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Behavioral Method of Research Social Method of Research Scientific Method of Research Research Process Research

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Behavioral Method of Research

Social Method of Research

Scientific Method of Research

Research Process

Research

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Research is the systematic process of collecting and analysing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested.

Research involves three main stages: planning data collection analysis.

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• Originates with a question or problem.• Requires a clear articulation of a goal.• Follows a specific plan of procedure.• Usually divides the principal problems

into more manageable sub-problems (hypotheses), which guide the research.

• Accepts certain critical assumptions.• Requires collection and interpretation of

data to answer original research question.

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Scientific Method of ResearchFour Steps:

• If the experiments prove the hypothesis to be true, it becomes a theory or law of nature. If the experiments prove the hypothesis to be false, the hypothesis must be rejected or modified. The scientific method used properly should give us predictive power (to understand phenomena which have not been tested).

2. Hypothesis

3. Testing4. Predictions

1. Observation

Fals

e

True

Test H

ypothes

is

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•Observation – an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence often involving measurement with instruments

• Experiments performed in the laboratory.• Experiments gained from knowledge of the literature.

Keys to Implementation in your Research:Sorting Observations (from Literature Searches):

Useful Not Useful (Yet!)

Contains unanswered questions which you think you

have means of addressing

Proclaims research has explained everything (does not contain unanswered questions)

Note Results (in report format- optional) for future use in confirming/denying your hypothesis (once your hypothesis is found)!

Formulate Hypothesis!

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•Hypothesis – tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences

Example, • Hypothesis of author Anton (UTRC paper) : Ionic radius of Ti4+ enhances desorption kinetics.• Observation in Paper by Anton et al.: NaAlH4 doped with Ti4+, Ti3+ and Ti2+ have different

ionic radii, but the same rate of enhanced H2 desorption kinetics.• New Hypothesis in Paper by Anton (not tested by Anton, et al.): Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ adopt the

same oxidation state after entering the NaAlH4 structure.

Keys to Implementation in your Research:• Good Hypothesis can be TESTED with Experiment or Calculation.• This requires A LOT of thought and reading--- leap from observation to hypothesis. It is worth the effort because after thinking this through, you are ready to go into the laboratory (which is the FUN part of research)!

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•Experimental Testing – to be assigned a standing or evaluation on the basis of tests 2 : to apply a test as a means of analysis or diagnosisExample, • New Hypothesis: Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ adopt the same oxidation state after entering the

NaAlH4 structure.• Test: EXAFS Absorption spectroscopy can measure bond length and # of bonds. We may

dope NaAlH4 with Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ and measure bond length of each. If they are the same, then they have all assumed one oxidation state after entering the structure (and we can measure this oxidation state also using EXAFS by determining the # of bonds).

Keys to Implementation in your Research:• Good TESTS will prove or disprove your hypothesis.• Experimental Tests can be performed within the realm of computing. (e.g. Coventor model with calculations and predictions can serve as experiment and model).• Consider all alternatives. Experiment may not disprove all (but may disprove only parts) of your hypothesis. That is still alright to perform. Carefully note which aspects of your hypothesis this experiment will test.• Consider the availability of instrumentation to perform your tests.

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•Predictions– to declare or indicate in advance; especially : foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reasonExample, Test: EXAFS Absorption spectroscopy can measure bond length and # of bonds. We

may dope NaAlH4 with Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ and measure bond length of each. If they are the same, then they have all assumed one oxidation state after entering the structure (and we can measure this oxidation state also using EXAFS by determining the # of bonds).

Prediction 1: If Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ gain equivalent oxidation states after entering the structure, then the same should be true for Co2+, Co3+, and Co4+ (or any other metal dopant).

Keys to Implementation in your Research:• Good Predictions can also be tested against your hypothesis.• Consider going back to the basics (textbook theory) to development of a mathematical model/construct which will help to make predictions about more systems than you can reasonably test.

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Scientific Methods

Observing everyday behavior carefully.

Constructing hypotheses or comprehensive theories .

Drawing inferences from the observation.

Choosing the best methods to prove your predictions.

Analyzing the collected data and objectively interpretthe data.

Replicating the findings to generalize the findings.

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Values

Facts

Personal statements such as “abortion should not be permittedin this country”, “Good people will go to heaven when they die”.

Objective statements determined to be accurate through empirical study such as “there were over 20,000 homicides in the United states”.

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Advantage of Scientific Research

1. Free from the personal bias

2. Free from the investigator’s emotions

3. Replicable by others (scientists)

4. Open to other’s (scientists)’s scrutiny.

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It is research involving social scientific methods, theories and concepts, which can enhance our understanding of the social processes and problems encountered by individuals and groups in society.

It is conducted by sociologists, psychologists, economists, political scientists and anthropologists.

It is not just common sense, based on facts without theory, using personal life experience or perpetuating media myths.

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It involves the systematic collection of methods to produce knowledge.

It is objective. It can tell you things you do not expect. It consists of theory and observation. Sometimes called ‘soft sciences’ because

their subject matter (humans) are fluid and hard to measure precisely.

It is an empirical research – i.e. facts are assumed to exist prior to the theories that explain them.

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Basic or Pure Research: aim is to develop a body of general

knowledge for the understanding of human social behaviour by means of a combination of empirical enquiry and application of theory.

Applied or Policy Oriented Research: aim is to provide knowledge and

information that can be used to influence social policy.

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Behavioral Research:The goal of behavioral research is to discover, among other things,how people perceive their world, how they think and feel, how they change over time, how they make decisions, and how they interact with others.

The statement made by behavioral researchers are empirical,which means that they are based on systematic collection andanalysis of data, where data are information collected throughformal observation or measurement.

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Why is behavioral research important? Increase our understanding of behavior.

e.g. Autism

e.g. Racism, Sexism, Ethnocentrism

Provide important information that complements other scientific approaches.

e.g. social aspects of death as opposed to medical research

• Provide methods for improving the quality of our lives.

Demonstrate the full range of capacities humans possess

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How do we understand our everyday behavior?

Relying on our intuition.

Example. Nisbett & Wilson (1977)

We can not get accurate information by simply asking people why they do what they do.

Often provide valuableInsights about humanbehaviors.

But do we really understandthe reason of our behavior?

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Behavioral Research

DescriptiveResearch

CorrelationalResearch

ExperimentalResearch

Survey &Interview

NaturalisticObservation

Converging Operations

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Research Methods Strengths Drawbacks

DescriptiveResearch

Snapshot of thoughts,

feelings or behaviors

Allows capturing the complexities of everyday behavior.It provides a relatively detailed picture of what is occurred at a given time.

Limited to providing staticpicture.Cannot answer how a certain behavior develops, what impact the behavior has, and why the behaviors was performed.

CorrelationalResearch

SystematicRelationships

among variablesPearson r

correlation coefficient

Allows testing of expectedRelationships between and among variables and making of predictions.

Cannot be used to identify causal relationships among the variables.Remains a possibility that some other variable caused the observed variable to be correlated.

ExperimentalResearch

Causal relationships of more than two variables

ANOVAMANOVA

It allows drawing of conclu-sion about the causal relationships among variable.

Cannot experimentally manipulate many importantVariables.

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Why is it problematic?

1. We easily use intuition to understand human behaviors(or concepts).

• If they seem so natural to us, we take them for granted .

4. If they are taken for granted, we are not aware why the behavior is being performed.

5. Therefore, we can’t assess the reason for the behavior which is what we are really trying to understand.

• Intuition makes the behavior seem natural