guidelines for design of small public ground water systems

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  • Guidelines for Design of Small Public Ground Water Systems

    Division of Drinking and Ground Waters 2015

  • Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Division of Drinking and Ground Waters

    P.O. Box 1049 Columbus, OH 43216-1049 www.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw

    Ohio EPA is an Equal Opportunity Employer Printed on Recycled Paper

    http://www.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw

  • i.

    FOREWORD This publication has been prepared as a guide for professional engineers and water supply specialists engaged in the design or development of small public water systems using only ground water. The objective here is to assure that new or substantially modified public water system facilities, such as those for factories, mobile home parks, office buildings, restaurants, condominiums, schools, churches, hospitals, campgrounds, resorts, gas stations, nursing homes, golf courses, and the like will be capable of producing an adequate supply of potable water in compliance with applicable regulations. The purpose of this manual is to present the requirements and procedures necessary to develop an approved water supply system where connection to an existing public water system cannot be made at reasonable cost. This publication includes treatment design criteria for iron, manganese and hardness removal. The design of water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water is beyond the scope of this manual. Refer to the latest edition of Recommended Standards for Water Works for design criteria. The requirements, criteria, and procedures described in this publication represent current practices of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA). They are subject to change whenever in the judgment of the Agency such a change will be more effective in fulfilling its responsibility under the law. NOTE: For sewage, a similar publication entitled, Sewage: Collection, Treatment & Disposal Where Public Sewers Are Not Available may be obtained from Ohio EPA's Division of Surface Water.

  • ii.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................................. I TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................................ II TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................... IV POLICY STATEMENT ON INFRASTUCTURE SECURITY FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS ...... V STATEMENT ON ALTERNATIVE WATER TREAMENT PROCESSES ..................................................... VI

    DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1 PUBLIC WATER SYSTEM (PWS) ............................................................................................................ 1 1.1 TYPES OF PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................... 1 1.2

    PROCEDURE FOR ESTABLISHING A SMALL PUBLIC GROUND WATER SYSTEM .... 2 CHAPTER 2 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................ 2 2.1 PLAN SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................................... 2 2.2 CONNECTION TO AN EXISTING APPROVED SYSTEM ................................................................................ 3 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROVED GROUND WATER SYSTEM .................................................................. 3 2.4 DEVELOP AN APPROVED STORAGE SYSTEM USING HAULED WATER ....................................................... 4 2.5 PLAN SUBMITTAL AND INFORMATION REQUIRED ON PLANS ..................................................................... 4 2.6

    SOURCE ............................................................................................................................ 6 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................ 6 3.1 AVAILABILITY OF WELL WATER ............................................................................................................. 6 3.2 QUALITY OF WATER ............................................................................................................................. 6 3.3 WELL SITE ACCEPTANCE...................................................................................................................... 7 3.4 BASIS OF DESIGN .............................................................................................................................. 10 3.5 NEW WELL CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................................ 17 3.6 APPROVAL OF EXISTING WELLS AS PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS ...................................................... 21 3.7 PUMPING TESTS ................................................................................................................................ 22 3.8 REPORTING ....................................................................................................................................... 23 3.9

    DISINFECTION OF WELLS .................................................................................................................... 24 3.10 SEALING OF WELLS THAT ARE NO LONGER USED OR NEEDED ............................................................. 26 3.11

    TREATMENT ................................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER 4 GENERAL .......................................................................................................................................... 28 4.1 EXEMPTIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 28 4.2 DISINFECTION .................................................................................................................................... 28 4.3 IRON AND MANGANESE REMOVAL ....................................................................................................... 32 4.4 ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING ................................................................................................................ 42 4.5 ADDITIONAL TREATMENT METHODS .................................................................................................... 43 4.6 WASTE DISPOSAL .............................................................................................................................. 45 4.7

    STORAGE ........................................................................................................................ 48 CHAPTER 5 GENERAL .......................................................................................................................................... 48 5.1 CLEARWELL STORAGE ....................................................................................................................... 48 5.2 GROUND LEVEL STORAGE .................................................................................................................. 48 5.3 ELEVATED STORAGE .......................................................................................................................... 49 5.4 HYDROPNEUMATIC TANKS .................................................................................................................. 50 5.5 CONSTANT PRESSURE SYSTEMS ........................................................................................................ 50 5.6

    DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................................................ 52 CHAPTER 6 PLAN SUBMITTAL ............................................................................................................................... 52 6.1 STANDARDS ...................................................................................................................................... 52 6.2 BACKFLOW PREVENTION AND CROSS-CONNECTION CONTROL ............................................................. 54 6.3

  • iii.

    LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURE 1: WELL ISOLATION RADIUS ................................................................................................................. 8 FIGURE 2: DETERMINING STORAGE REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 13 FIGURE 3: HOW TO CALCULATE STORAGE REQUIREMENTS .............................................................................. 14 FIGURE 4: WELL PROFILE AND CONSTRUCTION FORM ..................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 5: DISINFECTION ............................................................................................................................... 31 FIGURE 6: DISINFECTION WITH ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING .............................................................................. 31 FIGURE 7: IRON REMOVAL.............................................................................................................................. 34 FIGURE 8: IRON AND MANGANESE REMOVAL ................................................................................................... 34 FIGURE 9: IRON REMOVAL AND ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING ............................................................................. 35 FIGURE 10: ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING ........................................................................................

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