goup 6 linguistic presentation

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    I. Introduction & HistoryII. Language Production

    I. Definition

    II. ExampleIII. Word Recognition

    I. Example #1

    II. Experiment/Mental LexiconIII. Example #2

    IV. Why we study this stuff?

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    Psycho

    From the GreekPsyche Jiwa,roh,sukma

    Logos Ilmu

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    LinguistikIlmu bahasa yang mengambil

    bahasa sebagai objek kajian

    Psycholinguistic

    From the Greek, "mind" + theLatin, "tongue"

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    The study of language processing

    mechanisms.

    Oxford study of how the mind

    prosesses and produce language

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    The study of the mental aspects of

    language and speech--a branch of bothlinguistics and psychology

    Based on our view:

    Psycholinguistic is.

    http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/languageterm.htmhttp://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/speechterm.htmhttp://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/linguisticsterm.htmhttp://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/linguisticsterm.htmhttp://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/speechterm.htmhttp://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/languageterm.htm
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    Rudolf Meringer (18591931) started to collect speecherrors. In contrast to his contemporary SigmundFreud (18561939), he studied the linguistic, ratherthan psychological, properties of such incidents.Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) proposed the firsttheory of language production, and GustavAschaffenburg (18661944), by using the techniqueof word association, investigated the representationof word meaning. The Dutch ophthalmologist

    Fransiscus Donders (18181889) introduced themethod of mental chronometry (measuring the timemental processes take)

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    Two Aspects:Language Comprehension how weunderstand the meaning of words andsentences (receptive process)Language Production how we speak anduse language (productive process)

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    To figure out what peoplehave to know about language inorder to use it; how that

    knowledge is used to processlanguage.

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    Language production is a processfrom idea generation to languageexpression. It is a mental process that is heavilyinfluenced by language users culture.

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    Idea: cross-cultural communication

    People using the same language (i.e. English)but coming from different cultures. Example: Cultural differences in directnesshow explicitly and clearly do we say what we

    mean. Case study: letters of recommendation for abright but immature student, Peter Gore. (ByJohn McCarthy)

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    British Professor(least direct)Mr. Gore impresses one as veryintelligent. As to his maturity andreadiness for graduate study, I can sayvery little, having had an opportunity toobserve him only under relativelyunfavorable conditions.

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    American Professor(intermediate directness)

    In my judgment, Gore is very intelligent.During the time I have known him, I haveseen him grow in maturity; I hope andexpect that this will continue when hebegins graduate study.

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    Australian Professor(most direct)

    Peters brilliant, theres no doubt aboutthat. But hes a bit of a baby, with a lot ofgrowing up to do.

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    Chinese Professor(from Mainland)(Ignore the fact)

    Peter Gore is a very smart student. Hewas doing extremely well in my class. Hegets along well with everyone and isrespected by others.

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    Language Comprehension how weunderstand the meaning of words andsentences (receptive process)

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    An Experiment:

    Task: Speak out the color name of the stimulus you

    will view.

    Requirement: Complete the task as quickly and

    accurately as possible.

    Subjects, participants,

    (The task was devised by Stroop, 1935 --the Stroop

    task.)

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    For color words, when their ink color isinconsistent with the meaning of the words, Naming time is longer (i.e.response latency);Responses are less accurate.

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    1. Reaction time (RT) approachIt measures peoples RT (response latency)to a language stimulus. It includes manyon-line methods of studying peopleslanguage behavior continuously in alaboratory settingInfer the mental activity in terms of RTs.

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    Why there is such an interferenceeffect?

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    The mental lexicon

    red

    *

    /blu:/red

    blue

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    The mental lexicon

    red

    *

    /blu:/red

    blue

    red

    blue

    red

    blue

    red

    blue

    red

    blue

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    The above finding suggests that themeaning of words is activatedautomatically people cannot control theactivation of meaning. automaticity

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    Another experiment:Task: On each trial, you will first see a

    semantic category name (e.g., flower).Following the semantic category, you willsee a target word which may be an exemplar

    of the category (e.g., rose). Judge if thetarget word you will see is an correctexemplar of the category.

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    A servant

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    maid

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    Type of food

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    meet

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    Part of a mountain

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    peek

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    A flower

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    Rows

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    Possible results:High false correct responses tohomophones of the exemplars.Suggest that the meaning of words isaccessed via phonology.

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    flower

    rose/rouz/

    rowsrows

    Yes(false)

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    Why We Study This Kind of Stuff?

    Findings with normal readers indicate thatword meaning and phonology are activatedautomatically.

    Apply the same tasks to dyslexia. There is aphonological deficit for dyslexicsthey

    cannot activate phonological informationobligatorily.