hazard communication and chemical safety

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Hazard Communication and Chemical Safety

Hazard Communication and Chemical SafetyWhat is Hazard Communication?Hazards and dangers should be made known to all personnel involved.Right-to-know Law by OSHAUse of symbols, warnings and written documentation to alert personnel.NFPA Diamond, Pictograms, MSDS

Pictograms

HEALTH HAZARDFLAMEEXCLAMATION MARKGAS CYLINDERCORROSIONEXPLODINGBOMBFLAMEOVER CIRCLEENVIRONMENTSKULL&CROSSBONESThe final rule requires containers shipped six months after the information is available to be labeled correctly.Flame over CircleOxidizers4

Used as rocket fuel in spaceNo ignition source (flame is necessary)Mixing concentrated hydrogen peroxide with an organic material, in the presence of a catalyst will react on its own, causing a very hot flame. Bread with drops of peroxide + leather = hot flame

Class Rating Hazard Description Class 1 An oxidizing material whose primary hazard is that it may increase the burning rate of combustible material with which it comes in contact.

Class 2 An oxidizing material that will moderately increase the burning rate or which may cause spontaneous ignition of combustible material with which it comes in contact.

Class 3 An oxidizing material that will cause a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible material with which it comes in contact or which willundergo vigorous self-sustained decomposition when catalyzed or exposed to heat.

Class 4 An oxidizing material that can undergo an explosive reaction when catalyzed or exposed to heat, shock or friction.

TABLE 3 - Oxidizing Materials (as Classified by the NFPA)

Class Rating Examples Class 1 aluminum nitratepotassium dichromateammonium persulfate potassium nitratebarium chloratepotassium persulfatebarium nitratesilver nitratebarium peroxide sodium carbonate peroxidecalcium chlorate sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrionecalcium nitrate sodium dichromatecalcium peroxidesodium nitratecupric nitrate sodium nitritehydrogen peroxide (8-27.5%) sodium perborate lead nitratesodium perborate tetrahydratelithium hypochlorite sodium perchlorate monohydratelithium peroxidesodium persulfatemagnesium nitratestrontium chloratemagnesium perchloratestrontium nitratemagnesium peroxide strontium peroxidenickel nitrate zinc chloratenitric acid (91% conc.)perchloric acid (>72.5%)potassium superoxide

4

Flame

Flammables Pyrophorics Self-Heating Emits Flammable Gas Self-Reactives Organic Peroxides

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Pyrophoric chemicals are liquids and solids that will ignite spontaneously in air at about 130 degrees F.

Titanium dichloride and phosphorus are example of pyrophoric solids; tributylaluminum and related compounds are examples of pyrophoric liquids.

From Wikipedia on organic peroxides:

In polymer chemistryOrganic peroxides find numerous applications, often involving similar chemistry. Thus, peroxides serve as accelerators, activators, cross-linking agents, curing and vulcanization agents, hardeners, polymerisation initiators, and promoters. Drying oils, as found in many paints and varnishes function via the formation of hydroperoxides.Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoyl peroxide and to a smaller degree acetone peroxide are used as initiators for radical polymerization of some resins, e.g. polyester and silicone, often encountered when making fiberglass.

5Exploding Bomb

Explosives Self-Reactives Organic Peroxides

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Self-reactive Substances

What are unstable chemicals? Unstable or self-reactive substances are chemicals which have the potential to vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, temperature, light, or contact with another material. Major types of highly reactive chemicals are explosives, peroxides, water-reactives, and pyrophorics. What should I do when handling unstable chemicals? Always wear safety goggles, closed toe shoes, and gloves Handle under a hood if the reaction has the potential of creating gases If there is a chance of explosion, use barriers or other forms of isolation methods For some heat sensitive materials, temperature should be controlled. Date all containers when received or opened

6Skull and CrossbonesAcute Toxicity (fatal or toxic)7

7Health HazardCarcinogen Mutagenicity Reproductive Toxicity Respiratory Sensitizer Target Organ Toxicity Aspiration Toxicity

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Environment

Aquatic Toxicity (Non-Mandatory)

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Straightforward. Dead fish, dead tree.9Exclamation Mark

Irritant (skin and eye) Skin Sensitizer Acute Toxicity Narcotic Effects Respiratory Tract Irritant Hazardous to Ozone Layer (Non-Mandatory)

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Exclamation mark is for the weaker end. Irritant (Skin Irritation Category2 and Eye Irritation Category2A),

Dermal Sensitizer (Category1),

Acute Toxicity (Category 4,harmful),

Target Organ Toxicity/STOT Category 3 = narcoticeffects, respiratory irritation10Labels NFPA DiamondRED - FlammabilityBLUE - HealthYELLOW - ReactivityWHITE - Special

{NFPA National Fire Protection Association}11Labels - Health Hazard What the numbers show0 = No hazard1 = Slight hazard2 = Dangerous3 = Extreme danger4 = Deadly12 What do the numbers of the hazard show ?

0 = Minimal hazard1 = Slight hazard2 = Moderate hazard3 = Serious hazard4 = Severe hazard

Labels FlammabilityBased on Flash Point {the temperature at which a material gives off enough vapors to sustain ignition} What the numbers show0 = Will not burn1 = Ignites above 200 degrees F2 = Ignites below 200 degrees F3 = Ignites below 100 degrees F4 = Ignites below 73 degrees F

13 What do the numbers of the hazard show ?

0 = Minimal hazard1 = Slight hazard2 = Moderate hazard3 = Serious hazard4 = Severe hazard

Labels FlammabilityBased on Flash Point {the temperature at which a material gives off enough vapors to sustain ignition} What the numbers show0 = Will not burn1 = Ignites above 200 degrees F2 = Ignites below 200 degrees F3 = Ignites below 100 degrees F4 = Ignites below 73 degrees F

14 What do the numbers of the hazard show ?

0 = Minimal hazard1 = Slight hazard2 = Moderate hazard3 = Serious hazard4 = Severe hazard

Labels - Reactivity What the numbers show0 = Stable1 = Normally Stable2 = Unstable3 = Explosive4 = May detonate15 What do the numbers of the hazard show ?

0 = Minimal hazard1 = Slight hazard2 = Moderate hazard3 = Serious hazard4 = Severe hazard

Labels - Special Hazard

What the letters showOX= OxidizerACID= AcidALK= AlkaliCOR= Corrosive W= Use No Water = Radioactive16What the letters show

OX = Releases oxygen and will support combustionACID= Acid material ALK= Alkaline materialCOR= Corrosive materialW= Do not add or use water - will react violently Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)are one of the most important tools available to employers for providing information, and protectionto workers from hazardous chemicalswhich are used in the workplace.Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS)17This section will cover the format and content of MSDSmost important sectionsexposure limitsphysical propertiesPPE emergency procedures1910.1200 (g)(2) MSDS, required informationIdentity of the chemical Physical and chemical characteristics Physical hazardsChemical hazardsPrimary routes of entryPELs or other exposure limitsControl measuresEmergency procedures

Whether the hazardous chemical is listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Annual Report on Carcinogens precautions for safe handling and useDate of preparationName, address and telephone of the manufacturer

TargetOrganEffects19HepatotoxinsChemicals which produce liver damageSigns and Symptoms: Jaundice, liver enlargementChemicals: Carbon Tetrachloride, nitrosamines

20NephrotoxinsChemicals which produce kidney damageSigns and Symptoms: EdemaChemicals: Halogenated Hydrocarbons, uranium

21Edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in joints, but can be caused by a variety of other exposures, tight bandages etc...Agents which damage the lungsChemicals which damage pulmonary tissueSigns and Symptoms: Cough, tightness in the chest, loss of breathChemicals: Asbestos, silica

22Reproductive toxins Chemicals which damage reproductive capabilitiesIncludes chromosomal damage (mutations) and damage to fetuses (teratogenesis)Signs and Symptoms: Birth defects, sterilityChemicals: Lead

23Cutaneous hazardsChemicals which effect the dermal layer of the bodySigns and Symptoms: Defatting of the skin, rashes, irritationChemicals: Ketones, chlorinated compounds

24Eye hazardsChemicals which affect the eye or visual capacitySigns and symptoms: Conjunctivitis, corneal damage, blurred vision, burning or irritationChemicals: Solvents, corrosives

259/2/2015Industrial Safety Lecture Three26First Aid for Chemical ExposureIngestionInhalationSkin ContactEye ContactBurnsEmergency Procedures Chemical Spills (Appendix A CHP)Evacuate and call Public Safety at 911 for larger spill (>5-gallons) situationsTreat life threatening injuries immediatelyContain the spill - read MSDSWear protective equipment during clean-upBest response is preparation27Be familiar with the alarm system in your area. If the incident could threaten the health of individuals in the building or area, activate the alarm. At a minimum notify your supervisor or co-workers.

Attend to injured personnel if you are able to do so without jeopardizing your own safety. Dont put yourself at risk, unnecessarily.

You have to decide whether or not you can handle the spill situation. A significant number of the chemicals that we use in the science laboratories are considered to be toxic and pose adverse health effects. So

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