guerilla warfare & special forces operations

Upload: cagedraptor

Post on 08-Aug-2018




1 download

Embed Size (px)


  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations






    H E A D Q U A R T E R S , D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E A R M Y


  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations





    NO. 31-21 WASHINGTON25, D .C., 29September1961



    Paragraphs Page


    C HAPTER 1. FU ND AME NTALS ----------------------------------1-3 3

    2. RE S IS TANC E AND G U E RRI LL A WAR-FAR E -------------------------------------------------4-8 5




    FARE TASK FOR CE (J U WTF) ------------- 9-12 14


    S ect ion I . G enera l ----------------------------------------------13-18 18

    I I . The S pecia l Forces opera t iona l ba se -------19-21 26

    I I I . Con t rol of oper a t ions-----------------------------22-27 29IV. Control of administra t ive a nd tra ining

    Act ivit ies -----------------------------------------28-32 39


    S ect ion I . Log ist ics ---------------------------------------------33-43 46

    I I . In t elligence -----------------------------------------44-46 54

    I I I . Com munica t ion s ----------------------------------47-52 58

    IV. In it ia l cont a ct --------------------------------------53-54 63


    C HAPTER 6. INFILTRATION ----------------------------------55-60 647. ORG ANIZATION AND D E VE LOP MEN T


    S ect ion I . Orga niza t ion a l concept s ------------------------61-66 69

    I I . Res ist a nce elem en t s -----------------------------67-72 79

    I I I . S ecu r it y ----------------------------------------------73-80 86

    IV. In telligence in guerrilla w a rfa re opera tiona l

    a rea ------------------------------------------------81-83 93

    V. Communica tions in guerril la w a rfa re opera

    t ion a l a rea s --------------------------------------84-87 93VI. Logistics in guerrilla wa rfa re opera tiona l

    a rea s-----------------------------------------------88-94 95




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    Paragraphs Page


    S ect ion I . In t roduct ion -------------------------------------- 95-100 103

    II . Of fen sive comba t oper a t ion s ---------------101-116 107

    I I I . In t er dict ion --------------------------------------117-126 130

    IV. D efen siv e opera t ions -------------------------127-131 137

    V. E mployment of unconvent iona l w a rfa re

    forces to assist conventional forces' com-

    ba t oper a t ion s -------------------------------132-139 145

    VI. E mploym ent of U W forces a ft er link-up 140-147 164



    WARFARE -----------------------------------148-152 169

    10. DE MOB ILIZATION --------------------------153-166 177

    AP P E N D I XI . RE FE RE NCE S ------------------------------------------- 183

    II . CATALOG U E S U P P LY SYS TE M ------------------ 188

    I I I . ARE A STU D Y G U ID E --------------------------------- 234

    IV. ARE A ASS E S S ME NT---------------------------------- 244

    V. G LOS S ARY OF TE RMS ------------------------------ 249

    I NDEX --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 252



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations






    1. PurposeandScope

    a. This manual provides guidance in Special Forces and

    unconventional warfare operations for commanders and staffs at all

    levels. The ba sic concepts of unconvent iona l w a rfa re a re presented in

    a manner designed to acquaint the reader with Special Forces

    orga niza tion, concepts, a nd meth ods of opera tions t o fulfill the Army 's

    responsibility for t he conduct of unconvent iona l w a rfa re.

    b. Thorough understanding of the ideas established within this

    ma nua l w ill prepare t he comma nder a nd st a ff officers for subsequent

    decisions and staff actions which affect special forces planning and

    operations.c. Detailed methods and techniques of Special Forces operations

    a re discussed below. C lassified informa tion perta ining t o all levels of

    Special Forces operations is found in FM 31-21A.

    2. DefinitionofUnconventionalWarfare

    Unconventional warfare consists of the interrelated fields of

    guerrilla w a rfa re, evasion a nd esca pe, a nd subversion a ga inst h ostile

    states (resistance). Unconventional warfare operations are conducted

    in enemy or enemy controlled territory by predominately indigenous

    personnel usually supported and directed in varying degrees by an

    external source.

    3. DelineationofResponsibilitiesforUnconventionalWarfare

    a. The responsibility for certain of these activities has been

    delegated to the service having primary concern. Guerrilla warfare is

    th e responsibility of the U nited St a tes Army .

    b. Within certain designated geographic areascalled guerrillaw a rfa re opera tiona l a reasthe U nited St a tes Army is responsible for

    the conduct of all three interrelated fields of activity as they affect

    guerrilla w a rfa re operat ions.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    c. The milit a ry opera t ions of resist a nce movement s a re

    customa ri ly supported a nd accompanied by polit ica l an d economic

    activitiesbot h over t a n d cla n d es tin eof ind iv idua ls and g roups


    of ac t iv it ies a re inter locking . The term unconvent iona l wa r fa re is

    used in t his m a nua l t o d en ot e a ll of t he U n it ed S t a tes Ar my 'sa ssocia ted responsibi li t ies in the conduct of guerr i lla wa rfare . The

    termguerr i l la warfare is used todenote theprimaryovert mil i tary




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




    4. Resistance

    a.General. R es is t ance is t he cornerst one of guer r illa wa r fa re.

    U nderground a nd guerr illa w a rfa re st em from a resist ance


    b.Defi n i ti on. Resista nceisdefineda sth ea ctofoppositionofone

    in dividua l or gr oup t o a n ot her . A r esist a nce m ovem en t is t he

    or ga n ized elem en t of a disa ffect ed popula t ion w h ich r esist s a

    governm entoroccupyingpow erw ithm eans, va ryingfrompassive t o

    violent ly a ct ive. Resist ance movement s begin t o form w hen

    d is sa t i sf a ct ion occurs among s t rong ly mot iv a t ed ind iv idua l s who


    c. TheN at u r eofResistance.

    (1) Resista nce, rebellion or civil w a r begins in a na t ion w here

    polit ica l , sociologica l , economic or rel ig ious division ha s

    occurred. Divis ionsof this natureare usual ly causedbya



    andfreedomof thepopulace. Resistancealsomaydevelop

    inanat ionwheretheoncewelcomedliberatorshavefailed

    t o improv e an in t olerab le socia l or economic s it ua t ion .

    Resistancecanalsobedeliberately inspiredfromexternal

    sources aga ins t an assumed gr ievance. Res is t ance can be

    act iveorpassive. Passiveresistancemaybein theformof

    smolder ing resentment which needs only leadership or a


    (2) Some people join a res is t ance movement because of an

    inna t e des ire t o surviv e. Ot hers may join t he res is t ance

    forces because of deep ideolog ica l conv ict ions. Bu t a l l,

    regardlessof init ial motivat ion, a reboundt ogether to fight

    a ga inst a commonenemy.Pa rt ofthepopula t ionassists the

    resista ncemovement a sfightersinth eguerrillaforce;some


    know as auxil ia ry unit s ; whi le others a re members of theunderground.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    d . I n fl uencin gFactor s.

    (1)Envi ronment.

    (a) Ter r ai n . The physica l loca t ion of t he resist a nce

    movement has a grea t inf luence upon i t s organiza t ion

    a nd ta ct ics .B ecause theyprovidesuitablea reas for the

    securityofopera t ions, mounta ins,sw a mps, lar geforestsorjunglesnurtu reovertorguerrilla typeresista nce.Fla t

    pla ins a reas and la rge towns or ci t ies a re more ap t to

    lead to underground res is t ance ac t iv it ies a l though the

    possibili tyoforganizingaguerrilla force in theseareas


    (b)Cul tu ra l .A peoples' cultura l environment a lso ha s i ts



    background of the people. Men f rom rura l or peasant

    en vir on men t, n ot subject ed t o t igh t gover nm en ta l

    control, ha ve moreopportunity toshow their ha tred of

    theenemyoccupat ionbyovert andviolent meanssuch

    as guerr i l la warfare . People froman industr ia l izedand

    highlyurbanizedculturewill resist withsuchact ivit ies


    (c) Con t r olofpopu l at i on. Whenanoccupyingpowerisable

    t o exercise close a nd st r ingent cont rol over t hepopu la t ion , t h e r esist a n ce m ovem en t is con du ct ed


    of t he occupying pow er a re diver ted or ot herw ise

    ineffectual, theresistancemovementmaybeconducted


    (2)Mot ivat ion. B esides t he geogra phica l a nd cult ura l

    environment influencing guerrilla w a rfa re, the sociologica l

    clima t e produces many mot iv a t ing f a ct or s which hav e a

    pr ofou nd effect u pon t h e r es ist a n ce m ovem en t . S t r on gin div id ua l m ot iva t i on is es sen t ia l t o t h e for m a t ion of a



    effort , thefollowingareexamplesofwhat someof the true


    (a) I deology. I n guerr illa un it s some in dividua ls h a ve

    developedst rongideologica lmotivesfort a kingupa rm s.

    These ideolog ies t a ke root in two broad areas poli t ics

    and religion . The indiv idua l tends to subordina te h is ownpersonalitytotheseideologiesandworksconstantly

    a nd solely for the "cause. " In some resista nce f ighters,




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (b)Economic. Manyindividuals joinresistancemovements

    t o keep fr om st a r vin g or t o keep fr om losin g t h eir

    liv elih ood . An or ga n iz ed r esis ta n ce for ce m a y exer t

    economic influence on individuals w ho fa i l to support


    (c) Per sonal gai n. P ersona l ga in is the mot iva t ing force of som e volu nt eer s. An in divid ua l, so m ot iva t ed , m a y

    cha ngesides if hebelieveshecan ga inmorebyfighting


    (d ) H at e. P eople who hav e los t lov ed ones due t o enemy

    a ct ion s m a y figh t a ga in st t ha t en em y a s a r esult of

    en gen dered h at red. U n con tr olled h a tred ca n pose

    problems for the sponsor beca use i t is di ff icul t to curb

    the fana t icism of such indiv idua ls and proper ly d irect


    (e) Secur i ty. I f the resista nce movement is s t rong or g ives


    outofafeelingofpersonalsafety.Usually, thissituation

    occur s on ly a ft er t he r esist a nce m ovem en t is w ell

    organized and the enemy has been weakened by o ther

    act ions. Othersjoin inorder toescaperecruitment into


    (f ) Ego. P ersona l mot ives such a s pow er, pr ide, a nda d ven t ur e oper a t e t o som e ext en t in a l l in divid ua l s.

    Dependingupon them ora l f iberof th e individual, these


    (g) Fear .Some individuals becomea part of theresis tance


    join t he m ovem en t out of fea r of r epr isa ls a ga in st


    (3)Chance for success. In a ddit ion t o mot iva tion a nd

    circumstancesofenvironment, a populat ionmust feel that there isult imatelyachanceforsuccessor therecanbeno

    effect ive resist a nce movement developed. Act ive

    part icipa t ion in a ny resista nce movement is influenced by


    (4)Guidance. Resist a nce m ovemen ts st a nd or fa ll on t he

    ca liber of t he lea ders a nd ot her individua ls in t he

    organ iza t ion. An understa nding of the environmental an d

    individual mot ivat ing factors wil l assis t great ly thosewho

    desire toobta in theoptimumfroma guerrilla organiza t ion.

    An a n a l ysis of t h ese fa ct or s pla y s a n im por t a n t pa r t in




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    5. GuerrillaWarfare

    G u er rilla w a r f a r e com pr is es com ba t oper a t ion s con du ct ed in

    en em y h eld t er rit or y by pr ed om in a n tly in digen ou s for ces on a

    mili t a ry or para mil it a ry bas is to reduce the combat ef fect iveness,

    industrial capacity, an dmoraleof theenemy.Guerilla opera t ionsa re

    conducted by rela t ively smal l g roups employ ing of fens ive t a ct ics .Guerrillawarfaresupportsothermilitaryoperations.

    6. CharacteristicsofGuerrillaWarfare

    a.General. Guerilla warfare ischaracterizedbyoffensiveact ion.

    G uerrillasrelyuponmobility,elusivenessan dsurprise.Ina dditionto

    thesetraits, thereareothercharacteristicsthatshouldbementioned:

    civiliansupport,outsidesponsorship,politicalaspects, legalaspects,


    b. Su ppor tFactor s.

    (1)Civ i l ian suppor t. Th e su ccess of gu er rilla m ovem en t s

    dependsuponcontinuousmoralandmaterial support from

    t he civ ilian popu la t ion . The loca l communit y usua l ly is

    un der in ten se pressure fr om a nt i-guerr illa fa ct ion s.

    P unit ive mea sures such a s reprisa ls, t errorism,

    deporta t ion, restr ict ion of movement a nd seizure of goods

    andpropertyareconductedagainst supportersofguerrilla

    activity,makingthissupportdangerousanddifficult . If theloca l populace ha s a s t rong wil l to resis t , enemy reprisa ls

    ca use a n increa se in underground a ct iv it ies . The civi lian

    communit y may a ss is t t he guer r illa force by furn ish ing

    supplies, recruits, information; bygivingearlywarning; by

    support ing eva sion an d escape; a nd other act ivi t ies . After

    theguerrilla forcehasestablisheditself andissufficiently

    strong, i t m a y needt oexert forceuponcerta inelement sof

    t he civ ilian popu la t ion t o command t heir suppor t , e. g .:

    coerce indifferent or unresponsive port ions of t hepopula t ion in to support in g t he guerr illa movement .

    C iv ilians pa r t i cipa t ing in such suppor t a ct iv it ies , a s ide

    fromundergroundoperat ions, comprisewhat areknownas


    (2)Outsid e sponsor shi p. G uerr illa opera t ions a re more

    ef fect iv e when ou t side sponsorship is presen t . Dur ing a

    wa r t ime s itua t ion th is suppor t is poli t ica l , psycholog ica l

    a n d log ist ica l a s w ell a s t a ct ica l. A spon sor in g pow er

    decides to suppor t guerr ill a forces when it feels tha t theguerr il las can make a s ignif icant cont r ibut ion towa rd the




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    c. Pol i t i cal Aspects.

    (1) G uerri lla wa rfare ha s of ten been described a s being more

    poli t ica l thanmil i tary innature . I t is certa inly mil i tary in

    the ta ct ica l sense, but i t is a lso polit ica l s ince a guerr i lla

    mov ement genera l ly s t ems f rom a loca l power s t rugg le.

    G u er rilla s u su a lly fig ht for polit ica l g a in s, a l th ou gh in ga in ing the ir own poli t ica l object ives they may ass is t the


    (2) The polit ica l dominance in guerr i lla w arfa re ca n be seen

    from a not her poin t of view . G uerrilla lea ders w it h a

    commonenemy,but politica llyopposed,ma ydissipat etheir

    effor t s by fig ht in g ea ch ot h er . Th e polit ica l ly or ien t ed

    gu er rilla lea d er ca n ca u se t r ou ble by w it h hold in g h is

    coopera t ion unt il he ext ra ct s promises of polit ica l

    s ign if icance f rom h is sponsor . The polit ica l impr in t on guerrilla warfare isbutanotheraspect that mustbeclosely


    d. L egalAspects. G uerr il la wa r fa re is boundby the ru les o f the

    G eneva Conventionsasmucha s isconventiona lwa rfa re.Asoutlined

    in a ppropria t e in tern a tion al a greem en ts a n d F M 27-10, four



    a nddist inctiveinsignia orsignrecogniza blea ta dista nce;(3)conduct

    operat ions inaccordancewith the lawsandcustomsof war ; and(4)

    car ry a rms openly . I f these four factors ire present , the guerr i lla is


    Dur ing World War I I , G enera l E isenhower sent a proclamat ion to

    Na zis a n d F ren ch men a like, form a lly recogn izin g t he F ren ch

    ResistanceMaquisasmembersof theAlliedForces, andwarnedthe

    Germans t ha t a l l guer r illa s were t o be g iv en t he same honorab le

    t rea tment a s t he regula r soldiers under h im in t he Allied


    e. Tacti cs.

    (1)Primar y consid erat i ons. G uerr illa s, beca use t hey a re

    irregularsoldiers, generallydonot achieveunityofact ion

    in thesa mema nnera s convent iona l units. B ecauseof this

    a nd t w o ot her fa ct orst he logist ica l problem a nd

    ma npower requirementsguerr ill as in i t ia l ly cannot hope

    t o m eet a n d d ecisively d efea t a con ven t ion a l u nit in a

    pitchedbatt le . Guerrilla operat ionsare facili tatedbyother

    milit a ry a ct ivit ies w hich dist ra ct pot ent ia l enemyreinforcements. Ontheotherhand, i f theenemyis freeof

    otherconcerns, hewill combat theguerrillaswithhisbest

    troopsinordertoprotectvital installations.Guerrillaunits,

    t h er efor e, m ust coor din a t e t h eir a ct ivit ies w it h ot h er



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    fr ien dly m ilit a r y for ces a n d a t t a ck t h e en em y a t poin t s

    most disadva nta geous to him. These a t ta cks ar e norma lly

    conductedduringperiodsof lowvisibili tyandaredirected

    against isolatedoutposts, weaklydefendedlocationsor the

    m ovin g en em y . B y r ecog niz in g h is ow n lim it a t i on s a n d

    w ea kn esses, t he guerr illa ca n h ope for surviva l a ndev en t ua l success. In it ia l ly , he is usua lly in fer ior t o t he

    enemy in firepow er, ma npow er, commun ica tions, logist ics,

    and organiza t ion . He is equa l , and of ten super ior , to the

    enemy in the col lect ion of intel ligence informa t ion, cover


    (2)Of fensi vetact i cs.Thebasisofsuccessfulguerrillacombatis

    offensive a ct ion combined w ith surprise. Dur ingperiods of

    low visibilit y, t he guerr illa a t t acks, t ries t o ga in a


    scen e of a ct ion a s r a pidly a s possible. Nor ma lly , t he

    g uer rilla d oes n ot con sis ten t ly oper a t e in on e a r ea bu t

    va r ies h is oper a tion s so t ha t n o pa t t er n is eviden t. I f

    possible, hestrikes twoor threetargetssimultaneously to


    (3)Defensi vetact i cs. Protectivesurveillancefortheguerrillais

    usua llyverygood;heha scivilia nnon-combat a nt sproviding

    him w it h in forma t ion on enemy ga rr isons, t roopmovements, andcounter, guerrilla act ivit ies. Thisadvance

    w a rning gives t he guerr illa t ime for proper

    count ermeasures . I f, in any count er guer r illa mov e by a

    superior enemy, th eguerrillas a re t hrea tenedorencircled,

    theydonot meet himona showdownbasis , but withdraw,


    f .Developm ent Aspects. To com plet e t h e pict u re of g uer rilla

    wa r fa re, a t ime-and-space f rame of reference must be unders tood .

    Th a t is , it is n ot s ufficien t m er ely t o s ta t e cer t a in pr in ciples of

    guerrilla warfare, but i t is necessary toqualifystatementsregarding


    (1)Timeelement. Guerrillashaveprovedthemselveseffect ive

    duringallstagesofconflictfromtheoutbreakofhostilit ies

    unt il the end of f ight ing . However , in the ear ly s t ages of

    g uer rilla d ev elopm en t , w h en t h e en em y is s till s tr on g,

    res is t ance opera t ions normal ly tend to be conducted less

    openly. Duringthisperiod, security isa primeconcern. I f the resista nce movement is to survive a nd developwhile

    s ur r ou nd ed by s tr on g en em y for ces s ecu rit y is a pr im e

    concern a nd precaut ions must be extensive an d ef fect ive.

    Act ivit y is g en er a lly lim it ed t o in for ma t i ongathering,



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    recruit ing, t ra in ing, orga niza t ion , a nd sma ll-sca le


    (2)Si tuat ion. On the o ther hand , when the s i tua t ion changes

    to favor the guerr i llas e ither through enemy w ea kness or

    r es ist a n ce-cr ea t ed fa v or a b le cir cu ms ta n ces, oper a t ion s

    become more over t making la rge-sca le ac t ions possible. When the s itua t ion permits , guerr il la forces expand and


    (3)Location. G u er rilla w a r fa r e t a kes on d iffer en t a spect s

    according to i ts geographic loca t ion. In some a reas of the

    wor ld guerr il la wa r fa re has preceded the ent ry of regular

    t r oops ; w h ile in ot h er a r ea s , g uer r illa m ovem en t s h a v e

    comeintoexistencea ftert heforma lent ryofregula rtr oops.

    Addit iona l ly , in some areas the complex socia l s t ructure

    andeconomicorganizat ionsare cogs ina vast systemthat isrela tivelyea sytodisrupt.Thehigherth edegreetow hich

    acountryhasevolvedindustriallythemorevulnerableit is


    the w orld, these complexit ies do not exist . The people a re

    les s d epen den t on on e a n ot h er for g ood s a n d s er vices;

    d isrupt ion of one community does not necessar i ly cause

    extremehardshipinanother. Thus, the impact ofguerrilla

    war fa re upon the popula t ion is not as grea t and guerr i l l a

    f igh t ing is likely t o be more prev a len t . In judging thepotentia l for, a ndeffectsof,guerrilla w a rfar e loca t ionisa n


    7. SpecialForcesOperations

    The value of coordinat ing guerr i lla act ivi t ies with convent iona l

    milita ryoperat ionsa ndth eneedforpea cetimeplan ningandt ra ining

    by thepotential sponsorhavebeenrecognizedbytheUnitedStates.

    The unit orga nized a nd t ra ined t o implement t he Army's

    responsibilityin directinggu errilla opera tionsistheAirborneS pecia l

    Forces G roup. Specia l forces unit s may be ca l led upon to opera te

    duringageneral, limitedorcoldwar.

    a. Genera l War. The doct rine set for t h in t h is ma nua l is

    s t ructuredarounda general war s i tuat ion. Ina general war , Specia l

    Forces organ ize guer r illa forces t o suppor t convent iona l milit a ry

    oper a t ion s u nd er t h e d ir ect ion of t h e t h ea t er com m a n der . Th eir

    opera t ions genera l ly a re conduct ed in den ied (enemy con t rolled)

    territory.b.L im i tedWar. Limitedwaroperat ionsbySpecialForcescould


    or of a t ra in ing na ture conduct ed in a nondenied a rea w it h




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    c. Col dWar. Specia l forcesunits canassis t in t ra iningmil i tary

    person nel in com ba t in g guerr illa a n d t errorist a ct ivit ies a nd

    subversion. Inaddit ion, theymaytrain foreignmilitarypersonnel in

    t h e t ech n iq u es of g uer rilla w a r f a r e, t h us en h a n cin g t h e d efen se


    u nit s su pplem en t t h e U .S . m ilit a r y a s sist a n ce g rou ps a n d a r my missions.

    8. CapabilitiesandLimitations

    a. Capab ilit ies . Specia l forces deployment g iv es reach t o t he

    th eat ercomm a nder'sopera tions.It permit shimtoinfluenceactivities

    fa r in a d va n ce of t h e field for ces a n d bey on d t h e r a n ge of a r m y -

    controlled w ea pons systems. Specia l forces directed guerr i lla units

    (ca l led U W for ces ) con du ct oper a t ion s w h ich a r e ca t eg or iz ed a s

    follows:(1)M issionsi nsupport oftheat er commander .Thesemissions


    (a)Interdict ion of l ines of communica t ions, key ar ea s a nd

    militaryandindustrial installat ions.


    (c)Special intelligencetaskssuchas target acquisit ionand


    (d )Evasionandescapeoperations.


    (2) Mission s t o suppor t com ba t oper at ion s of t a ct ica l

    commanders . Inaddit ion toan intensi f ica t ionof the tasks


    ass is t convent iona l forces engaged in combat opera t ions .


    (a)S eizure of key t erra in t o fa cilit a t e a irborne a nd




    (d )Divers ionary a t t a cks aga inst enemy forces to suppor t


    (e)Operationswhichisolateselectedport ionsof thebatt le


    (3) Missions conducted a fter juncturew ith friendly forces. Inth eevent cont rolofguerrillaun itsisreta inedbytheUn ited





  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (b)When proper ly t r a ined and suppor t ed , convent iona l



    (d )Counter-guerrillaoperations.


    b. Limit a t ions. I t must be rea lized t ha t t here a re cer t a in


    (1) L im it ed ca pa bilit ies for st a t ic defen sive or h oldin g


    (2) Init ia lly, la ckof forma l t ra ining, equipment, w eapons, a nd


    (3) Dependence upon t he loca l civ ilian popu la t ion and an


    (4) Communicationsbetweentheguerrillawarfareoperational

    areaandhigherheadquarters in friendly territoryareoften


    (5) Decentra l iza t ion of comma nd an d dispersion of forces for


    (6) Rest rict ion s on fr ien dly support in g fir es in to t he


    t he guer r illa s a s we ll a s t he necessit y f a r prot ect ing t he


    (7) From init ia l conta ct unt il an opera t ion is completed, the

    en tir e pr oject is depen den t upon pr ecise, t im ely a n d




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations






    9. General

    a. Th e t h ea t er com m a n der is r es pon sible for t h e con du ct of

    unconventionalwarfareinhisareaofoperations.b. Asapart of thisresponsibili tyhedesignatesguerrilla warfare

    opera t iona l a reas for t he conduct of guer r illa wa r fa re and rela t ed


    10. OrganizationoftheJointUnconventionalWarfareTaskForce(JUWTF)

    a. Th e t h ea t er com m a n der h a s t h e a u t h or it y t o or ga n iz e h is

    command for unconvent iona l wa r fa re in the manner bes t sui ted to


    b. Thepreferredorganizationisajointsubordinateheadquarters

    for u ncon ven t ion a l w a r fa r e on t he sa m e level a s ot h er ser vice


    This subordina te headqua rters ,known a sa J oint U nconvent iona l

    Wa rfa re Ta sk Force (J U WTF), is composed of representa t ives from


    c. *A second possible organ izat ion is a n unconvent iona l w ar fare

    plan s sect ion within the J 3 s ta f f d ivision of the unified or specifiedcommand.

    d . Theinterna lsta fforga niza tionofth eJ U WTFisjoint ,wit ht he

    principalst a ffofficersbeingfroma ny service,a nd consisting ofa J 1,

    J 2, J 3, J 4, J 6divisionsa nda ny requiredspecialsta ff officers(fig. 2).

    I n t h e J U WTF t h e pla n s a n d policy fu nct ion s of J 5 d ivision a r e

    norm a llya ccomplishedbyt heJ 3division.

    e. U n it s a nd in dividua ls fr om t he ser vice com pon en ts a re

    a ssignedora tt a chedforopera tiona lcont roltoth eJ U WTF.

    *Since an unconventional warfare plans section within the JS division performs essentially the same

    functions as a separate JUWTF, further discussion is limited to the separate JUWTF.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    f . The a irborne special forces group, the principal a rmy element

    oftheJ U WTF,esta blishesa specia lforcesopera tiona lbase(S FOB )to

    com m a n d a n d s uppor t oper a t ion a l d et a ch m en t s befor e a n d a f t er


    11. FunctionsoftheJointUnconventionalWarfareTaskForce

    a. TheJ U WTF comma ndera nd hissta ff ma keoperat iona lpla ns

    foranddirect theconductofunconventionalwarfare. Theprincipal

    fun ctionsofth eJ U WTFa re

    (1) Recommend geogra phica la reas tobed esignat edguerrilla-

    warfareoperat ionalareas.

    (2) P rocure a nd ma inta in intel ligencema teria ls in support ofunconventionalwarfare.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (3) Develop opera t iona l , adminis t ra t ive and log is t ica l plans

    a n d r eq uir em en ts for t he support of un con vent ion al

    war fa re .

    (4) Coordinate w ith other theater agencies in plan ning for a l l


    (5) Develop communica t ion procedures a nd requirements tosupportunconventionalwarfareplans.

    (6) P lan and conduct join t t ra in ing of l and , sea and a i r unit s

    d es ig na t ed t o pa r t icipa t e in or su ppor t u ncon ven t ion a l

    war fa re .

    (7) As directed, coordina te w ith a llied milita ry a uthorit ies for

    the prepara t ion and execut ion of unconvent iona l wa r fa re


    (8) Ma in ta in lia ison w it h ot her un con ven tion a l w a r fa r eagenciesorunits.

    (9) Recomm end str ength sofind igenous forcest obesupport ed


    (10) Ma in t a in lia ison a t st a ff a n d oper a t ion a l level w it h


    collect ion a n d com m un ica t i on s w i th ot h er a ct ivit ies in

    den ied a reas ; plan in t elligence opera t ions in suppor t of

    convent iona l forces w hen direct ed by t he t hea ter


    (11) Ma i nt a i n lia i son w i th t h ea t er civil a f fa i rs u nit s w i t h

    r espect t o civil a f fa i rs (C A) a s pect s of u ncon ven t ion a l

    war fa re .

    b. Thesta ff opera t ionsofa J U WTFa rebasica lly t hesam eas for

    otherUSmilitarystaffs .

    12. OperationalControlofUnconventionalWarfareForces

    a. Init ia lly, opera t iona l contr ol of U S sponsored unconventiona lw a r f a r e for ces is r et a i ned by t h e t h ea t er com m a n der . C on t r ol is

    exercised t hrough t he J U WTF assign ing missions t o t he Specia l

    Forces group, w hich in t urn direct s deployed opera t iona l


    b. Whenguerr i l la warfare operat ional areas fa l l within thearea

    of influence of a dvancing ta ct ica l comma nds, opera t iona l control of


    unifiedorspecifiedcomma ndlevel thr ought heat era rmy to thefield

    a rmy concerned . In conjunct ion wi th th is t rans fer , elements of the

    S pecia l F or ces gr ou p a r e a t t a ch ed t o t h e a r my h ea d qu a rt er s t o




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    c. The f ield a rmy commander in t u rn may a ss ign opera t iona l

    contr olof th eunconventiona lw a rfa re force t oa ny ofhissubordina te

    tact icalunits. Delegationofcontrolgenerally isnot madelower than





  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations





    13. General

    The Airborne Specia l Forces G roup is the U nited Sta tes Army's

    orga n iza t ion t ra in ed t o con duct guerr illa w a rfa re a n d rela t ed

    unconventiona lw a rfa rea ct ivit ies. Special forcesa rea str a tegic force


    specia l, for ces u nit s a llow s t h e t h ea t er com ma n der t o con du ct


    14. MissionandConcept

    a.M i ssi on. Themissionofspecialforcesistodevelop,organize,

    equip, train, anddirect indigenousforces in theconductofguerrilla

    warfare . Specia l forcesmaya lsoadvise , t ra inandassis t indigenous


    b. Concept. Specia l forces a re responsible for the conduct of a l l

    unconvent iona l w a rfa re a ct ivit ies w it hin guerr illa w a rfa re

    opera t iona l a reas and may be ca l led upon t o per form ot her t a sks associatedwithorinsupportofguerrillawarfare.

    15. AirborneSpecialForcesGroup

    a.Or gan i zat i on.TheAirborneSpecialForcesGroupconsistsofa

    headquar t er s and headquar t er s company and four Specia l Forces


    b. Capabi l i ti es.Thespecialforcesgroupiscapableof

    (1) Deploying its opera t iona ldeta chments by a ir , sea or landwhenprovidedwithappropriatetransportation.

    (2) Organ izing, tra ining,a nddirectinga numberofvar iedsize


    (3) Cont rolling, by long-ra nge commu nica tions, th eopera tions

    of U W for ces in en em y or en em y occu pied t er r it or y t o

    reduce his combat ef fect iveness, indust r ia l ca pacity , and


    (4) P erformin g specializedin telligencem issions a s directed byh igher commanders and when augmented by in tell igence


    (5) P r ovid in g t r a in in g a n d a s sist a n ce t o fr ien dly for eign




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (6) E st a blish in g a S pecia l F or ces oper a t ion a l ba s e w h en


    c. Ad d i ti onal Consid er at i ons.

    (1) TheS pecia lForcesgrouprequir esau gmen ta tionbysupport

    andserviceunits toconductsustainedoperat ionsfromthe

    SpecialF orcesOperat iona lB a se(SF OB ).Fordeta ilsof t he

    support required,seepar a gra ph21.

    (2) The reac t ion t ime of Specia l Forces deta chments d if fers

    from t ha t of convent iona l in fa nt ry unit s beca use of

    com mun ica t ion s lim it a t ion s a n d gr ea t er dist a nces t o

    operat ionalareas.

    16. HeadquartersandHeadquartersCompany(fig.4)

    a.M i ssi on. Toprovidecommunications,administrative,training,

    in t ellig en ce, a n d log is t ica l s uppor t for a s sig ned S pecia l F or ces

    elementspriortoa nda fterdeployment .

    b. Capabi l i t i es. Headquar ters and headquar ters company of the


    (1) P r ov id es com m a n d a n d st a f f con t rol a n d pla n n in g for


    (2) P rov ides log is t ica l suppor t (except delivery) to Specia l




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (3) P rovides long-ra ngecommunicationbetweena nS FOB a nd



    (5) P rov ides t h ird echelon ma in t enance in r ad io and sma l l


    c. Organizat ion. Fordetailedorganizat ion, see thecurrent tables


    17. SpecialForcesCompany(fig.5)

    a.Or gan i zat i on. Th e specia l for ces com pa n y con sist s of a n

    admin is t r a t iv e det achment , one opera t iona l det achment C , t h ree


    b.Adm ini str ati veDetachment. The admin is t ra t ive det achment per forms the normal adminis t ra t ive funct ions of a company head



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    quar ters. The deta chment commander executes the d irect ives and

    orders of the comma nding off icer of the opera t iona l deta chment C,

    w h o is t he com ma n der of t he S pecia l F or ces com pa n y. D ur in g

    oper a t ion s, t h e a d m in is tr a t iv e d et a ch m en t r ev er t s t o t h e g rou p

    commander 's cont rol when i t s opera t iona l deta chments have beendeployed.

    c. Oper ati ona l Detachment C(fig . 6). OperationaldetachmentC

    is the senior opera t iona l unit of the Specia l Forces company . I t i s


    (1) Conduct ingopera t ionsw ith guerrilla forces.

    (2) E xercisingopera tiona lcont roloverd esigna ted subordina te


    (3) P rovidingt henucleusofalia isondeta chment tofielda rmy or other tact ica l e lements when theoperat ional control of

    S pecia l F or ces det a ch men ts is pa ssed t o t a ct ica l un it

    com m a n der s. Wh en s o em ploy ed , t h e d et a ch m en t C is

    at tachedto thetact icalunit headquarters.

    d. Oper ati onal Detachment B(fig.7) . OperationaldetachmentB,

    like t he det achment C , conduct s opera t ions w i t h guer r illa forces .

    Whenoperat ingw ithotherdeta chments, th eBdeta chment exercises

    opera t ion a l con trol over subor din at e det a ch men ts a nd/or is

    subordinatedtoaseniordetachment. I t alsocanprovidethenucleusofa liaisondeta chmenta t a ta ct ica lunit hea dqua rters.

    e. Oper at i onal DetachmentA(fig.8).Theoperationaldetachment

    Aconductsoperat ionswithguerrilla forces, eitherunilaterallyor in

    conjunct ion w i t h ot her det achment s . When opera t ing w i t h ot her

    detachments, theAdetachment isnormallysubordinatedtoasenior


    18. AugmentationDetachment

    a. The a ugmenta t ion deta chment is ident ica l in composit ion to


    b. Theaugmentationdetachmentiscapableof:


    (2) Forming t he lia ison det achment a t a t act ica l unit

    headqua r ters when opera t iona l cont rol of Specia l Forces

    detachmentsispassedtothetacticalunit .

    (3) F or min g t h e n ucleu s t o est a blish a n a lt er na t e S F OB

    headquarters .

    (4) Conduct ing opera t ions in guer r illa wa r fa re opera t iona l

    areas .

    c. For a det a iled descript ion of t he employment of t he

    a ugmenta t iondeta chment, seepara gra ph21.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations



    19. General

    a. TheSpecialForcesoperationalbase(SFOB)istheoperational

    a nda dministra t ivefoca lpoint forguerrilla wa rfar ea ct ivit ieswithina

    U .S . thea ter of opera t ions . I t is loca t ed in te rr itory under f r iendly con t rol, u sua lly w i t h in t he communica t ions zone (CommZ). The


    b. The Specia l Forces group, supported by elements within the

    C om mZ, a ct iva t es a n d oper a t es t he S F OB . I dea lly , t h e S F OB is

    esta blished a nd act ivat ed prior to the commencement of host i li t ies .

    However, sincepreemergencyact ivat ionmaynot beauthorized, the

    base of ten is es t ab lished on a s t andby bas is to include long-range

    communica tionfacili t ies, intra thea tera ndintra basecommunica tions,

    andemergencystockpilesofequipment.c. The SFOB may be physica l ly loca t ed a t one ins t a lla t ion or

    dispersedamonga numberof small s i tes , usual ly in thev icini ty of

    ot her ins t a lla t ions such a s an a i r base or CommZ depot . Var ious

    modifica tionsa readoptedtosuitth eloca lsitua tion.

    20. Mission

    The mission of the SF'OB is toprepa reoperat iona l deta chments

    fordeployment int oguerrilla w a rfa rearea sa nd, aft erdeployment, to

    direct , administer, andsupport guerrilla forces in furtheranceof the



    a. Planninganddirectionofoperations.

    b. Communicationssupport.

    c. Intelligencesupport.

    d . Logisticalsupport.

    e. Briefingandstaging. f . Infil trat ion.

    g. Liaisonandcoordination.

    h . Training.

    i . Administration.

    21. Organization


    a.General. TheSF OB isorgan izeda longfunctiona llinesintotw oma jor groups: theopera t iona l e lement . ,; a nd thea dministra t ive a nd




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    b.Oper at i onal E l ements. Theoperat iona l e lements of t heS FOB


    (1)Oper at i ons cen ter. Th e oper a t ion s cen t er is t h e fa cilit y

    w it h in w h ich a r e g rou ped r epr esen t a t ives of u nit a n d

    specia l s ta f f sect ions a nd other comma nds concernedw ithcurrentoperationsinguerrillawarfareareas.Foradetailed


    (2)Briefingcenter. Thebrief ingcenter is an isola t ionarea or

    a r ea s w h er e S pecia l F or ces d et a ch men t s r eceive t h eir

    oper a t ion a l m is sion s a n d con du ct fin a l pr epa r a t ion for

    infiltra tion.Foradeta ileddiscussion,seepar a gra ph24.

    (3)Commun i cati ons compl ex. The communica t ions complex

    con sist s of t h e com mu nica t ion s fa cilit ies a v a ila b le t o

    support theSFOBandguerr i l la warfare operat ional areas .

    I t in clu des t h e S pecia l F or ces g roup com mu nica t ion s

    pla t oon , plu s a t t a ch ed or su ppor t in g sig na l u nit s a n d

    faci li t ies. The group signal of ficer is the s ta f f supervisor .

    Th e com mun ica t ion s pla t oon lea der is n or ma lly t he

    oper a t or a n d s uper vises t h e s ig na l in st a lla t i on s. F or a


    (4)TheAugmenta ti ondetachment.

    (a)Whenactivated, theaugmentat iondetachmentprovidesa ddit ion al flexibilit y t o t he S pecia l F orces group




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (b)Th e a u gm en t a t ion d et a ch men t m a y be em ploy ed t o


    s o em ploy ed t h e d et a ch m en t com m a n der becom es a

    depu t y for opera t ions and supervises t he opera t iona l

    elementsof theSFOB.Otherdetachmentpersonnelare

    a ssign ed dut ies t o oper a te t he br iefin g cen ter a n dsupplementstaffelementsofthebase.

    (c)The det achment may form t he Specia l Forces lia i son


    I n t his sit ua t ion t he det a ch men t is a t t a ch ed t o t he

    ta ct ica l comma nd a nd exercises opera t iona l control for

    t he t a ct ica l comma n der over design a ted guerr illa


    (d )Th e det a ch men t ca n est a blish a n a lt ern at e S FOB

    h ea d qu a rt er s. I n t h is r ole a d dit ion a l per son nel a n dequipment a re provided from hea dqua rt ers a nd


    (e)Th e det a ch men t ca n be em ploy ed oper a tion a lly t o


    (f )More t ha n one a ugment at ion det achment ma y be


    c. Admi n ist ra t i ve and Tr a in ing Elements. The admin is t r a t iv e

    andtrainingelementsoftheSFOBconsistof(1)Administrativecenter. Th e a d m in is tr a t ive cen t er is t h e

    facil it y wi th in which are grouped representa t ives of unit

    a nd specia l s ta f f sect ions a nd other comma nds concerned

    w it h cur ren t a d min ist ra t ive suppor t oper a t ion s, ba se

    security, andareadamagecontrol. For furtherdiscussions,


    (2)L ogi sti cssuppor tel ement. This is a non-TOE grouping of

    Special Forces a nd supporting technica lserviceunits from

    CommZformedtosupport theSFOBandguerrilla warfare

    opera t iona l ar ea s . The group S4 supervises opera t ions of


    (a)Organic elements of the Specia l Forces group: Supply

    Section, MotorSection, ParachuteRiggingPlatoon,and


    (b)Supportingelementsasrequired: Transportat ionunits,

    E n gin eer U t ilit y P er son nel, Or dn a nce 3d E ch elon

    S uppor t, C ivilia n L a bor , QM Aer ia l S upply U n it s,MedicalUnits,andaLiaisonSectionfromCommZ.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (3)Othersupportingunits. Althoughthegrouphaspersonnel

    t o es t ablish t he SFOB, deploy det achment s and prov ide

    lim it ed log is t ica l s uppor t , it r eq uir es a u gm en t a t ion t o

    conduct support a ct iv it ies on a susta ined basis. CIC, base

    secur it y and log is t ica l suppor t element s a re requ ired t o

    suppor t in i t ia l opera t ions . As the number of opera t iona l a reas increases wi th the subsequent bui ldup in guerr il la

    for ces, t h e a d min ist r a tive su ppor t oper a t ion s expa n d


    (2) a b ov e, a r e r eq uir ed t o a u gm en t t h e S F OB . Milit a r y

    police security units a nd counterintell igence corps teams

    a re included a nd opera te under t he hea dqua rt ers

    com ma n da nt a nd S 2, respect ively . An a rm y a via t ion

    detachment maybea t tached to theSFOBtoprovidearmy

    a v ia t ion su ppor t. An Ar my S ecu rit y Agen cy u nit m a y monitor communica t ions for secur ity . In some insta nces


    SFOB but prov ide genera l or d irect suppor t a s a pa r t of

    t h eir m is sion . I n t h is s it u a t ion , t h e S F OB exer cis es n o


    as a " cus tomer " of the suppor t ing unit or ins ta l la t ion . An


    (4)H eadquar ter s and headquar ter s com pany . The

    headquar t er s and headquar t er s company , augment ed bytechnicalserviceandsecurityunits fromCommZ,handles

    housekeeping a ct ivit ies a t t he S FOB . The compa ny

    commander is theheadquarterscommandant .

    (5)Specia l forces compan ies (uncomm i t ted un i t s). The

    uncommit t ed companies and det achment s con t inue un it

    prepara t ion and t ra in ing . These deta chments a re br iefed

    f requent ly on the s itua t ion in the ir projected opera t iona l

    areas .


    22. General

    Th e S pecia l F or ces gr ou p or ga n izes fu nct ion a lly t o con t rol

    opera t ions in guerrilla w a rfar eopera t iona la reas. Theelement sused






  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    23. OperationsCenter


    personnelwhocoordinateandcontroloperat ionsfor thecommander


    b. Funct i ons.

    (1) Deta i led pla nning for guerr i lla w arfa re opera t iona l a rea s ,

    t o in clude pr epa r a t ion of t he oper a tion pla n for ea ch

    opera t iona l deta chment . This plan ning is based upon the


    (2) Conductingbriefingsa ndsu pervisingotherprepara tionby



    (4) Exercising opera t iona l supervision over guerrilla w a r far e

    operat ionalareas.

    (5)Ma kin g r ecom men da t ion s con cer nin g em ploy men t of

    guer r illa forces in suppor t of milit a ry opera t ions. This


    (6) Acting a s the contr ola nd coordina ting center for guerrilla

    warfareoperat ionalareas.

    c. Composit i on(fig.10).

    (1) S 3. Th e S 3 exer cises pr im a r y s ta f f r es pon sibilit y for


    (2)Plans element. The opera t ion s cen ter pla n s elem en t


    consists of theassis tant S2andassis tant S3plusenlis ted

    a ugmenta t ion. The assista nt S3 is the of ficer-in-cha rge of

    pla ns element . Once pla ns a re a pproved t hey a re


    (3)S2operationselement. TheS2operationselementconsists

    of t h e S 2, in t ellig en ce ser gea n t , in t elligen ce ed it or s,analysts,andorder-of-battlespecialists.Theyassembleand

    eva lua t e in telligen ce in form at ion received fr om t he

    opera t iona l a reas ; prepare and d is semina t e in t elligence

    repor t s based on ev a lua t ed in forma t ion and in t elligence

    reports from other headqua rters ; an d conduct intel ligence

    br ief ings and debr ief ings. For a deta iled d iscussion , see


    (4)Assi stan t S4 (plans).Th e Assist a n t .S 4 (P l a ns) is t h elogist ica l coor din at or for t he Opera t ion s C en ter . H e

    processes logist ica l requirements from the a rea specia l is t

    t ea m s a n d is r es pon sible for log is tica l a ct ivit ies in t h e



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    br ief ing center . He prepares the adminis t ra t ive annex totheguerrilla wa rfa rea reaopera t ionplans.

    (5)Si gnal offi cer.Thesignalofficerissignalcoordinatorforthe


    a rea specia l is t t eams and is respons ib le for opera t iona l

    signa l ma tt ers. H e prepa res t he signa l opera ting

    ins t ruct ions and s igna l annex for guer r illa wa r fa re a rea


    (6)Ar easpecia l i stteam s(AST s).TheASTsarethefocalpoint

    of t he opera t ions cen t er . They a ss is t in precommit ment

    pla nning, coordina te a ct ivit ies of t heir a ssigned

    detachments in thebrief ingcenter , andact as theparents




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    s pecia l is t officer (a s sis ta n t S 3) a n d a n a r ea s uper vis or

    (seniorNC O).Thist ea mm ust becomeexpertonth especific

    a rea or count ry i t w i ll superv ise dur ing opera t ions . The



    a nd messa ges from commit ted det achment s. D ur ingpr ein filt r a t ion br iefin gs , a clos e r a ppor t is es ta b lis hed


    commanderandstaff informedontheoperationalsituation.

    (7)Communicat ion center. The communica t ions cent er ,

    opera t ed by t he command opera t ions cen t er t eam of t he

    communica t ions pla toon, is loca t ed in the v icin i ty of the

    opera t ions cen t er s ince it prov ides t he communica t ions


    (8)L iai son off icer s. Alt hough n ot a n int egra l pa r t of t he

    opera t ions cen t er , t he lia i son of ficer s f rom t he v a r ious


    They coord ina t e ma t t e rs of common in t eres t w i t h t heir

    serv ices and na t ions and arra nge suppor t when required .

    They keep the Specia l Forces group comma nder a nd sta f f

    abreast of thesituat ionof theirrespectiveorganizat ionsast hese organ iza t ions in fluence guer r illa wa r fa re a reas of


    24. BriefingCenter

    a. Gener al.Thebriefingcenterprovidesforthefollowing:





    (5) Dispensaryservice.





    b. Oper at ion. Theentirea rea (a reas) isa ma ximum-security sitea ccessib le on ly t o t hose personnel who hav e a requ irement t o be

    there. The opera t ions of the center a re superv ised by the S3. The

    h ea d q ua r t er s com m a n da n t is r es pon sible for t h e a d m in is tr a t iv e

    funct ioning a nd securit y of t he a rea . P ersonnel from t he



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    a ugment a t ion det a chment a nd S pecia l Forces compa ny


    c. Functi on i ng.

    (1) The director of the opera t ions center (S3) coordina tes the

    brief ingandstagingact iv i t ies of thecenter . Heschedules


    thedepa rture insta l la t ion. B rief ing personnel a re thea rea

    specialist officersa nd the sta ff officers from theopera t ions


    group st a ff a nd a ppropr ia te lia ison officers. Oft en ,

    specia l is t s f rom ot her headquar t er s, services and a l lied


    (2) D et a ch m en t s pr epa r e t h eir ow n pla n s ba s ed u pon t h e

    operat ionplanfor theguerrilla warfarearea. Detachments

    packa getheirownequipment. P a ra chuteriggingsupport is

    provideda snecessar y. Deta chmentsa rea ffordedma ximum


    ofthisinformationisclassified,it iscommittedtomemory.

    Essent ia ls wh ich do not lend themselves to memoriza t ion


    (3) Debriefingsa reconductedint hesam ema nn erasbriefings,

    with recovered deta chments rema ining in isola t ion in thebriefingcenteruntilthedebriefingiscomplete.

    (4) Det a chmentt ra iningconductedw hileint hebriefingcenter

    islimitedtotha tessentia lforth eopera tionwh ichcouldnot

    be con duct ed elsew h er e. N ew it em s of eq uipm en t or

    weapons issued a t the las t minute require fami lia r iza t ion

    or test f ir ing . Specif ic techniques rela t ing to in f ilt ra t ion

    may hav e t o be t augh t . Iden t if ica t ion and recogn it ion of

    n ew or specific it em s of en emy eq uipm en t m ay be a requirement. I f deta chmentsa re isolat edforrelat ively long

    per iods of t ime, t ra in ing progra ms a re expa nded t o


    (5) Hospita lizat ion ofsickor injuredmembers ofdeta chments

    preparingforcommitment isdonesofar a spossiblewithin

    t he briefing cent er . A sma ll dispensa ry fa cilit y is

    esta blished tocare for t hosepersonnelw hoseillness isnot

    ser ious enough t o preclude pa rt icipa tion in t heir deta chment 's opera t iona l mission . The ser ious ly s ick or

    in ju red a r e eva cu a t ed t o C om m Z m ed ica l in st a l la t ion s.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    Arrangementsaremadeto isolatesensit ivepersonnelwho


    (6) Thesta gingofdeta chments in t hedepart ure installat ionis

    arrangedbytheS3.TheASTsaredirectlyresponsible for

    the opera t ion and accompany the ir deta chments f rom the

    briefing cent er t o t he depa rt ure inst a lla tion . The

    requirementsof thedeliveryagencypertainingtopreflight

    or embarka t ion brief ings a re coord ina t ed in adv ance. I f

    necessa ry , a r r angement s a re made for secure housing a t

    thedeparture installat ion.

    25. SFOBCommunicationsComplex

    a.Or gan i zat i onoftheCommun i cat i onsPl at oon(figs.11and12).

    (1) The communica t ions pla toon headqua r ters prov ides the

    group signa l of ficer with thenecessary a dministra t ive a nd


    (2) Th e com ma n d oper at ion s cen ter t ea m opera t es t he

    communica t ions cen t er serving t he SFOB. The forwa rd

    opera tionscentertea mprovidesacomma nda ndcont rol



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    f a cilit y for t he receiv er and t r ansmit t er s it es . The forwa rd

    receiv ing cen t er and t he forwa rd t r ansmit t ing cen t er t eams

    opera tethereceivera ndtr a nsmit tersites,respectively.

    b. Capabi l i ti es.

    (1) Opera te te lephone service within the SFOB . The pla toon

    ins t a lls t he t elephones t o be used w i t h in t he SFOB and


    (2) Termina t e lines f rom ot her headquar t er s. The pr imary

    m ea n s of com mu nica t ion t o J U WTF a n d ot h er t h ea t er


    Thea t er a rmy s igna l t roops ins ta l l these long wire lines .

    Th e com m un ica t ion s pla t oon t er m in a t es t h es e lin es in



    (3) Opera t e base receiv er and t r ansmit t er s it es . The SFOB

    receiver and t ransmit ter s ites may be separa ted f rom the

    ba se by a con sidera ble dist a nce. The ba se pr oper is


    telephoneandteletype. Suchlinesareprovidedbytheater


    (4) P r ovid e r a dio t elet y pe ba ck-u p. Th e com mu nica t ion spla t oon provides ra dio te letype back-up to the land l ines


    (5) Operat e the commun ica tions center. The communications

    pla t oon , en cr ypt s a n d d ecr ypt s m essa g es a n d a ct s a s a

    centra l andclear ingcenter for theremote t ransmit ter and


    c. Responsi bi l i t i esofth esi gnal offi cer.Thegroupsignalofficeris

    responsiblefor(1) Det ermin ing opera t ing f requencies and communica t ion

    secur it y m ea sur es n ecessa r y t o in sur e r elia ble r a dio


    (2) Obta in ing f requencies as necessary and coord ina t ing the


    (3)Signa lpla nningandpublishingnecessar ySOIsandSS Is.

    (4) P l a n n in g, r eq u es tin g a n d coor din a t in g t h e en gin eer in g

    ass is t ance necessary for the des ign of antenna fa rms and


    (5) R eques t ing ma t e ria l necessa ry t o ins t a ll t hese an t enna




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (6) Request ing s igna l suppor t necessary to ins ta l l long and

    loca l w ire lines, e.g., S FOB t o inst a lla t ions of t he


    (7) Request ing the te lephone and te letype t runks necessary



    (9) Supervising tra ining of the group communications section

    a ndw hendirectedtra iningofa llcommunicat ionpersonnel


    d . Si gna l Pl ann i ng.

    (1) Ad va n ce pla nning is necessa ry t o provide relia ble

    communica t ions betw een the SFOB and guerr ill a wa r fa re

    opera t iona l a reas. The d is t ances bet ween t he SFOB and

    det a ch men ts, t he com munica t ion secur it y problem spresented by opera t ing f rom wi th in enemy terr itory , and

    t h e low -pow er com mu nica t ion eq uipm en t u sed by t h e

    det a ch men ts a ll presen t t ech nica l problems. P r oper

    frequencies must be chosen a rid t he use of t hese

    f requencies coord ina ted wi th the thea t er s igna l of ficer if

    comm unicat ionsa retobereliable.Forfurth erdiscussionof


    (2) The group s igna l of ficer insures tha t the J UWTF s igna l

    officer isawareofall aspectsofhisproblemto includetheextentofsignalsupportrequired.

    (3) Theplanning must be donea s far ina dvance a s possible;

    t h e r elia b ilit y of t h e com mu nica t ion s w ill be d ir ect ly


    26. Plans

    P la n nin g, pa rt icula r ly prior t o comm it men t of oper at ion al


    superv ised by the ass is t ant .S3 (plans) and ass is ted by other s t a f f

    officers, a ccomplish opera t iona l pla nning. Considering the loca t ion,

    the mission and the u lt imate developmenta l object ives , the ASTs

    prepare t he opera t ion plans for t he guer r illa wa r fa re opera t iona l


    la t i tu de for t h e oper a t ion a l d et a ch m en t is t h e r ule for g uer rilla

    w a rfa re oper a tion pla n s. Th e select ion of a det a ch men t for a

    par t icu lar miss ion is based on severa l factors , chief of which are :t ra iningsta tusof thedetachment and theabi l i ty andexperienceof

    the deta chment commander . For secur ity reasons , detachments do

    not hav e access t o opera t ion plans un t il a s s igned t o t he b rief ing

    cen t er . H ow ev er , t o fa cilit a t e a r ea s t ud ies , g eog ra ph ica l r eg ion s



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    (w hichincludethedeta chment s'specificguerrilla wa rfa reopera tiona l


    27. IntelligenceSection

    a.General. The intelligencesection oft hespecial forcesg roupis

    responsibleforthefollowing:(1) Int elligencetr a ining .

    (2) Furnishing intelligence todeta chments prior toa nd a fter


    (3) Conduct ingint elligencebriefingsa nd debriefings .

    (4) Field evalua tion of intelligence informa tion received from

    guerrilla warfareoperat ionalareas.

    (5) Counterintelligence.

    (6) Su pervisory responsibilitiesincoordina tionw ith th eS1for

    the exter ior and in terior secur ity of the opera t iona l base


    b. Or gan i zati onandFuncti ons.

    (1)S2. The S2 supervises t he act iv it ies of t he in t elligence

    sect ion , keeps t he commander and s t a ff in formed of t he

    in t ellig en ce s it u a t ion , a n d coor din a t es w i th ot h er s ta f f


    (2)Admin is t ra t ionandt ra in ing . In te ll igence adminis t ra t ion andtrainingisunderthesupervisionofthetrainingofficer.

    Heplans a ndsupervises intelligencetr a iningan dconducts

    rout ineadministra t ion for thesect ionsuchasprocessing

    secur it y clea ra nces , hand ling cla ss ified document s, and


    (3)Intel l igenceplanning. Th e a s sist a n t S 2 is t h e pr in cipa l

    in t elligence planner a t t he SFOB. H e represen t s t he S2

    sectionin thetact icaloperat ionscenterplanselement. He

    conducts intel ligence pla nning, prepares the intel ligence




    (4)Intelligenceoperations. TheS2directs theact ivit iesof the

    intelligencesergeants, intelligenceeditorandanalystsand

    the order of ba t t le specia li st s to prov ide the in tell igence

    suppor t t o guer r illa wa r fa re opera t iona l a reas and ot her

    headqua r ters . These personnel prepare es t imates , plans , and summaries , rout ine and specia l in te lligence repor t s ,

    process informa tion received from a nd furnish intelligence

    tocommit teddetachments , prepareandmainta inorder of




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    and headqua r ters , and prepare and conduct br ief ings a nd


    c. Attached or Suppor t i ng I ntel l igence El ements. Th e specia l

    forces group opera t ing f rom an SFOB requires addi t iona l mili t a ry

    in te lligence suppor t tha n tha t which is organica l ly ava i lab le. The

    gr oup h a s n o coun ter in telligen ce ca pa bilit y a n d r eq uir es C IC augmenta t ion . Addit iona l mili t a ry in te lligence specia lis t s may be



    28. General

    a. Thespecial forcesgroupestablishesanadministrat ivecenter

    a t theSF OB tocontr ola dministra t iveandtra ininga ct ivit ies.

    b. The specia l forces g roup execu t iv e of ficer supervises t he

    adminis t ra t ive center and o ther e lements loca ted a t the SFOB tha t

    a reengagedina dministra t iveandtra ininga ct ivit ies.

    29. AdministrativeCenter

    (fig . 13)

    a.Composi t i on.Theadministrativecenterconsistsof

    (1)Theexecutiveofficerw hoisth edirector .



    (4) Tra ining officer,S2Section.

    (5) Tra ining officer,S3Section.


    b. Funct ion ing. Th e a d m in is tr a t ive cen t er pla n s a n d con t r ols

    a d min ist ra t ive a n d t ra in in g a ct ivit y a t t h e ba s e a n d d ir ect s t h e

    var ious sect ions, units a r id a t ta ched elements in execut ion of their

    suppor t t a sks . Through coord ina t ed plann ing t he admin is t ra t ive

    center insures that guerrilla warfareoperat ionalareasandtheSFOB

    receive t he a dminist ra tive suppor t t hey require a nd t ha t


    30. Training

    Traininga t theSFOBis accomplishedunder twocondit ions that conductedpriortoisolationinthebriefingcenterandthatconducted

    in the br ief ing center. Tra in ing pr ior to receipt of an opera t iona l

    missionisintendedtokeepth edeta chm enta titspeak,totea ch



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    specific t ech niq ues a pplica ble t o pr oject ed oper a tion s a n d t o

    familiarizepersonnelwithnewequipment. Trainingconductedafter

    ass ignment to the br ief ing center may include any or a l l of these,


    andzeroingweaponsand t ra iningwithnewequipment . Inaddit ion,

    pla n s a r e pr epa r ed t o t ra in r epla cem en ts a n d/or r epla cem en t

    d et a ch m en t s. Tr a in in g s uper vision is a ccom plis hed t h r ou gh t h e

    norma l cha in of command . The S3 t r a in ing of ficer exercises s t a f f




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    31. Administration

    a . S1. Thefunctionsofanyunit S1areapplicable to thespecial



    theact ionswhichare normal inother mil i tary units are di f f icul t or


    and t akes s t eps t o accomplish rou t ine personnel ma t t e rs pr ior t o


    is in t he opera t iona l a rea shou ld be prepared in brev it y codes t o

    reduce r a dio t ra n sm ission s. Th e S 1 con duct s port ion s of t he


    specia l forces group S1 ar e discussed w herein they ar e peculia r to


    (1)Strengths. S t a t us of per son nel is r epor t ed on ly w h en a change t akes place, i.e. wounded , missing , cap t ured , or


    (2)Replacements. Th e pr ovis ion s of r epla cem en t s d epen ds

    uponth eca pabilityoftheopera tiona ldeta chm enttoreceive

    t h em a n d t h ea t er s er vice com pon en t s t o d eliv er t h em .

    Replacementsa reprovidedona nindividua lordeta chment


    (3)Discip l i ne, law and ord er. C om ma n der s of com mit t ed det a chment s a re given a clea r st a tement of t heir

    disciplina ry a ut horit y a s delega ted by t he h igher


    (4)POWs. The hand ling of pr isoners w i ll depend upon t he

    exigenciesof thesituat ionandisgovernedbythefact that

    theU.S. is f irmlycommittedtohumanetreatmentandcare


    (5)Burialsandgravesregistration. Theater armyprescr ibes

    guida n ce for r epor tin g a n d/or m a rkin g gr a ves w it hin guerrilla warfareoperat ionalareas.

    (6)M or al eandper sonnel ser vi ces. Detachment comma nders'

    r ecommenda t ions for aw ards a re processed prompt ly or

    a ut horit y t o a w a rd cert a in decora t ions is given t he

    det a chment comma nders. Ma il is ha ndled by a

    prees tab lished system; au tomat ic answers a re d ispa t ched

    w h en d es ir ed by in divid ua l s; per iod ic d eliver y m a y be

    possible w i t h resupply d rops if secur it y cons idera t ions

    permit . P er sona l necessit ies a re prov ided au t oma t ica l ly

    w it h resupply . These norma lly a re procured from

    in digen ou s sou rces or specia lly pa cka g ed t o pr eser ve



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




    (7)Per sonn el pr ocedu r es. P r om ot ion r ecom men da t ion s a r e

    prepa redinadva ncetobeimplement edw henrecommended

    by t he det achment comma nder . D emot ion a ut horit y

    delega t ed t o det achment commanders is ou t lined by t hetheaterarmycommander.

    (8)M iscel l aneous. P olicies cover in g pa y or r ecogn it ion for


    Wh en r eq uir ed, con fiden tia l fun ds a re issued t o t he

    deta chment commander. B ar t er i tems, such as medicine,

    gold, orotherscarce items,are issuedorheldfordelivery

    on or der . C r ed it s ys tem s for ser vices r en der ed m a y be

    established.TheS1insures that , prior to thedepartureof

    deta chments for guerr il la wa r fa re opera t iona l a reas , eachmanisgivenacompletepersonnelprocessinginaccordance

    with theSOP.

    b. Di st r ibut i on center. Th e S 1 est a blish es a n d super vises a

    dist r ibut ion center for the orderly ha ndling of correspondence into,


    except those origina ting. from committ ed detachments or TOC. The

    com m un ica t ion cen t er oper a t ed by t h e com m un ica t ion s pla t oon


    32. Logistics

    a.General. Th e logist ica l r espon sibilit ies of t he S FOB a r e

    t wofold : f ir st , suppor t of t he guer r illa wa r fa re opera t iona l a reas;

    secon d, su ppor t of t h e S F OB a n d ot h er u ncon ven t ion a l w a r fa r e

    elem en ts a s design a ted. To t his en d, t he specia l for ces gr oup


    The log is t ica l suppor t element includes organic specia l forces

    group log is t ics sect ions plus any a t t a ched or suppor t ing log is t ica l unit s f rom other headquar t ers and/or CommZ. The specia l forces

    group S4 norma lly controls the opera t ions of the logist ica l support

    elem en t . Wh en t h e log is tica l su ppor t of t h e S F OB r ea ch es su ch

    magni tude tha t numerous a t t a ched or suppor t ing serv ice elements

    a re required , then a separa te commander of the log is t ica l suppor t

    elementisa ppoint edfromCommZsourcestoa ssistt hespecialforces


    b.Or gan i zati on. F or a t ypica l logist ica l or ga n iza t ion in t he


    c. Plann ing. Theassistant S4functionsas the logist icalplanner

    for t he S4 sect ion . The a ss is t an t S4 prepares t he admin is t ra t ive

    a nnexes for t he guerr illa w a rfa re a rea s opera t ion pla ns. H e



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    coor din at es w it h S 3 pla ns group in t he pr epa ra t ion of t heseadministrat iveannexes. Theassistant S4is theS4representat ive in


    d. L ogist ica l Oper at ions at the SFOB. The log is t ica l suppor t


    the guerr i lla wa rfare opera t iona l a rea s . The fol lowing a re provided


    (1)Requirements. A con t inu ing rev iew of requ irement s and


    (2)Limitedstorage. The SFOB is prepared t o prov ide shor t

    term stora ge for supplies . This s tora ge is only tempora ry

    un t il supplies a re packaged and shipped t o t he deliv ery



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    agency . Large s tocks of suppl ies a re not des irab le a t the

    SFOB ; however , nonstandard or specia l items are s tored


    (3)Preparationofsupplies. Normal ly , suppl ies a re specia lly

    pa cka ged for a er ia l delivery . P a cka ging is in it ia lly

    a ccom plish ed u nd er t h e su per vision of t h e pa r a ch ut e-r igging pla t oon a ssis ted by uncommit ted deta chments . As

    soon a s possible, QM a eria l supply unit s a ssume

    respons ibilit y for packag ing , t ak ing adv an t age of depot

    ca pa bilit ies. C ivilia n la bor ma y be employed in t his

    opera t ion . P ackag ing may expand to a s izeable opera t ion

    and is accomplished inanarea near theSFOBor adjacent

    t o t h e d epa r t ur e in st a lla t ion . Wh en a ir su per ior it y is


    esta blished, the emphasis shif ts from small, ma n-porta blebundles to largepackageswhichareheavy-droppedorair-

    landed . When the packag ing capabil it y exis t s in CommZ

    depots, theSFOBdoesnot requireanextensivepackaging

    act ivity.

    (4)Coordinat ion. A lia ison sect ion a t ta ch ed t o logist ica l

    suppor t elem en t coordin a tes w it h t hea t er logist ica l

    a g en cies . Th is s ect ion , com pos ed of C om m Z a n d ot h er

    services ' log is t ica l represen t a t ives , exped it es log is t ica l

    matters for theSFOB.

    (5)Suppor tofoth er unconven t i ona l war fa r eun i tsan dat tached

    supportingunits. TheSFOBsupports addit ional units and

    elements designat ed in pla ns. This ma y include technica l

    ser vice a nd suppor t elem en ts a t t he ba se plus ot her

    unconventiona lw a rfa reunitssucha stheJ U WTF.

    (6)Shipment of suppl i es to the del i very agency. This is

    norma lly t he respons ib ilit y of t he SFOB. Because of t he

    pa cka gin g r eq uir ed, it usua lly is n ot fea sible t o sh ipsuppliesdirectlyfromdepotstodepartureinstallations.Ifa

    packag ing faci li t y i s loca t ed a t the depar ture point , then

    supplies ma y be del ivered direct from depot to departure

    insta l la t ion by CommZ. I f packaging ca n be a ccomplished

    a t t he depot s, t he flow of supplies t o t he depa rt ur e

    installat ionbypasses theSFOB.



  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations





    33. General

    a.Su ppor tAspects. Within a thea t er of opera t ions one or more

    specia l for ces gr oups m a y be a va ila ble t o suppor t t he t hea t er

    comma nder 's mission. Aside from the organ iza t ion precepts wh ich

    wereset forth inchapters3and4, therearecertainsupport aspects

    wh icha re discussed fromt hepoint ofv iew of t he theater a ndS FOB

    plan ners. These support concepts are discussed under the general

    h ea d in gs of log is tics , in t ellig en ce, com m un ica t i on s, a n d in it ia l


    b.L ogisti cs. Oneof theprimarymeansusedbyanoutsidepower

    to a ssis t a guerr i lla movement is logist ica l support . While guerr i lla

    forces a re expected to be ab le to prov ide a major por t ion of the ir

    log ist ica l r eq uir em en t s fr om loca l sour ces, cer ta in specia lized

    equipment must be obta ined from the sponsor. Numerous problems

    maybeencounteredinprovidingadequatesupport toguerrilla unitsw h ich u su a lly a r e loca t ed g rea t d is ta n ces f rom fr ien dly s uppor t

    insta l la t ions. The physical problems of t ra nsport ing a nd del ivering

    un det ect ed , r ela t ively la r ge q ua n tit ies of supplies in cr ea se in


    guer r illa log is t ica l requ irement s a re sma ller in quan t it y and less



    34. JUWTFTh e J U WTF is r es pon sible t o t h e t h ea t er com m a n der for t h e

    conduct of unconvent iona l wa r fa re, but each component serv ice is

    responsib le for the log is t ica l suppor t of i t s own forces ass igned to

    J U WTF. The J U WTF prepa res, or a ssist s in prepa ring, t he

    unconvent iona l war fa re annex to thea ter war p lans , and p lans and

    coor din a tes a ll logist ica l suppor t for un con ven tion a l w a r fa r e

    operat ions in thetheater. Servicecomponentcommandersunder the

    J U WTFa redesigna tedbut a renotinth echa inofcomma ndun til the

    J U WTF becomes opera t iona l . For this rea son, J U WTF ha s to workd ir ect ly w i t h t h e log ist ica l h ea d q ua r t er s of ea ch t h ea t er ser vice


    t ha t ma y be a t t a ched t o J U WTF. The specia l forces group




  • 8/22/2019 Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations


    component comma nder. J U WTFh eadqua rtersprovides thea tera rmy

    communicationszone(CommZ)with logist icalest imates forsupport

    of t h e S F OB , t h e com m it t ed specia l for ces d et a ch m en t s a n d t h e

    g uer rilla for ces t o be g en er a t ed . Th is t y pe of pla n n in g en t a ils a

    myr iad of deta il and is made more complex by the many d if ferent

    r eq uir em en t s r es ult in g fr om t h e v a r ied g eog ra p hic loca t ion s ofguerrilla warfareoperat ionalareasandthevaryingsizesofpotential


    35. J4

    S in ce J U WTF h as no subordina t e h ea dq ua rt ers, t roops, or

    log is t ica l suppor t capabili t y unt il opera t ions s t a r t , the J UWTF J 4


    but he is theprimarys ta f f plannerandcoordinator who insure that

    adequatemeansareprovided.TherecommendationsandrequestsofJ U WTF a re in corpor at ed in to t hea t er h ea dq ua rt ers' pla ns or

    direct ives . This s tar ts the physica l process of providing the needed


    36. TheaterArmy

    The commander of the thea ter a rmy CommZ is responsib le for


    loca t ed in the thea ter and to other thea ter unconvent iona l wa r fa re

    forces as d irected . The ac tua l mechanics of procurement , receipt , s torage , maintenance, d is t r ibut ion of supplies and equipment , and


    Army port ion of unconvent iona l wa rfare opera t ions, dif fer l it t le, i f

    a ny, from the mecha nicsofconventiona lunit logist ica lsupport . Any

    necessa ry devia t ions a re det ermined by direct p