greek theatre and sophocles’ oedipus tyrannus

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Greek Theatre and Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus. An overview. The Athenian Acropolis 雅典衛城. Resorted plan of the Agora in 400BCE. 醫 神 Asclepius 神殿旁的 古希臘劇場. Greek Tragedy and Theatre. An Overview. 戲劇最簡單的定義是:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



Greek Theatre and Sophocles Oedipus TyrannusAn overviewThe Athenian Acropolis Alice Y. Chang 2

2Resorted plan of the Agora in 400BCEAlice Y. Chang 3

3 Asclepius




7Greek Tragedy and TheatreAn Overview(theatre): A represents X while S looks on.Fischer-Lichte 257). 9 Marcel Marceau

534 10

Theater of Dionysus11

Theater of Dionysus 12Theater of Dionysus



15 Peisistratus534 16(Chorus)(Dionysus) 17 (Zeus) (Semele) (Hera) 18()(sublime and magnificent)Poetics 19Tragedy= Goat song

The word tragedy literally means "goat song," probably referring to the practice of giving a goat as a sacrifice or a prize at the religious festivals in honor of the god Dionysus. 20::

21:Aeschylus Sophocles

22Dionysus Festival (Dionysus)23(dithyramb)(dithyramb)24Thespians(Thespis)?(Thespians)25: 26Aeschylus ()525B.C~456B.C27Aeschylus ()~



30Sophocles ()

31Sophocles110(130125123):(Ajax c.450B.C):(Antigone c.442B.C):(Trachiniae c.413B.C):(Oedipus Rex c.425B.C):(Electra c.410B.C):(Philoctetes c.409B.C):(Oedipus at Colonus c.401B.C)

32Oresteia Divine and human Justice(Oresteia) :34::


36Alice Y. Chang 37

37ped- Pediatrics()pedicure()orthopedics() pedometer()pedestrian()pedagogy()encyclopedia()ped-ped- 38Oedipus: a pun Oedipus, oedi- oidos pus pous Oedipus(clubbed feet)(swollen feet)oidosOedipusSphinx

39Sophocles Oedipus Rex It is known by a variety of titles (the most common being Oedipus Rex), including Oedipus the King and Oedipus Tyrannus. Sophocles first produced the play in Athens around 430 B.C. at the Great Dionysia, a religious and cultural festival held in honor of the god Dionysus, where it won second prize.probably the most famous tragedy ever written. Ancient Greek Tragedyvideo:

Ancient Greek Theatre.flv Video:

Three Theban plays: Not a trilogyOedipus the King Oedipus at Colonus Antigone.Antigone was first performed in 442 BCE.Oedipus the King was first performed c. 429 BCE.Oedipus at Colonus was written shortly before Sophocles' death in 406 BC and produced by his grandson (also called Sophocles) at the Festival of Dionysus in 401 BCE.

People and places to know:OedipusJocastaLaiusPolybusMerope

SphinxTeiresias (Tiresias )ApolloDelphiCithaeronThebes (the House of Cadamus)

a winged female monster in Greek mythology having a woman's head and a lion's body and noted for killing anyone unable to answer its riddle

an ancient Egyptian image in the form of a recumbent lion having a man's head, a ram's head, or a hawk's head

IntroductionThe setting of the Oedipus the King as in the case of most Greek tragedies, does not require a change of scene. Throughout the play the skene with at least one door represents the facade of the royal palace of Thebes. Prologue (1-150) - Oedipus, Priest and CreonRead (1)Prologue (Priest, Oedipus, Creon) The priests of Thebes appear before Oedipus as suppliants, entreating him to find some end to the plague. Oedipus has already sent Creon to Delphi, who arrives to report that the killer of Laius must be sought out and banished. Oedipus vows to find the killer and summons the people of the city.Prologue: Oedipus, Priest and CreonWhat is the dramatic purpose of the prologue? How does Oedipus characterize himself (8)? What is his attitude toward the suppliants (13-14)?

Pollution/ miasma blood pollution that infects the family, and for a royal family the city itself The Plague of Thebes, oil on canvas,Charles Franois Jalabeat (French, 1819-1901)

Oedipus"Oidi-pous in Greek means "swollen footedBut we can also analyze Oedipus in at least two other ways: oidi- to a Greek sounds like oida, oide = "I know, he knows" (a central theme in the play) -dipous to a Greek means the "two-footed one," with obvious associations to the riddle of the Sphinx (another central theme) OedipusMan of action, caring but haughty: 7ff, 71ff etc. Revealer of the truth: 150 Solver of riddles: 443ff (e.g.)

Parodos The Chorus of Theban citizens offer prayers to Zeus, Apollo, Athena for release from the plague.Parados (151-215)

What is the reaction of the Chorus to the advice of Apollo ('the Delian Healer') to Thebes (154-157)? What conditions in Thebes does the Chorus describe)?

DelphiThe Pythia was the priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus.

Priestess of Delphi (1891) by John Collier

chorus is an "act-dividing song":allows for entrances and exits allows for the scene to change marks the passage of timechorus comments directly or indirectly on what is going onFirst EpisodePart twoFirst EpisodeOedipus appeals for information and pronounces his curse on the murderer. Teiresias is summoned: at first he refuses to tell what he knows, but aroused by Oedipus' taunts he declares Oedipus the murderer. Oedipus declares a conspiracy by Creon. Teiresias declares that the murderer is present, and will be found son and husband to his mother.

First Episode (216-462) - Oedipus, Chorus and TeiresiasIronyWhy does Oedipus summon Teiresias (278-287)? What is Teiresias reaction to Oedipus's request for help (316-344)?

I must know. Know thyself!But knowing is itself problematized in the Oedipus the King: central to the text is not only what is known and by whom, but what it means to "know"-- what is "true" knowing. Insight and blindnessApollo versus Oedipus:

divine versus human knowledgeApollosun, day, clear, blazing, burning fever, blazing, burning: sender of plague and the Healer intelligence, clear, seeing brilliance, poetry truth (knowledge), clear, seeing divine prophecy, clear, seeing

Prophet/ Tiresias Teiresias, the seer of Oedipus the King: Sophocles and Senecas versions South Italian Red-figure bowl. Detail: Tiresias seated holding sacrificial knife as Odysseus (left) stands by him

First StasimonWhat is the Choruss view of Teiresias's accusations against Oedipus?

Suffering= pathosWhat has Oedipus done to deserve such awful suffering? Why must he suffer?

Tragedy=an aesthetic question markThe dramatic expression of an enquiry into suffering, an aesthetic question mark performed in enacted pain.While representing an instance of suffering in dramatic form, always asks why it has occurred.Pathology= the study of diseasesEtiology= the causes of diseases or a study of causes

hubris"ungodly pride" (hubris) or "tragic flaw" (hamartia)

p. 9Know thyself, Oedipus. You denounce me, but you do not yet know yourself.The Ancient Greek aphorism "know thyself" (Greek: ) one of the Delphic maxims

Second Episode (Creon, Oedipus, Chorus; Jocasta)Part threeSecond Episode , 513-862. (Creon, Oedipus, Chorus; Jocasta) Creon is indignant at Oedipus' accusations. They argue over the charge. Jocasta tries to intervene. Kommos. The Chorus advise restraint and Oedipus lets Creon go, though he declares him an enemy. Oedipus tells Jocasta the source of the dispute. Jocasta tells the story of Laius' death, and Oedipus recognizes many details: but he was a lone killer, whereas a band of killers was reported. Oedipus worries about the oracle; Jocasta denounces its veracity, adducing the prophesy about her son.Second Stasimon (Chorus) Ode to the sanctity of divine law. The tyrant who ignores justice and reverence for the gods will fall. The oracles must be true.Third Episode , 911-1085. (Jocasta, Messenger, Chorus; Oedipus) A messenger arrives from Corinth announcing the death of Polybus and Oedipus' ascension. He allays Oedipus' fear of the oracle (that he will marry his mother) by telling him of his true birth. Over Jocasta's objections Oedipus vows to continue his search for the truth. Jocasta runs into the palace.Third Episode and Third Stasimon

Part fourThird Stasimon , 1086-1109. (Chorus) Ode to Mt. Cithaeron: we will soon know the parentage of Oedipus.

Part Fifth: Fourth Episode (Oedipus, Shepherd, Chorus) The shepherd arrives who exposed the infant of Laius and escaped when Laius was killed. Oedipus' parentage becomes clear. Oedipus rushes into the palace.Fourth Stasimon (p.27) (Chorus) No man is blest: happiness is but an illusion, for even the great power and blessings of Oedipus have come to a fall.Your example, Oedipus,Your example, your fate, your disaster,Show that none of us mortalsEver knew, ever felt what happiness truly is.Fifth Episode and ExodosThe sixth part: p.28-32Exodos , 1223-1530. (Messenger, Chorus; Oedipus, Creon) A messenger announces the suicide of Jocasta and the self-inflicted blinding of Oedipus. Oedipus appears to lament his fate. Creon appears. Oedipus begs him to take care of his children; Antigone and Ismene (mute) arrive to comfort their father. Creon persuades Oedipus to return to the palace, and assumes the kingship.Chorus p.33There goes OedipusHe was the man who was ableTo answer the riddle proposed by the Sphinx.Mighty OedipusHe was an object of envyTo all for his fortune and fame.There gores OedipusNow he is drowning in waves of dread and despair.Another translationYou residents of Thebes, our native land, look on this man, this Oedipus, the one who understood that celebrated riddle. He was the most powerful of men.All citizens who witnessed this mans wealth were envious. Now what a surging tide of terrible disaster sweeps around him. So while we wa