haemophilus - haemophilus influenzae type b severe bacterial infection, primarily in infants before

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  • HAEMOPHILUS

    THE BLOOD-LOVING BACILLI

  • HAEMOPHILUS

    • Tiny gram negative, pleomorphic rods

    • Nonmotile

    • Fastidious

    • Sensitive to drying, temperature extremes and disinfectants

  • • Some species are normal colonists of URT or vagina

    • Factor X, hemin

    • Factor V ( NAD or NADP)

    • Chocolate agar

  • Satellitism

  • • Aerobic gram-negative bacteria

    • Polysaccharide capsule

    • Six different serotypes (a-f) of

    polysaccharide capsule

    • 95% of invasive disease caused by

    type b (Hib)

    Haemophilus Influenzae

  • Haemophilus influenza

    • 1892 Pfeiffer, it was isolated from patients with “flu”

    • Real agent ‘influenza virus’( 40 years later) • Acute bacterial meningitis • Sporadic outbreaks in daycare and family

    settings. • Transmission by close contact and nose and

    throat discharges.

  • Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Severe Bacterial Infection, primarily in infants

    Before introduction of vaccines: • Leading cause of bacterial meningitis and other

    invasive bacterial disease - children

  • Clinical Presentation

    Meningitis: Fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, sensitivity to light (photophobia), coma; and in infants, poor feeding and a bulging fontanelle.

    Epiglottis: Sudden onset of sore throat, fever, and shortness of breath, progressing rapidly to difficulty swallowing and pooling and drooling of saliva due to the obstructed airway.

  • Cellulitis

    6%

    Arthritis

    8% Bacteremia

    2%

    M eningitis

    50%

    Epiglottitis

    17%

    Pneumonia

    15%

    Osteomyelitis

    2%

    Haemophilus influenzae type b Clinical Manifestations*

    *prevaccination era

  • Case Definition

    Clinical case definition

    Invasive disease caused by H. influenzae can produce any of several clinical syndromes, including meningitis, bacteremia, epiglottitis, or pneumonia.

    Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

    Isolation of H. influenzae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood or cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] or, less commonly, joint, pleural, or pericardial fluid).

  • • Treatment:

    - Combination of chloramphenicol and ampicillin

    - Prophylaxis:

    rifampin

    Hib vaccine, beginning at age 2 months with three follow-up boosters.

    available in combination with DTaP as TriHiBit

  • H.aegyptius

    • Acute communicable conjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    • Subconjunctival hemorrhage

    • Primarily in children • Spread with fingers • Gnats and flies • Antibiotic eydrops

  • H.ducreyi

    • Chancroid( soft chancre) • STDs prevalent in tropics subtropics • Afflicted mostly males • Transmitted by direct contact with infected

    lesions, • Incubation of 2-14 days • Lesions develop in genital or perianal area • Inflammatory macule that evolve into a painful

    necrotic ulcer similar to LGV and Syphilis

  • H.Parainfluenza & H.aphrophilus

    • Normal flora of oral and nasopharyngeal

    • Involved in infective endocarditis

    routine dental procedures

    periodontal disease

    some other oral injury

  • :یکتعداد خصوصیات تفریقی بین ھیموفیلوس ھا Species نیازمند Hemolysis

    XV H. influenza ( H. aegypticus) + + - H. parainfluenza - + - H. ducreyi + - - H. hemolyticus + + + H. para hemolyticus - + + H. aphrophilus - - -

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