here comes …. the theory framing a shot camera shots camera shots include; extreme long shots...
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HERE COMES ….HERE COMES ….THE THEORYTHE THEORY
FRAMING A SHOTFRAMING A SHOT
Camera Shots include; extreme long shots
(ELS), long shot (LS), medium shot (MS), medium close-up (MCU), close-up (CU)
and extreme close up (ECU
•Generally a video sequence begins with an
establishing shot, a Long shot (LS).
•If a long shot is used of a character or characters, then the audience would remain detached from any emotional bond with the character's.
LONG SHOTLONG SHOT
MEDIUM SHOTMEDIUM SHOT
• The medium shot includes everything between a wide shot and a close up. The medium shot feels quite a bit like the way we perceive ourworld in real life.
CLOSE UPCLOSE UPThe close up provides details that are lacking in long or medium shots. Close ups allow viewers to become emotionally connected to the characters.
EXTREME CLOSE-UPEXTREME CLOSE-UP
CAMERA SHOTSCAMERA SHOTS
Long shot Medium shot Extreme long shot
Medium close-up Close-up Extreme Close-up
CUT AWAY OR OVER THE SHOULDERCUT AWAY OR OVER THE SHOULDER
• A cutaway is a shot away from the main action. For instance, if you are interviewing someone, a cutaway could be a shot of the interviewer, who can be listening, nodding, or responding to the guest. This is used a lot in interviews to show the person who's asking the questions.
• This particular shot is also called "over the shoulder" because the photographer is literally shooting video of you over the shoulder of the person you are interviewing. (An over the shoulder shot is a type of cutaway).
• These are very useful when editing because they give you an easy way to transition.
OVER THE SHOULDEROVER THE SHOULDER
TWO SHOT/THREE SHOTTWO SHOT/THREE SHOT
• Two Shot/Three Shot - a two shot has two people in the frame. A three shot has three people in the frame. Because you have to be some distance from the people to get them all in the frame, this is usually a medium or wide shot.
ASSIGNMENT #1Getting to know you
Students will demonstrate their understanding of these shots composing and recording a LS, MS and CU.
The student who is being filmed will use the opportunity to who is being filmed to introduce themselves to me and the class! Tell me a little bit about who you are and what things you like to do.
Each student composes and records shots and then serves as
the subject for the next student.
ASSIGNMENT #1 B
• If you and your group have finished all of the work needed to begin filming but you don’t have a camera to use, then you should complete ASSIGNMENT 1B and hand in as part of a quiz mark.
•Shooting techniques are very important, such as:
B.Head roomC. Lead Room
D. Camera Movements: pan, tilt, zoom
E. Background compositionF. Size shotsG. Tripod
SHOOTING TECHNIQUESSHOOTING TECHNIQUES
The selection and arrangement of images within shots to provide the maximum aesthetic and technical effects desired is called composition.
• Poor Composition Techniques Include: •over use of the zoom, erratic panning, subject matter is out of focus, subject content is not held long enough or held to long.
RULE OF THIRDSRULE OF THIRDS
• This classic rule suggests that the center of the camera's attention is one-third of the way down from the top of the shot.
• Wherever the lines intersect is an interest point. Place items you want to highlight on these intersections. If you are shooting a close-up, be sure that the eyes are in the upper third of the screen.
HEAD ROOM AND LEAD ROOMHEAD ROOM AND LEAD ROOM
• Two important aspects of composition are head room and lead room
•When subjects are being framed in the viewfinder, you should leave a slight space above their heads.
HEAD ROOMHEAD ROOM
Too little head room
Too much head room
Lead room is the space in front, and in the direction, of moving subjects or objects in a video scene. Well-composed shots leave space in the direction the subject is moving.
Too Little Lead room
Better Lead Room Correct Lead Room
LEAD ROOMLEAD ROOM
SHOT MOVEMENTSHOT MOVEMENT
Zooming in and out changes the focal length and, therefore the size of the image with varying speeds
while the camera is stationary. Zoom - This shot moves you closer to the subject, into a Medium Shot or Close Shot. If you are looking at the Macdonald Bridge, and you want to see individual people walking across it, you might zoom in.Reverse Zoom - This shot moves you farther away into a Medium Shot or a Wide Shot. If you have a close up shot of a flower, and want to see the entire field that the flower is in, you will reverse zoom..
Dollying refers to moving the camera forward or backward in a scene.
• Trucking moves the camera to the left or right, parallel to the subject. Trucking lets the camera follow lateral action. The shot is usually a neutral angle shot. The distance usually remains constant between the subject and the camera during trucking, but it can also include zooming in or out
•Pan - A shot taken moving on a horizontal plane (from left to right, right to left ). If you want to show a Frisbee flying across a field, you might use this shot to follow the Frisbee from one person to another.
Types of PanTypes of Pan
• Whip pan – A fast panning technique. It is used to create. It is used to create a sense of heightened energy.
(Danger: may cause motion sickness) • Spraying – the camera pans in one
direction and then quickly pans back in the opposite direction
•Tilt - Camera movement in a vertical plane. (up or down) If you want to show a tall building but you can't get it all in your shot, you might start at the bottom of the building and go up to the top.
RULESRULES• Three notes about shot movement:• 1 - A note about photographer responsibility - you owe it to your
viewers not to make them motion sick, unless, of course, that is your goal! Rapid pans, tilts, repeated zooms can make a person feel woozy, and may also prevent them from clearly seeing the video you collected.
• 2 - The standard rule with moving shots is this: whenever possible, start your sequence stationary on a subject, then pan/tilt/zoom/reverse zoom, then hold stationary again. This helps enormously for editing purposes. For example, if you want to move your camera from one end of a mountain range to another, start focused on one side of the mountain range and hold that shot for three seconds (stationary position), then pan to the other side (slowly enough so the video won't be a blur), then stay focused on the other end of the mountain range for three seconds (stationary position). If you edit or cut away in the middle of a pan/zoom/tilt/reverse zoom, you may make your viewer disoriented.
• 3 - In general, use shots with movement sparingly. Try to put a still shot (no pan, tilt, or zooming) in between two pans/tilts/zooms. This gives the viewer a moment to get their bearings.
Each student should record a shot on his/her own tape demonstrating proper lead room and proper head room.
You must also record a pan, tilt and zoom. Each student composes and records shots and then serves as the subject for the next student.
Before you start…let’s discuss taking care of your tapes.
• Pack it
• Label it
• Recording speeds SP, SLP , LP
• Keeping it : temperature smart, break it off, rewind!
ODDS AND ENDS..
Background CompositionBackground Composition
• When you are framing in the viewfinder, be very observant of the area behind the subject (so it not distracting to the viewer.
Background shows depth
A tripod is a three-legged camera mount offering stability and camera placement/movement consistency.
•A tripod's purpose can be described in the Three S Theory.
•Tripods keep it Steady, keep it Straight and keep it Smooth.
• Watch the screen as we demonstrate the high angel, low angle and canting shots.
• Be careful when using these shots as you don’t want to give your audience the wrong impression.
• Review your notes, and be prepared to have a theory quiz tomorrow.
• Finish up any odds and ends
• Play with the cameras
• Material for these slides was provided by…