governance networks in a changing climate

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Welcome to Stockholm Resilience Centre – Research for Governance of Social-Ecological Systems. Governance networks in a changing climate. Christian Stein Symposium The Governance of Adaptation 22 -23 March 2012 - Amsterdam, Netherlands . Outline. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PowerPoint-presentation

Welcome to Stockholm Resilience Centre Research for Governance of Social-Ecological Systems

Governance networks in a changing climate

Christian Stein

Symposium The Governance of Adaptation

22-23 March 2012 - Amsterdam, Netherlands

1

Outline

Why a network perspective might be useful

Social network analysis as a method & theory

Agricultural water management an example

Preliminary findings and reflections

Strength and weakness of the approach

2

Governance of adaptation

involves a range of actors related to each other through complex governance arrangements, i.e. networks

Figure: adapted from Bodin and Crona 2009

Which pathways are pursued and which are not is in large part a question of governance (Leach, Scoones and Stirling 2010)

Social networks can be more important then the formal institutions set up to manage a particular issue. However, not all networks are equal. Structure matters.

3

Adaptive governance

recognize the crucial role of cross-scale interactions and argue for tapping into or establishing boundary spanning social networks

entails an implicit assumption about the establishment of social networks, i.e. a notion of network management or network governance.

Carlsson and Sandstrm 2008

4

Why a network perspective?

Adaptation strategies are often biophysically and/or socially linked

Functional interdependencies occur, and

Actors are forced to operate in the context of networks to find comprehensive solutions to interconnected problems

Source: Young 2002; Koppenjan and Klijn 2004

We might not like it, sometimes not even be aware of it but interdependencies are a fact of life and they are increasing

The structure of a network and the position in a network provides both opportunities and constrains

Therefore, actors are forced to operate in problem solving networks to find comprehensive solutions to interconnected problems

5

Can be used for analyzing across different sectors and scales

Focuses on relationships between social entities and the implications of these relationships

Figure: Ernstson et al 2010

Social network analysis

Originates from sociology and organizational research

Has recently been used to analyze problems in natural resources management and governance

Can help us better understand complexity governance arrangements

6

Social networks

are more than just neat pictures (also analytical)

Social networks are emergent patterns of relations between actors

They

Actors/social entities can be (persons, organizations, countries etc.)

7

1 2 3 4 5 6 ROW | Attributes

6 5 4 3 2 1 COLUMN

25 Female

23 Male

22 Male

56 Female

18 Female

Different picture or stylized image?

8

Governance networks are:

reoccurring (formally or informally) institutionalized relationships that shape governance processes and outcomes

Source: Newig et al 2010

reoccurring, reciprocated, collaborative relationships that shape governance processes and outcomes

formally or informally institutionalized

9

The AgWater Solutions Project

Aims to improve the livelihoods of poor and marginalized smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through agricultural water management (AWM) solutions.

boost the uptake of AWM to the benefit of smallholders

investments in agricultural water management

understanding the factors that influence adoption and successful outscaling

10

Agriculture in a changing climate

Burkina Faso: Relation between rainfall and cereal production

Climate (change), water and agriculture are intricately linked

11

The need for adaptation

Dry spells impact yields 2 out of every 3 harvests and cause the failure of 1 out of 5 in sub-Saharan Africa

Increasing variability in precipitation patterns and extreme weather events due to climate change

Agricultural water management

-key for adaptation to climate change

Agricultural production will have to double by 2050

Rainfall patterns are expected to become more erratic/variable and extreme events will increase

Lack off and variability of rainfall is a major challenge for small-scale farmers

12

Stylized networks illustrating the network approach

Analyse the social network structure

Identify opportunities and constrains

Figure: Ernstson et al 2010

SNA can be used to generate informed hypotheses grounded in empirical data

The structure of a network and the position in a network provides both opportunities and constrains

Study how localized interactions between actors give rise to patterns that both facilitate and constrain individual actors and the network as a whole

e.g. existing structures that can be build on

13

Summary of case study areas

CountryWatershedNo of actors (surveyed)Size (km2)Burkina FasoNariale761060TanzaniaMkindo70913ZambiaMwembeshi714118

Basic building blocks for modelling a system as a network

Actors

Organizations influencing NRM in the watersheds

Relationships

Reciprocated collaborative relationships regarding NRM

Attributes

Type of organization, up-/downstream, scale etc.

Boundaries

Problemsheds (def. spatially and relationally)

Actors are organizations or individuals that represent collective interests (e.g. elected leaders). The exact composition differs slightly between the three cases, but our network population generally consists of farmers organizations, traditional leaders, informal community based organizations, local-, regional-, and national governmental authorities, NGOs, water authorities, as well as actors from the commercial private sector. Should we provide examples of each category?

Problemsheds the boundaries of a particular problem as defined by a network of issues rather then as watersheds (Merrey et al. 2007). Geographical & relational

15

Data collection

Social-ecological inventory

Interviews, group discussions and organisational survey

Multi-scale assessment, complemented by PGIS livelihood assessment and hydrological modelling

Networks of collaborative relations

Key actors in the system

Cohesive subgroups

Tanzania, Mkindo

Subgroups with strong bonding ties between members of their own group, but few bridging ties to others could have negative consequences for establishing or upholding collaborative processes among subgroups

Islands in the relational landscape

19

Findings

Informal networks play a crucial role in the management and governance of natural resources

Local (informal) governance arrangements are often not recognized by higher level authorities

Institutional landscape consists of a much more complex set of relationships than suggested by formal policy

I would even go so far and say that higher level authorities are often not aware of existing governance arrangements

Often institutional overlaps but also gaps. In general confusion/a lack of clear responsibility

20

Finding cont.

At the landscape level the social networks become more fragmented, i.e. limited horizontal interaction

Local governance arrangements are often disconnected from the broader (formal) governance context, i.e. limited vertical interaction

At the landscape level the social networks become more fragmented, i.e. limited horizontal interaction

There is no organization that coordinates the various activities at the landscape level

21

Implications for the governance of adaptation

Lack of clear implementation pathways

Adaptation strategies should acknowledge and may benefit from building upon existing social structures

Social network analysis provides a promising approach to systematically describe and analyse certain aspects of social complexity

I have hear only talked about collaborative networks because they best capture the notion of governance. However, we also generated data on financial flows and they indicate that money does not go down to the local level.

22

Some reflections

Social network analysis

is an interesting approach to systematically describe and analyse multi-actor and multi-scalar governance arrangements

can makes hidden actors and relationships visible

does not capture the political nature of (cross scale) interactions, e.g. weak conceptualization of power

It would be fruitful to combine SNA with other methods, e.g. political ecology, and to use quantitative and qualitative methods together

23

Thank you for listening!

Future research

Scale-crossing brokers

A quantitative approach

Intermediary & boundary organizations

What functions do they perform and why?

The problem of institutional fit

Politics of rescaling

Social networks - just one perspective

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