . , , - . - . , , , - . ( -, ).

    62.2.3 -

    , - , - , . Albtraum (=), . Erlknig - . , Erlknig , . , Erlknig - - : . Der Erlknig.

    62.2.4

    H elf lf .[4] -: -, , - -. , -

    - . , - . -. , - - . , , - (. [Puck] " ).

    62.2.5 , -

    - - .

    62.2.6 -

    H - . , - , . , , - , - . , - -. , , . (.. Dungeons &Dragons), , , . , - .

  • 68 62.

    62.3 [1] Hall, Alaric Timothy Peter. 2004. The Meanings of Elf

    and Elves in Medieval England (Ph.D. University ofGlasgow). pp. 56-57.

    [2] Hall 2004, pp. 37-46

    [3] Hall 2004, pp. 43-46

    [4] Hall 2004, esp. pp. 212-16

    Anderson, H. C.. 1842. The Elf of the Rose (Danishoriginal: Rosen-Alfen).

    Anderson, H. C. 1845. The Elfin Hill (Danishoriginal: Elverhi).

  • 63

    (dvergar, - dvergr) , . - . . . . . , -. , -. - . , , , . - , hulishjlmr, , . , () , . .

    63.1 -

    Alvis Andvari Brokk

    Durin Dvalin Eitri Fafnir Fjalar Galar Hreidmar Otr Regin Sindri

    63.2

    - : Durin, Dwalin,Nin, Din, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, Nori, Thorin, Thrin,Fili Kili. .

    69

  • 64

    (norn, nornir) (Urd, ), (Verdandi, ) (Skuld, ). , ( ), . , - . - : , . , , -

    . - , -. , (Parcae). . .

    70

  • 65

    (-- )[1] - - , , -, , - . -, (tru) (sir), - .[2] Asetro 1870 Olaf Trygvason - 19 . - satrar () , . , -, . - 1990. - satru () , Asatro () , satrow. , - . - , , , , , , - , ( ), . - , . - - . - , - . , -

    - , - -. - , - , , . - . - , , .

    65.1

    - -, . - - . . - . - , - . - :-: - . . - , . . . , . . -

    71

  • 72 65.

    . : . - , . .: -, , . , .: . . : - - -, . : - . , - .: 21 -, . - .: - -. , , . : - , , - . - 20 , , -. : - . - . - . , . , - , -. : , . , .

    65.2

    , , . - , , - - . , , , . , - . , - . , - - . - , , . , , , . , - , , . . - - , - - . - . . , , - , . - . , . ,. . - . , , . . , , , . . .

  • 65.4. 73

    , -. . . - . -, , -. - , . - . , -. , . . , , , , , , , , -.

    65.3

    , - , . . . , - . , . (jere'as) (je'reja). , status . - , . - - , .

    , . , , . - .

    65.4 , , . - . , .. - - . , , - . . , - . - . , - . , - . - . - , - - . , . - , . - . , . . -

  • 74 65.

    . - , , - . , - - - . , . , - . , . , . , , . . , . , , - , ( ), - , - . , . . , . . - - . , - . - - . -, . , , . , , - . - . . - . , -

    . . -, . , . . "" "" . - - , , , - . , . , - . , - , . , , -, - , - - . - -. -. ' - , . - , - . , , . - - . , - , - , - , . - - - ., , - , , . , , , , - , -, -

  • 65.6. 75

    , 21 . - . - . - - . -, - , - , , - - . . - , - , .

    65.5 - [1] . satr Forvo

    [2] , , , 1992 (Ragnarok, En gudefortlling, VillySrensen, 1982).

    65.6 Asatru Alliance Troth Wodens Harrow (Asatru - Norse Mythology - Art -Literature - Runes by inds)

  • 66

    . . .

    66.1 , , ( ). ,, . ( ). - , . . , ' ' - ( - ).

    66.2 -, . . . - . ( ).

    66.3 , - . - (Tanakvsl) -

    (Vanakvsl).

    66.4 () . , - . - , , . .

    66.5

    , .

    , ,

    66.6 Vanic V

    76

  • 67

    , . - , -, . .[1]

    , ., , -. , .

    67.1 , , , , , ,

    , , ,

    , , , , , -

    , , ,

    67.2 [1] , , -

    , 1992 (Ragnarok, En gudefortlling, VillySrensen, 1982).

    77

  • 68

    - (Yggdrasill, (Mimameid) (Lerad)), , , . , . , . , . , , . , . ( ). - (Vidofnir), , (Verfolnr). , -. , , . . - . - . , . - , -, - , -

    -.

    78

  • 69

    - [1] (Ragnarok Ragnark-- ) . - - - (sir) (Vanir), - - , (Yotun) , . , , . , - , -. . , . - . - . - , Gtterdmmerung, " ". - - : , . - . ' . , - . - , . (- ) .[2]

    69.1 () , - - - . .

    , - . . .

    , - - - . - .

    , - .

    , - .

    , , , - - .

    , - .

    , - , .

    , - - - .

    , , , - . .

    79

  • 80 69.

    , - -.

    , - - .

    , - .

    69.2 , . , . , .

    , , , , , ,, . . - ( ) - . - .

    69.3 [1] Ragnark Forvo

    [2] , , -, 1992 (Ragnarok, En gudefortlling, VillySrensen, 1982).

    69.4

  • 70

    , [1][2] (Asgrd - () , sgard () , sgarr -) , , . , , ( ). , . Gylfaginning, , , - Hrimthurs, , . - . , , - ' , - - , (Svailfari). . , . - . .

    70.1 -[1] , , ,

    1992 (Ragnarok, En gudefortlling, VillySrensen, 1982).

    [2] , - , Neil Philip, . , 1997,. , -.

    81

  • 71

    , , [1][2] ( Migarr , Midgrd Middangeard ) - . . Middel-erde Middle-earth. . - - -. - - (). - (Mannheim/ -) - , , . - () - ( ). - - . . - . , (), - , . - - . , -, . (Middle-earth) , .

    . middangeard - (Beowulf), - . - , .

    71.1 [1] , , -

    , 1992 (Ragnarok, En gudefortlling, VillySrensen, 1982).

    [2] , - , NeilPhilip, . , 1997,. , -.

    82

  • 72

    (Jotunheim) - ( : , - ) -. - ( ). . - . . (Jotunheimen) . , (Galdhpiggen) - 2469 .

    83

  • 84 72.

    72.1 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses72.1.1 Text

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CE%BD%CF%84%CF%87%CF%81%CE%B9%CE%BC%CE%BD%CE%AF%CF%81?oldid=5136892 : Robbot, Dada, YurikBot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, Customizer 2010, AlleborgoBot,MARKELLOS, Botseed, Alexbot, Zorrobot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Gts-tg : 2

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CF%83%CF%84%CF%81%CE%AF%CE%BB%CE%BD%CF%84?oldid=5134799 : Dada, YurikBot, Tony Esopi, Customizer 2010, Botseed, EmausBot, Gts-tg : 1

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%81%CE%B2%CE%B1%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%AF%CE%BB?oldid=4004571 : Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, Customizer 2010,MARKELLOS, Botseed, Amirobot, EmausBot WikitanvirBot

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%95%CE%B3%CE%BA%CE%AF%CF%81?oldid=5138073 :Geraki, Dada, Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Zwobot, Aurilios, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Magioladitis, Bahar, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, MarcusCyron, SieBot, BotMultichill, Customizer 2010, Botseed, Knop92, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, VJSC263IO,MondalorBot, R.21, Dinamik-bot, EmausBot, ZroBot, SamoaBot Gts-tg

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    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CF%80%CE%BF%CF%81?oldid=4281379 : Robbot,Hgsippe Cormier, Kalogeropoulos, Mik (usurped), Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, Tony Esopi, Kostisl, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot,TXiKiBoT, SieBot, BotMultichill, Customizer 2010, Botseed, MelancholieBot, Luckas-bot, LaaknorBot, EmausBot Divineale

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  • 72.1. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 85

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  • 86 72.

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    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A3%CE%B3%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%86%CE%BD?oldid=5138123: Dada, Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Tony Esopi, Thijs!bot, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, Customizer 2010, Botseed,Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, GrouchoBot, ZroBot, SamoaBot Gts-tg

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A3%CE%BD%CF%8C%CF%84%CF%81%CE%B1?oldid=5138126 -: Kalogeropoulos, Mik (usurped), Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Thijs!bot, VolkovBot, BotMultichill, Customizer 2010, Botseed,Luckas-bot, GrouchoBot, EmausBot, ZroBot Gts-tg

    ( ) : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A3%CE%BF%CE%BB_(%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%B2%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE_%CE%B8%CE%B5%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%84%CE%B1)?oldid=5138127 : Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, TXiKiBoT,SieBot, Customizer 2010, Loveless, Botseed, MelancholieBot, Nikosguard, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, ArthurBot, Rubinbot, MastiBot,KamikazeBot, GrouchoBot, EmausBot, MerlIwBot, Vagobot, Geilamir, Dexbot, Addbot, Gts-tg : 1

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%98%CF%89%CF%81?oldid=5138128 : Kalogeropoulos, Mik(usurped), Dada, Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Zwobot, Chobot, Tony Esopi, Escarbot, V-astro, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, FlaBot, VolkovBot,TXiKiBoT, YonaBot, SieBot, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, AlleborgoBot, Loveless, Botseed, Ttzavaras, MelancholieBot, MystBot,SilvonenBot, Luckas-bot, Xqbot, Dinamik-bot, TjBot, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Alonso de Mendoza, Vagobot, Dexbot, Addbot, Gts-tg : 4

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%98%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%BD%CF%84%CF%81?oldid=5138129: Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Zwobot, Thijs!bot, FlaBot, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, AlleborgoBot, DragonBot, Botseed,WikiDreamer Bot, Luckas-bot, EmausBot, SamoaBot, Gts-tg : 2

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A4%CF%85%CF%81?oldid=5252240 : Dada, Ekton, UnReality,YurikBot, Sz-iwbot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, CommonsDelinker, TXiKiBoT, YonaBot, SieBot, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, Loveless,MARKELLOS, Botseed, Alexbot, MelancholieBot, Amirobot, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Louperibot, Xqbot, ZroBot, WikitanvirBot,SamoaBot, : 3

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9F%CF%85%CE%BB%CE%BB%CF%81?oldid=5138130: Shikaishaw, Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, SieBot, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, MARKELLOS, PixelBot,Botseed, ArthurBot, GrouchoBot, EmausBot, MerlIwBot, Gts-tg : 1

    ( ) : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%AC%CE%BB%CE%B9_(%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%B2%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE_%CE%B8%CE%B5%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%84%CE%B1)?oldid=5138131 : Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, Zwobot, Sz-iwbot,Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, SieBot, Customizer 2010, Loveless, Wikijens, MARKELLOS, Botseed, SilvonenBot, ArthurBot,Rubinbot, EmausBot, MARKbot, MerlIwBot, SamoaBot Gts-tg

    () : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%B1%CF%81_(%CE%B8%CE%B5%CE%AC)?oldid=5138134 -: Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Gerakibot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, SieBot, Customizer 2010, Botseed,Alexbot, Luckas-bot, ZroBot, MerlIwBot, SamoaBot Gts-tg

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%B5?oldid=5138135 : Kalogeropoulos, Mik (usurped), Ekton,YurikBot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, SieBot, Transistor, BotMultichill, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, Botseed, Muro Bot, Hana1999jp, MerlIwBot,SamoaBot, Gts-tg : 3

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%AF%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%B1%CF%81?oldid=5138136 -: Robbot, Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Veron, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, Customizer 2010, Loveless, Botseed,Knop92, D'ohBot, Xqbot, ZroBot, MARKbot, YFdyh-bot, SamoaBot, Gts-tg : 2

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%BF%CF%81?oldid=5138137 : Dada, UnReality, YurikBot,Thijs!bot, SieBot, Customizer 2010, MARKELLOS, Botseed, Alexbot, Zorrobot, ArthurBot, SassoBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, MerlIwBot,Addbot, Gts-tg : 1

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%AF%CE%BB%CE%B9?oldid=5136870 : Dada, Ekton,UnReality, YurikBot, Gerakibot, V-astro, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, SieBot, Customizer 2010, Botseed, MystBot, LaaknorBot,Dinamik-bot, Hana1999jp, MARKbot, DixonDBot, MerlIwBot, SamoaBot, Gts-tg : 1

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%BA%CF%85%CF%81%CE%AF%CE%B5%CF%82?oldid=5138142 : Dada, Ekton, UnReality, YurikBot, Zwobot, Marcos.th, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot,TXiKiBoT, SieBot, Customizer 2010, , Botseed, Alexbot, BOTarate, SilvonenBot, Luckas-bot, SassoBot, MastiBot, Xqbot,RedBot, TjBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, WikitanvirBot, Vagobot, Dexbot, SamoaBot, Gts-tg : 1

  • 72.1. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 87

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%93%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%8D%CE%BD?oldid=5138143: Kalogeropoulos, Mik (usurped), Dada, YurikBot, Tony Esopi, Kostisl, Thijs!bot, Magioladitis, CommonsDelinker,SieBot, Customizer 2010, Botseed, Carsrac, CarsracBot, Luckas-bot, SassoBot, D'ohBot, Xqbot, RedBot, KamikazeBot, WikitanvirBot,MerlIwBot, SamoaBot, Gts-tg : 3

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9E%CF%89%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AC?oldid=5185336 -: Kalogeropoulos, Dada, *, Badseed, Fefeli, FocalPoint, CeeKay, Egmontaz, Veron, JAnDbot, CommonsDelinker,Morgatek, Alaniaris, SieBot, MARKELLOS, Ttzavaras, ArielGlenn, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Egmontbot, Xqbot, GrouchoBot, EmausBot,ZroBot, WikitanvirBot, Sakisg16, MerlIwBot, SamoaBot, XANTHO GENOS : 17

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9D%CE%AC%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%B9_%CE%A3%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%B2%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE%CF%82_%CE%BC%CF%85%CE%B8%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%B3%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%82?oldid=5171072 -: Geraki, , Diderot~elwiki, Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, Thijs!bot, SieBot, Customizer 2010, Hellowirld~elwiki, Botseed,MerlIwBot, Addbot, Gts-tg : 4

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9D%CE%BF%CF%81%CE%BD?oldid=5138146:Dada, UnReality,YurikBot, Chobot, Tony Esopi, MSBOT, V-astro, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Idioma-bot, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, Botseed, BodhisattvaBot,ArthurBot, RedBot, TobeBot, Jdsteakley, GrouchoBot, EmausBot, Makecat-bot Gts-tg

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%86%CF%83%CE%B1%CF%84%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%85?oldid=4486082: Geraki, Kalogeropoulos, Dada, YurikBot, Tony Esopi, Gerakibot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot,Vanakaris, Idioma-bot, BotMultichill, MARKELLOS, Botseed, Ttzavaras, , BOTarate, -, Luckas-bot,ArthurBot, SassoBot, Egmontbot, Xqbot, EmausBot, Themisbalan, RotlinkBot, Addbot : 2

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%AF%CF%81?oldid=4525716 :Kalogeropoulos, Dada, Ekton, YurikBot, Zwobot, Chobot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, FlaBot, VolkovBot, SieBot, Customizer2010, Loveless, Botseed, SilvonenBot, -, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, Almabot, ZroBot, WikitanvirBot, SamoaBot : 1

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%95%CF%83%CE%AF%CF%81?oldid=4525727 : Kalogeropoulos,Chobot, Veron, , Luckas-bot, MastiBot, Xqbot, ZroBot, ChuispastonBot, AvocatoBot SamoaBot

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%8E%CE%B3%CE%BA%CE%BD%CF%84%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%BB?oldid=5138150 : UnReality, YurikBot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT,SieBot, BotMultichill, Sotkil, Customizer 2010, Loveless, PixelBot, Botseed, Spiros71, Ttzavaras, , BodhisattvaBot,MelancholieBot, Amirobot, Muro Bot, Luckas-bot, TobeBot, SamoaBot, Bisbiki Gts-tg

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A1%CE%AC%CE%B3%CE%BA%CE%BD%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%BF%CE%BA?oldid=5002340 : Kalogeropoulos, Mik (usurped), Dada, UnReality, Valentin~elwiki, Veron, Thijs!bot,JAnDbot, VolkovBot, Idioma-bot, TXiKiBoT, YonaBot, SieBot, Sotkil, Loveless, Ttzavaras, , MelancholieBot,BOTarate, SpBot, Darkicebot, Ptbotgourou, ArthurBot, MastiBot, Xqbot, RedBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Divineale, Vagobot, Geilamir,Dexbot, SamoaBot, Berzerk Warrior : 6

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%86%CF%83%CE%B3%CE%BA%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%BD%CF%84?oldid=4827709 : Nkour, Kalogeropoulos, Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, *, Veron, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot,TXiKiBoT, SieBot, AlleborgoBot, MARKELLOS, , Darkicebot, Ginosbot, SilvonenBot, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot,D'ohBot, TjBot, GrouchoBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Yobot, SamoaBot : 2

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CE%AF%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%B3%CE%BA%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%BD%CF%84?oldid=5171066 : Kalogeropoulos, Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, Gerakibot, Veron, Thijs!bot,Magioladitis, FlaBot, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, Sotkil, PipepBot, MARKELLOS, , MelancholieBot, SpBot,Darkicebot, Luckas-bot, NobelBot, Egmontbot, D'ohBot, Xqbot, TjBot, EmausBot, MerlIwBot, SamoaBot -: 1

    : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%93%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%BD%CF%87%CE%AD%CE%B9%CE%BC?oldid=5138152 : Kalogeropoulos, Dada, UnReality, YurikBot, Escarbot, Thijs!bot,JAnDbot, Magioladitis, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, Customizer 2010, Botseed, , Muro Bot, SilvonenBot, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, D'ohBot, Xqbot, SamoaBot Gts-tg

    72.1.2 Images :AM_738_4to,_39v,_BW_Ullr.jpeg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/AM_738_4to%2C_39v%

    2C_BW_Ullr.jpeg : Public domain : AM 738 4to, http://skaldic.arts.usyd.edu.au/db.php?table=images&id=22778. Digitized version available from . Image processing (crop, erase etc.) by Skadinaujo ( ) -:

    :AM_738_4to,_39v,_BW_Vli.jpeg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/AM_738_4to%2C_39v%2C_BW_V%C3%A1li.jpeg : Public domain : AM 738 4to, 39v. Digitized version available from http://skaldic.arts.usyd.edu.au/db.php?table=images&id=22778. Image processing (crop, erase etc.) by Skadinaujo ( ) :

    :Baldur.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Baldur.jpg : Public domain -: ? : ?

    :Commons-logo.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg : Publicdomain : This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versionsused to be slightly warped.) : SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlierPNG version, created by Reidab.

  • 88 72.

    :Dagr_by_Arbo.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Dagr_by_Arbo.jpg : Publicdomain :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dagr_by_Arbo.jpg : Peter Nicolai Arbo

    :Daughters_of_gir_and_Rn.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Daughters_of_%C3%86gir_and_R%C3%A1n.jpg : Public domain : ? : ?

    :Disambig_grey.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Disambig_grey.svg : Publicdomain : : Bubs

    :Draig.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Draig.svg : Public domain -: Based on Image:Flag of Wales 2.svg : Liftarn

    :Ed0023.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Ed0023.jpg : Public domain -: ? : ?

    :Fenja_och_Menja_vid_kvarnen_Grotte_(xylograph).JPG : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Fenja_och_Menja_vid_kvarnen_Grotte_%28xylograph%29.JPG : Public domain : The image is found onpage 149 of Fredrik Sanders 1893 edition of the Poetic Edda; Edda Smund den vises : skaldeverk af fornnordiska myt- och hjltesngerom de gtiska eller germaniska folkens gamla gudatro, sagominnen och vandringar / fversttning frn islndskan af Fredrik Sander ;med bilder af nordiska konstnrer. Stockholm, Norstedt. I (Haukur orgeirsson) took a picture of that page with a handheld camera. Myoriginal upload is an unmodified version of that picture and shows not only the image described but also its context. My second uploadis cropped to the engraving itself and has been processed with the GIMP. : Carl Larsson (1853-1919) and GunnarForssell (1859-1903) as described above. Photograph by User:Haukurth.

    :Fenrir_and_Varr_by_Lorenz_Frlich.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Fenrir_and_V%C3%AD%C3%B0arr_by_Lorenz_Fr%C3%B8lich.jpg : Public domain : Published in Gjellerup, Karl(1895). Den ldre Eddas Gudesange, page 48. : Lorenz Frlich

    :Freya_by_Penrose.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Freya_by_Penrose.jpg :Public domain : ? : ?

    :Freyr_art.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Freyr_art.jpg : Public domain -: ? : ?

    :FriggSpinning.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/FriggSpinning.jpg : Publicdomain : Guerber, H. A. (Hlne Adeline) (1909). Myths of the Norsemen from the Eddas and Sagas. London: Harrap. This illustration facing page 42. Digitized by the Internet Archive and available from http://www.archive.org/details/mythsofthenorsem00gueruoft Some simple image processing by User:Haukurth. Previous upload from http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/mss/online/online-exhibitions/exhib_ice/b5.phtml : John Charles Dollman

    :Georg_von_Rosen_-_Oden_som_vandringsman,_1886_(Odin,_the_Wanderer).jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Georg_von_Rosen_-_Oden_som_vandringsman%2C_1886_%28Odin%2C_the_Wanderer%29.jpg : Public domain : Appeared in the 1893 Swedish translation of the Poetic Edda. Immediate source:http://www.ginnungagap.info/gge_pic6.asp (accessed July 14th 2005). Taken from the English Wikipedia. : Georgvon Rosen

    :Gosforth_Cross_Loki_and_Sigyn.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Gosforth_Cross_Loki_and_Sigyn.jpg : Public domain : Photographed from Finnur Jnsson (1913). Goafri Normanna ogslendinga eftir heimildum. H slenska bkmentafjelag, Reykjavk. Page 95. : The original artist who made theGosforth Cross is unknown. Reproduction by Julius Magnus Petersen (1827 1917).

    :Loki,_by_Mrten_Eskil_Winge_1890.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Loki%2C_by_M%C3%A5rten_Eskil_Winge_1890.jpg : Public domain : http://webart.nationalmuseum.se/work/work_image.aspx?id=18044 :Mrten Eskil Winge

    :Loki_Bound_by_Collingwood.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Loki_Bound_by_Collingwood.jpg : Public domain : The Elder or Poetic Edda; commonly known as SmundsEdda. Edited and translated with introduction and notes by Olive Bray. Illustrated by W.G. Collingwood (1908) Page 245. Digitized by theInternet Archive and available from http://www.archive.org/details/elderorpoeticedd01brayuoft This image was made from the JPEG2000 image of the relevant page via image processing (crop, rotate, color-levels, mode) with the GIMP by User:Haukurth. The imageprocessing is probably not eligible for copyright but in case it is User:Haukurth releases his modified version into the public domain. :W.G. Collingwood (1854 - 1932)

    :Loki_and_Hod.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Loki_and_Hod.jpg : Publicdomain : ? : ?

    :Loki_and_Sigyn_by_Gebhardt.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Loki_and_Sigyn_by_Gebhardt.jpg : Public domain : Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham. 1892. Character sketches of romance, fictionand the drama. A revised American edition of the Readers handbook. Volume IV. Facing page 52. Digitized version from University ofWisconsin Digital Collections[1] : The book gives the artist alternatively as Carl Gebbardt or Carl Gebhardt.

    :Mjollnir.png: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Mjollnir.png : Public domain -: ? : ?

    :Mrten_Eskil_Winge_-_Tors_Fight_with_the_Giants_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/M%C3%A5rten_Eskil_Winge_-_Tor%27s_Fight_with_the_Giants_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg : Public domain : 3gGd_ynWqGjGfQ at Google Cultural Institute, zoom level maximum :Mrten Eskil Winge

    :Nornorna_spinner_dets_trdar_vid_Yggdrasil.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Nornorna_spinner_%C3%B6dets_tr%C3%A5dar_vid_Yggdrasil.jpg : Public domain : ? : ?

  • 72.1. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 89

    :Nott_painting.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Nott_painting.jpg : Publicdomain : : Peter Nicolai Arbo

    :Question_book-new.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Question_book-new.svg -: CC-BY-SA-3.0 : Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Basedon Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion : Tkgd2007 Original uploader was PeterSymonds aten.wikipedia

    :Rn_and_the_Wave_Girls_(1831).jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/R%C3%A1n_and_the_Wave_Girls_%281831%29.jpg : Public domain : Alkuna: Nordische und nordslawische Mythologie. C. H.F. Hartmann Leipzig 1831 p. XXIV-XXV books.google : Legis, Gustav Thormod.

    :Tyr_and_Fenrir-John_Bauer.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Tyr_and_Fenrir-John_Bauer.jpg : Public domain : : John Bauer

    :ngslvor_-_Nils_Blommr_1850.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/%C3%84ngs%C3%A4lvor_-_Nils_Blomm%C3%A9r_1850.jpg : Public domain : Nationalmuseum, Inventory number: NM2162 : Nils Blommr

    72.1.3 Content license Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

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