hericium ramosum - comb’s tooth fungi · 2019-04-02 · hericium ramosum - comb’s tooth fungi...

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(The Hericium ...continued on page 3) 2005 No. 4 FEATURE MUSHROOM The Hericium ramosum ... pg 1 RECIPE ... pg 10 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE It has been a busy and successful year ... pg 2 PAST EVENTS Lambert Creek ... pg 5 Alberta Foray ... pg 6 & 7 Sorrentino’s Mushroom Walk & Dinner ... pg 9 Hericium ramosum is a delicately flavoured fungi that is easily recognized and has medicinal properties as well. Photo courtesy: Loretta Puckrin. This year we have been featuring the finalists of the “Pick a Wild Mushroom, Alberta!” project. Although the winner was the Leccinum boreale all the finalists are excellent edibles which show the variety of mushroom shapes common in Alberta. If all you learned were these three finalists and the ever popular morel you would have a useable harvest every year. The taste and medicinal qualities of each is very different so you not only have variety in shape and location but in taste and value as well. If you learn about various edible species and hunt for harvest you will become a mycophagist. Although you won’t need four years of university to get this designation, you will find that over the lifetime of learning about and harvesting mushroom you will put in more time than the average university student and probably enjoy it much more. Although often shy and hard to find, this delicious fungus family is a favourite of new mushroom pickers as all the ‘look alikes’ are edible as well. With their white fruiting bodies against the dark trunks of trees, this fungus is easily spotted and often produces moments of rapt viewing before the picking begins. People knowledgeable in the medicinal Hericium ramosum - comb’s tooth fungi UPCOMING EVENTS ... pg 10 MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS ... pg 11 & 12 NAMA FORAY & CONFERENCE ... pg 9 MEMBERSHIP .. pg 4 WHAT A DIFFERENCE A YEAR MAKES ... pg 8

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Page 1: Hericium ramosum - comb’s tooth fungi · 2019-04-02 · Hericium ramosum - comb’s tooth fungi UPCOMING EVENTS... pg 10 MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS... pg 11 & 12 NAMA FORAY & CONFERENCE

1Winter - 2005 No. 4www.wildmushrooms.ws

(The Hericium ...continued on page 3)

2005 No. 4

FEATUREMUSHROOMThe Hericiumramosum... pg 1


... pg 10


It has been abusy andsuccessful year... pg 2


Lambert Creek ... pg 5

Alberta Foray ... pg 6 & 7

Sorrentino’s MushroomWalk & Dinner ... pg 9

Hericium ramosum is a delicately flavoured fungi that is easily recognized and has medicinalproperties as well. Photo courtesy: Loretta Puckrin.

This year we have beenfeaturing the finalists of the “Picka Wild Mushroom, Alberta!”project. Although the winner was

the Leccinum boreale all thefinalists are excellent edibles whichshow the variety of mushroomshapes common in Alberta. If allyou learned were these threefinalists and the ever popular

morel you would have a useableharvest every year. The taste andmedicinal qualities of each is verydifferent so you not only havevariety in shape and location but intaste and value as well. If you learn

about various edible species andhunt for harvest you will become amycophagist. Although you won’tneed four years of university to getthis designation, you will find thatover the lifetime of learning about

and harvesting mushroom you willput in more time than the averageuniversity student and probablyenjoy it much more.

Although often shy and hardto find, this delicious fungus family

is a favourite of new mushroompickers as all the ‘look alikes’ are

edible as well. With their whitefruiting bodies against the darktrunks of trees, this fungus iseasily spotted and often produces

moments of rapt viewing before thepicking begins. Peopleknowledgeable in the medicinal

Hericium ramosum

- comb’s tooth fungi


... pg 10


... pg 11 & 12


... pg 9



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2 Winter- 2005 No. 4 www.wildmushrooms.ws

President’s Message 2005 ExecutiveEdmonton Mycological Society

President: Markus Thormann(780) 432-1392

[email protected]

Past President: Peter Arabchuk(780) 479-6630

[email protected]

1st Vice President: Mike Schulz(780) 939-2106

[email protected]

Membership: Alan Fleming(780) 463-8540

[email protected]

Treasurer: Loretta Puckrin(780) 458-9889

[email protected]

Secretary: Melanie Fjoser(780) 987-4412

[email protected]

Foray Coordinator: Bill Richards(780) 998-3507

[email protected]

Program Director: Martin Osis(780) 987-4412

[email protected]

Newsletter Editor: Geri Kolacz(780) 475-7927

[email protected]

Mailing: Diane Murray

Directors-at-large:Pieter Van Der Schoot

(780) 696-2436

Robert Rogers(780) 433-7882


Edmonton Mycological Society1921, 10405 Jasper Avenue

Standard Life BuildingEdmonton, AB T5J 3S2

WEBSITE ADDRESS:www.wildmushrooms.ws

Markus Thormann, president of theEdmonton Mycological Society

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Another mushroom season isclosing slowly, and it is time toformulate some final thoughtsabout our past year’s activities. TheEMS elected a new executive inApril and began to develop aprogram for 2005 shortly thereafter.It has been an excellentmushrooming year, which is veryevident in the species lists publishedin this year’s newsletters. We wenton 11 forays in the foothills,southern boreal forest, urbancentres, and the aspen parkland andfound a myriad of differentbasidiomycetes, ascomycetes, jellyfungi, and slime molds. Many ofthese fungi were edible and haveended up in various dishesthroughout the year or were dried,frozen, or pickled for laterenjoyment.

Our regular monthly meetingswere highlighted by a number ofexcellent presentations on digitalphotography, common and obscureedible mushrooms, and how to goabout identifying all those fungithat grow throughout the growingseason. The EMS web site and theSpore Print were redesigned in2005, and both look stellar! A truetestament that the EMS is maturingand progressing in the right

direction. So far, our new web sitehas been visited well over 1,350times since its mid-July launchdate. Our annual “City ofChampignons” Mushroom Expo-sition in early August once againwas a huge success. Recently, Ireceived a phone call from aDevonian Botanic Garden staffmember, thanking us for organizingthis event and holding it on theirgrounds. It is tremendously popularwith the visitors to the BotanicGarden, I was informed. In earlySeptember, our first ever AlbertaForay near Rocky Mountain Houseyielded an astounding richness offungi. The data have not all beentallied yet, but in two short days, wecollected about 500 different speciesof fungi (!!!). Many of them havenot been identified to either genusor species yet and await furtherprocessing in the near future. Thishas been an event that was verywell received by all in attendance. Ilook forward to the next AlbertaForay!

I am sure that 2006 will be anequally, if not more successful year.We can look forward to finishing(hopefully) our “Pick a WildMushroom, Alberta” campaign, theNorth American MycologicalAssociation foray will take placenear Hinton in August, we’llcontinue to expand our digitalfungus image collection, andperhaps take the first small stepstowards a database of fungi inAlberta. I am very excited aboutthese projects.

I want to thank each memberof the EMS executive and variousinternal committees for their help,advice, and countless hours ofvolunteer time throughout the firstyear of my tenure as president.Last but not least, without ourmembers from across Alberta, theEMS would not be what it is today.I thank all of you for making theEdmonton Mycological Society oneof the best natural history clubs inAlberta. My hat goes off to all ofyou!

I wish you all a festiveupcoming holiday season filled withlots of mushroom dinners.

Cheers and all the best for 2006.See you all next year.

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3Winter - 2005 No. 4www.wildmushrooms.ws

The Hericium(continued from page 1)

uses of mushrooms claim that thisfamily enhances the immunesystem and helps to preventcancers of the stomach, esophagusand skin.

The genus Hericium hasthree edible species commonlycalled the Conifer Coral (Hericiumabietis), the Comb and the Lion’smane (or Old Man’sBeard)(Hericium erinaceus). Themajor differences between thesespecies is the number of branchesand the length of the spines or‘teeth’ on the specimen. They areall white in colour but differ as towhat type of trees and the amountof decay required for them to grow

and fruit. The Conifer Coral, asthe name suggests, grow primarilyon fir and Douglas-fir trees whichhave died. The specimens are mostcommon in the Pacific Northwestand should not be expected to be

sighted in Alberta. Largespecimens can weigh over 100 kg.So you might want to consider atrip out west during its growingseason.

The Lion’s Mane variety is so

dense with branches andteeth that you can’t seethe branches untilyou cut into yoursample. This hasthe longest spinesof the threevarieties andprefers the woundsof living hardwoodtrees for its growth.

The Hericium ramosum

is a more delicate variety withevident branches and fine shorter‘icicles’ or ‘teeth’ decending fromthe branches. The teeth are fairlyevenly distributed along thebranches and normally vary from3-10 mm in length. This varietyprefers growing on older felled logsand stumps in solitary clumps

rather than in groups. When thewhite mushroom starts to turn

yellow it should be left for anotheryear as it is too old to eat. Of allthe Hericium this is the mostcommon variety in North Americaand can be found almost anywhere

in this continent.

Theseason for

Hericiumramosumis latesummerthrough

fall but it isvery fussy

about climaticconditions and can

skip several years before

appearing. Once a spot is foundkeep visiting it every year as thisspecies is likely to re-fruit in thesame area, if not on the same tree.

This species of mushroom hasa very light delicate flavour and

should be cooked with other foodsthat have mild tastes. When

cooked with strongly flavouredfoods, Hericium ramosum ends up

contributing more fibre than taste.Some EMS members prefer usingHericium ramosum with scrambledeggs as a morning dish to maximizethe flavour and fry it with minimalseasoning which otherwise might

mask the mushroom taste. Othermembers use this mushroom withrice as both the flavours are light.

The names of mushrooms arealways changing as scientists learnmore about the various species.

Hericium was once classified asHydnum coralloides and placed inthe same family as the Hedgehogmushroom due to the spines foundon both species. The word‘hericium’ means hedgehog inlatin. Now Hericium is a genusunto itself but this may changewith the DNA typing of specimenswhich often suggests othercommonalities that looks alonedon’t show.

Loretta Puckrin


of what it is called,

by classification or

common name, it is

a delicious edible.

The Hericium family contains a number of species. The Hericium ramosum is one thatcan be found in our area. Photo courtesy: John Thompson.

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4 Winter- 2005 No. 4 www.wildmushrooms.ws

From the pen of our Membership CoordinatorI’m still shaking my head. Just

a year ago I joined the EMS(Edmonton Mycological Society)knowing nothing about wildmushrooms nor the EMS. Now hereI am your Membership Coordinatorand enjoying the experience ofmeeting so many wonderful like-minded people. We are a diversegroup of dedicated individuals whowant to expand our knowledge ofall aspects of wild mushrooms.Some people have joined forscientific purposes, some to learnabout their medicinal values andthe rest of us just want to learnhow to identify and enjoy themultitude of edible varieties.

The Edmonton MycologicalSociety presently consists of morethan 140 members in good

standing, made up of family groups(2 or more), individual membersand students.

Most EMS members alreadyknow the benefits of being part ofthe Club. However I will rehashsome of them. Also in the eventNon-Members read this article I willtake this opportunity to encouragethem to become new members.

Well now, what are thebenefits of joining our club?

There are many, but a few ofthe key ones are:

� four high quality newsletters(Spore Print) per yearcontaining information onspecific mushrooms, club events,meetings and general mushroompicking data are produced.

� information on when and where

various mushrooms startappearing – we have some veryactive members who seem tohave the uncanny knack offinding the first of a variety forthe season.

� monthly meetings during theseason with guest speakers onmushroom related topics.

� access to our mushroomidentification database that ispresently under construction.

� mushroom picking guided walks/ forays – throughout themushrooming season – locationand timings are only available tomembers.

� information on mushroomidentification, books, keys, on-site field identification,information etc.

� access to other clubs throughoutNorth America.

� access to local mycologists.

� information about internationalmushroom picking forays.

Alan Fleming

Membership Registration Form

Name: .................................................................................................................................................

Address: ..............................................................................................................................................

City: ...................................................... Prov: ....................... Postal Code: ................................

Email: .................................................................................................................................................

Phone: ( ) ........................................................................................................................................

� Individual Membership ... $25.00 per year � Student Membership ... $15.00 per year

� Family Membership ...$35.00 per year


Membership information is for the sole use of the Edmonton Mycological SocietyIf you do not wish this information to be available to members please check the box below:

� Please do not make my membership information available to other members.

Take the time NOW to renew your membership for 2006

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5Winter - 2005 No. 4www.wildmushrooms.ws

This year’s weather for theAugust Lambert Creek Foray wasone of the warmest weekends weexperienced this summer. The bitinginsects were also bountiful. Threeparties arrived on Friday evening tocamp overnight and fifteenmembers in total went on Saturdaymorning to find gypsy, hedgehogand man on horseback specimens.As usual many other specimenswere collected.

We found three pinemushrooms, which I understand arehighly prized and called Matsutakein Japan. There were some largetamarack boletes, a good number ofhedgehog and gypsy mushroomsand the not so common NorthernPestle mushroom. The groupdispersed in the afternoon, withsome members having to returnhome.

Bill Richards, with help fromsome of the group, again diligentlyidentified the various specimens andeventually fried up samples to taste.This tasting and sampling iscertainly one of the favoriteactivities at the foray outings.

One member coupleparticipated in their very firstforay and was awed by thediversity of mushrooms. Theyshared a wonderful mushroom dipwhich was consumed as allcongregated around a largecrackling fire in the evening.

Since we had been madeaware of a bear being sighted in thevicinity, precautions were taken notto leave anything edible outovernight. Fortunately the critternever showed up.

Sunday arrived as a nicewarm day again. Some of the

overnight campers brokecamp to foray in anotherarea while some stayed toforay at Lambert Creek andleft for home around noon.

A good time was hadby all and most of uslearned to identify yetanother mushroom.

My husband and Ijoined the society one yearago, enjoyed the company oflikeminded people, had funbeing outdoors and learneda lot about mushrooms byparticipating in the foraysthis year.

Story and photos byGerlinde and Claus Cegielny

Lambert Creek ForayAugust 26-28, 2005 Albatrellus ovinus

Boletus sp.Cantharellus tubaeformiscf. Bankera violascensChroogomphus vinicolorClavariadelphus borealisClavariadelphus sachalinensisClitocybe odoraCoprinus comatusCortinarius alboviolaciusCystoderma amianthinumFomitopsis cajanderiFomitopsis pinicolaFuscoboletinus ochraceoroseusFuscoboletinus spectabilisGloeophyllum sepiariumGloeophyllum trabeumGomphidius glutinosusGomphus clavatusHelvella crispaHydnellum peckiiHydnellum pineticolaHydnemum RepandumHygrocybe conicaHygrophorus chrysodonHygrophorus eburneusHygrophorus erubescensHygrophorus saxatilisLaccaria bicolorLaccaria laccataLactarius aspideoidesLactarius deliciosusLactarius repraesentaneusLactarius resimusLactarius rufusLactarius scrobiculatusLactarius subtorminosusLactarius uvidusLeccinum insigneLeccinum snelliiLycogala epidendrumLycoperdon perlatumOtidea onoticaPhellinus piniPhellinus tremulaePholiota squarrosaPleurotus ostreatusRamaria sp.Rozites caperataRussula nigricansRussula subfoetensSarcodon imbricatusSpathularia spathulaliaStropharia aeruginosaSuillus brevipesSuillus cavipesSuillus granulatusSuillus tomentosusSuillus umbonatusTrametes pubescensTrichaptum biformeTricholoma flavovirensTricholoma magnivelareTricholoma zelleri

Lambert Creek Foray List

Some of our members having fun sorting andidentifying an assortment of mushrooms that werepicked on the foray.

Bill Richards, the foray leader, showseveryone an excellent specimen of a Rozitescaperata or gypsy mushroom.

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6 Winter- 2005 No. 4 www.wildmushrooms.ws

It has been a good season forfall mushrooms in Alberta.

During the Labour Dayweekend, we were fortunate enoughto participate with members of theEdmonton Mycological Society intheir 1st Alberta Foray – a 3 dayevent. It was held at the CrimsonLake Hall near Rocky MountainHouse, 2 hours north-west ofCalgary

Many camped in the area;others stayed in local bed andbreakfasts or motels/hotels. Forayswere held each morning andafternoon and all meals (whichincluded of a diversity of mushroomdishes) were prepared by volunteersin a rented community hall.

The 30 participatants foundapproximately 500 differentmushrooms, including a couplewhich may be new finds for Alberta– and even for North America. Wefound 150 Cortinarius specimensalone! Experts from the club,including several mycologists usinga large number of references andmicroscopes, spent long hoursidentifying the specimens. Adatabase will be formeddocumenting the finds. LeonardHutchison (a former member of theclub), now a mycologist in theForestry Dept. at LakeheadUniversity, attended and assistedwith identification.

This was the first time that theclub had found chanterelles duringa foray in Alberta and they wereplentiful, supplying food for anumber of meals.

We received a warm welcome;learned a lot; met some greatpeople; and generally had a funtime. We look forward toparticipating again next year, whenthe NAMA foray will be hosted bythe society.

Ethel Luhtanen

‘shrooming in Alberta

Some of the individuals thatcame to Crimson Lake for ourfirst Alberta Foray.(top)Thanks to everyone who helpedget meals ready and the cleanupwent like clockwork (left).

Hmmmm, these are sure goingto taste great! (bottom).

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7Winter - 2005 No. 4www.wildmushrooms.ws

Species ListThe Edmonton

Mycological Society had acollecting permit for thecollection of specimenswithin Crimson LakeProvincial Park and wealso collected in severalother sites on adjacentland, including theproposed Rocky MountainHouse Natural Area. Therewere about 500 specimenscollected. Of those 200were identified to species.120 Cortinarius, 25

Russula, 11 Lactarius, 10Hobeloma, 5 Inocybe, and 5Tricholoma were identifiedto genera and the rest areto be worked on todetermine their species and

genera.It is possible that we

found a new species forNorth American andseveral new species forAlberta, but much work is

needed to both verify andcomplete the collection list.

Bill Richards

Photos courtesy of George andAnne Litven, Alan Fleming andRosalind Quail.

Bill, Markus, Mike, Martinand Leonard spent a majoramount of their timeidentifying the hugeassortment of fungi thateveryone enthusiasticallypicked.Ethel Luhtanen and LeonardHutchison (bottom left)discussing, what else,mushrooms.(Bottom right) A sampling ofthe mushrooms that werefound

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8 Winter- 2005 No. 4 www.wildmushrooms.ws

We became aware of the EMS

during the media campaign for the

PAWMA (Pick a Wild Mushroom

Alberta). As a result of this past

year’s exposure to the fungi

kingdom the evening stroll is

forever changed. Several weeks ago

we were walking through a small

neighborhood park that has been on

our regular route for many a year.

Suddenly we became aware of a

Suillus that had to be collected and

studied. After reviewing all thedistinguishing characteristics of the

mushroom and pouring over our

rapidly expanding mushroomlibrary, the species was verified andthe pan was readied. As novices to

the process a successful conclusion

may not always be achieved;however, there is no greaterexcitement than completing our

first independent identification.

Our first foray took us toLambert Creek mid September2004. We learned that under certain

conditions a great variety ofmushrooms do “grow in the snow”

and in greatabundance. The2005 season beganon a delightfulspring like day inMarch in the PoplarCreek area on aPolypore Foray. Themedicinalproperties of thepolypores meritgreater attention,and we have cometo know severalpeople who are

enthusiastic about

sharing information

on how to take

advantage of these

attributes. In May

the morels and

verpas were quite

elusive (at least to our

inexperienced eyes). Perhaps it was

the glorious display of vivid blue

and buttercup yellow spring flowers

that distracted the eyes. A wet

weekend in June did not dampen

our enthusiasm as we joined club

members that congregated at the

Poplar Creek area in search of

oyster mushrooms. We spent a

wonderful evening trading stories

with our fellow ‘shroomers, as we

shared some wild mushroom soups,

spit roasted pork and an assortmentof other mushroom dishes. For usthe highlight of the Ashland Dam

Foray was the opportunity to

practice using the identification keythat Martin had developed. TheFirst Alberta Foray in September

was an incredible experience with

the collection of about 500 species ofmushrooms, a few of which may berecorded for the first time in

Alberta, and copious quantities ofCantharellus tubaeformis to feast

on. These are just a few of thehighlights from this past year.

Underlying all of this havebeen the terrific people we havebecome acquainted with that havecontributed immensely to ourenjoyment of these activities in thepast year. Club members alert uswhen mushrooms are making theirappearance for the season, assist inthe process of recognizing likelyenvironments, developingidentification skills and provideinformation on harvesting,processing and storage of thesetreasures. We can soak oysters in apan of salty water or smoke the wee

beasties out before your familyknow they have been there.

Our fellow amateurmycologists are a cross section ofprivate industry, the public sector,retirees and moms caring for thenext generation of shroomers. Thiseclectic group has wide ranging

interests and expertise in manyareas of our ecosystem, e.g. Rub thebark of an aspen and apply to yourface to benefit from its sun block

properties. Stop a moment and

enjoy the wild Alberta orchid that

Pieter has pointed out. Did that pair

of overflying Sandhill Cranes nest in

the area or are they on their waysouth? Provide relief for your tiredaching feet by placing alder leaves inthe bottom of your footwear.

Troubled by gout, gather and steepsome wild Sassafras roots.

As we review our participationat the end of year one it occurs to usthat we have been fortunate tostumble onto an organization thatwill afford us with many anopportunity for continued learning.It has been a fascinatingintroduction to the field of Mycology

and we are looking toward to manyyears of expanding on this basicknowledge with this diverse group

of individuals that comprise theEMS.

Rae Fleming

What a Difference a Year Makes

Rae and Alan Fleming with the king of boletes -- Boletus edulis.Photo courtesy: Loretta Puckrin

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9Winter - 2005 No. 4www.wildmushrooms.ws

NAMA Foray and Conference

Mushroom Walk & DinnerOn September 10, forty

mushroom enthusiasts met atSorrentino’s West to partake in amushroom walk and dinnersponsored by Sorrentino’s and ledby Martin Osis, our ProgramDirector. Most of the forayers werenot members of the EdmontonMycological Society, but had aninterest in mushrooms from aculinary perspective. This walk waspart of the restaurant chains’annual Mushroom Harvest event,which spans the month ofSeptember and is now in its 11th

year.We set off along Wolf Willow

Road, picking fairy ring mushroomshere and diverse agarics there, allthe while Martin explaining whatthese mushrooms were and whattheir roles are in the grand schemeof things. We turned into WestridgePark and continued our mini-foray.

After about an hour and a halfforaying the lawns and bushes alongthe multipurpose trail, we hadcollected over 150 mushrooms,which represented 19 differentspecies, including many ediblespecies.

We then made our way back toSorrentino’s West for thesubsequent 3-course mushroompasta dinner, especially prepared forthis event. Martin made the roundsto every table and spoke with ourfellow mushroom hunters aboutmushrooms, mycology, mushroombooks, and the EdmontonMycological Society, which resultedin a few new memberships. I thankMartin for leading the mini-forayand Arleigh Stockwell, Marketing &Promotions Coordinator forSorrentino’s, to work with ourSociety and establish a mutuallybeneficial relationship. This was

As some of you may havealready heard, the North AmericanMycological Association (NAMA) isplanning on holding their annual2006 foray in Hinton, August 17-20(Thursday to Sunday) . This is aninternational gathering of bothprofessional and amateurmycologists. This is exciting forseveral reasons. The main reason isthat we get to mingle and learn fromsome of the best experts in theworld. Remember that NAMA is anorganization dedicated to, and tosome extent run by, amateurs. Thismeans that they are mostlyinterested in looking at the largermacro fungi, especially the fruitingbodies or mushrooms. This of courseis what interests most of us.

Secondly, NAMA leaves nomushroom unidentified. We will getthe opportunity to see and record thenames of mushrooms that we havenever been able to identify before.NAMA foray collections are all

NAMA Foray and Conferencepreserved and put into herbaria,giving another great boost to ourclub’s goal of assembling adatabase of all Alberta fungi.

A third reason is that wehope to record much of theconference / lecture portion of theforay as well as record some of theforays in the woods. This wouldbecome a major component of oureducation program both for in-club use and as education materialfor other Albertans.

To make this foray a success,both as a learning experience andfinancially, we will need to ask ourmembers to come forward in theirvarious areas of expertise and helpus organize the event. We willrequire help with:�People who are familiar with

coordinating transportation andentertainment.

�People who are familiar withAudio visual equipment andrecording devices. As well as

people who can help edit and puttogether Discs and DVDs.

�People who could collect doorprizes and other sponsorshipitems. Others who can help in therunning of an on-site marketselling books, DVDs, discs, drinks,poster and such.

�Coordinate printing and assemblyof Foray programs and handouts.

�People to help man registrationand information/ help desks.

�People to help coordinate & leadforays making sure that no one isleft out in the woods.

The best way to get the mostout of any event is to volunteer andplan on attending the entireweekend. We need yourcommitment now to be a part ofthis unique opportunity.

Please contact Martin at

[email protected] orphone 780 987-4412 with anyquestions, comment and suggestionson how you can help.

the first such event, and we hope tocontinue to further our relationshipwith Sorrentino’s in the years tocome.

Markus Thormann

Species listAgaricus sp.Armillaria mellea groupCalocera sp.Clavicorona pyxidataCoprinus comatuscf. Hebeloma sp.Hydnum repandumHygrophorus sp.Lactarius deliciosusLactarius spp.Leucoagaricus naucinusLycoperdon sp.Marasmius oreadesMarasmius sp.Paxillus involutusPolyporus cf. variusRussula cf. olivaceaRussals sp.Suillus grevellii

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10 Winter- 2005 No. 4 www.wildmushrooms.ws


Annual General MeetingFebruary, 2006.

Watch for details in your email messages.

EMS Bylaw


At the last regular meetingon September 28, 2005, themembership in attendancevoted unanimously in favour tohold the Annual GeneralMeeting (AGM) in February ofeach year. This change of datefor the AGM from October toFebruary has been made in theBylaws of the EdmontonMycological Society and iseffective immediately.Consequently, our next AGM

will be held in February 2006.The membership of theEdmonton Mycological Societywill be notified of the exact dateand agenda in due time.

Markus Thormann

President, EdmontonMycological Society

Need a ride? Found somemushrooms and would like to let

everyone know that they are out?Have some information that youwould like to share with the rest ofthe club?

There is an easy way.Just email your questions or

information to:[email protected]

This is the general site for all themembers who have emails. The listis never given out. This protects themembers but allows anyone toaccess the group.

The Edmonton MycologicalSociety is looking for a

Communications Co-ordinator.If you are interested or needmore information about the

position, please emailMarkus Thormann, EMS

president at

[email protected]

Markus Thormann will be giving a talkto the general public onNovember 22, 2005

at 7:00 pm at Riverbend Library.

Mushroom PateIngredients:150 grams of dried mushrooms (can be mixed)3 medium spanish or white onions3 dried kaiser buns with crust removed3 tbsp chopped hazelnuts (you may wish to use more for the coating)1/2 lb. butter5 eggs (separate)1 cup sour creamSalt & Pepper to taste

1. Wash mushrooms, cover with hot water and let sit overnight.2. Save the liquid from the mushrooms and soak the dried buns in this

liquid. Chop onions. Melt all but 1 tbsp of butter in pan. Fry onionsand mushrooms. Add buns (squeeze out the water). Cook the

mushrooms, onions and buns for a few more minutes stirringconstantly.

3. Transfer the mixture to a bowl and add 2 tbsp of hazelnuts, S&P, eggyolks, and sour cream. Mix well. Beat egg whites and then mix withthe other ingredients in the bowl.

4. Grease a tureen with the reserved butter. Place the rest of thechopped hazelnuts in the pan. Put the ingredients from the bowl ontop of the hazelnuts. Cover with aluminum foil and bake at 180°C forone hour.

Recipe courtesy of Judy Lasinski

There will not beanother Calendar of Eventspublished until after theAnnual General Meeting.Please check your emailsfor information on thePolypore Foray that is beingplanned, probably forFebruary of 2006.

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11Winter - 2005 No. 4www.wildmushrooms.ws

Agaricus may derive fromagrarius meaning growing in thefields, or from the GreekAGARIKON. Agaric is used todescribe all mushrooms with gills,and comes from the name of a pre-Scythian people, the Agari, who wereskilled in the use of medicinal plants,including mushrooms. They used afungus called Agaricum, which wasprobably a Fomes polypore.Bitorquis means having two rings,for the double annulus thatdistinguishes it from its closerelatives.

Button is related to the size andshape. The term button mushroomis an English slang term for smallmale genitalia.

There is some controversywhich of these is the relative of thefamiliar supermarket mushroom.According to Dr. Malloch, A.brunnescens (formerly A. bisporus) isthe winner. Others believe a purewhite field mushroom, discovered bya farmer in 1926, is the originalparent of today’s supermarketmushrooms.

In 1998, over 860 millionpounds of this mushroom were soldon the American market. Few aregrown organically, and in fact, theindustry heavily uses pesticides.

The Field mushroom containsmany valuable trace vitamins suchas B1, C, P, K. etc, and takenregularly prevents many problems

Medicinal Mushrooms

such as beriberi, debility,loss of appetite,indigestion, andinsufficient breast milksecretion. It alsoprevents the rupturingof capillaries, gum andabdominal bleeding, andpellagra.

Vitamin K, ahemaglutinin, can beextracted from A.campestris. It containscampestrin that iseffective against bothgram positive andnegative bacteria; and

used traditionally fortreating tuberculosisand sinusitis.

Inhibition rate againstsarcoma 180 and Ehrlichcarcinoma is 80%, due in part tothe Retine, or alpha-ketoaldehyde content.

A. campestris also has beenreported to possess significantanti-viral potential in work byCochran, in 1978, and alsocontains (S)-agaridoxin, andindigo.

Culpepper said that gardenmushrooms (A. campestris)were used medicinally. (They

are) “Roasted and applied in apoultice, or boiled with white lilyroots and linseed, in milk, theyripen boils and abscesses betterthan any preparation that can bemade”. In Norfolk, the mushroomwas stewed in milk to soothethroat cancer.

Modern research by Gray andFlatt found that administration ofA. campestris to lab mice indrinking water, countered thehyperglycemia of diabetic bredmice. The insulin releasing activityis greatest in the polar fractions,and leads to as many questions asanswers.

The fungi was called GhostEars by the Mohawk and used as afood and flavouring agent by thisand other native tribes. Theneighbouring Onondaga called itANANAU’TRA, meaning hat orcap.

Wild Agaricus species tend tobe more pliable, less “chalky” andsofter, with a nutty earthy flavourwhen cooked.

In parts of India andAfghanistan, it is known asKALLULAC-DIV, meaning “fairy’scap”.

Field Mushroom releases all ofits 16 billion spores in a single 24hour period.

Horse Mushroom is resistantto both gram positive and negativebacteria. Its inhibition rate againstsarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinomais up to 100%.

It is somewhat larger than thefield, and can be further identifiedby having an anise/almond odour.

In Traditional ChineseMedicine, the dried mushroom isused as part of the Tendon Easingpowder, for curing lumbago, andpain in the legs, numbed limbs anddiscomfort in the tendons and veins.

Horse Mushroom has one ofthe highest contents (8.7% dry wt)of phosphatdylserine found in fungi;and could be of interest toformulators for brain and nervefunction.

Button Mushroom has beenused traditionally in both China andKorea by breast-feeding mothers tohelp increase milk production.

It is known in the formercountry as MO GU, as well as JI

The meadow mushrooms are in kind the best,It is ill trusting any of the rest.

- Horace

(Medicinal Mushrooms...continued on page 12)

Agaricus campestris (fieldmushroom, meadow mushroom, ghost ears)Agaricus arvensis (horse mushroom)Agaricus brunnescensAgaricus bisporusAgaricus hortensis (wild button mushroom,cultivated mushroom, portabella, crimini)Agaricus bitorquis (spring agaricusAgaricus placomycesAgaricus praeclaresquamosus (flat top)

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12 Winter- 2005 No. 4 www.wildmushrooms.ws

ZU MO GU, chicken footmushroom, MO GU XUN,mushroom gill fungus, and ROUXUN, meat gill mushroom.

The button mushroom iscooked in soups to easeindigestion and increase appetite.It is often simmered with Reishimushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)for treating chronic hepatitis,two weeks on and three days off.

The Button mushroom hasbeen found to contain apolysaccharide PA3DE, which showsinhibitory effect against the

Helicobacter pylori bacterium,responsible for a high number ofstomach ulcers, gastritis, and gastriccarcinomas. Archives of PharmacalResearch, 1996 19:6.

The Button mushroom (A.bisporus) is resistant to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Agaratine is weakly mutagenic toSalmonella typhimurium.

Agaratine is also the mostnotable carcinogenic hydrazine,which is quite heat stable.

Button Mushrooms alsocontain aromatase inhibitors,similar to those found nettle root,and possessing anti-cancer activity,especially against hormone sensitivecells from the breast and prostate. JNut 2001,131; Recent Progress inHormone Res 2002,57; Tox ApplPharm 2002,179:1; J Endocrin 2002,172:1.

In a study by Swanston-Flattet al at the University of Surrey in1989, button mushrooms werefound to be anti-diabetic. This

mushroom countered theinitial reduction in plasmainsulin, the reduction inpancreatic insulinconcentration andimproved thehypoglycemic effect ofexogenous insulin.

The purple colouredobserved on somecultivated and washedmushrooms is due to theoxidization of L-Dopa bytyrosinase to indol,-5,6-quinone, to melanochrometo melanin.

Button mushrooms(A. bisporus) also containphenolic and quinoidderivatives with anti-

bacterial activity (Vogel et al.,1974).

The inclusion of dried buttonmushrooms at the 5% and 10%level in diets of rats resulted in theaccumulation of lipids in the liverwith a simultaneous decrease inthe circulatory lipids, excepthealthy phospholipids, in bloodplasma. It also contains ahydrazide, agaritine. It is worthyof note that mice fed uncookedAgaricus bisporus, the commonedible mushroom in supermarkets,developed cancer tumours,supposedly from thephenylhydrazine derivative,agaritine. The compound is oftenaccompanied by the analogueagaritinal, previously found only inA. campestris.

Mice studies do not always

transfer to humans, butnonetheless, Button mushroomsshould probably be cooked; and yet80% of this species are consumedraw in the United States andCanada. Recent studies have failedto confirm these previousobservations, but the data is toolimited to be certain one way or theother.

Conventional wisdom held foryears that hydrazines weredestroyed in cooking.

Some authors believe thataromatase, anti-oxidants and anti-cancer polysaccharides neutralizethe effect, but the jury is still out.

There is a definite need for thedevelopment of agaritine freestrains. In 1998, the ButtonMushroom accounted for 98% ofthe market with 861 million poundssold. In 1970, the buttonmushroom accounted for over70%of the total global mushroomproduction, but by the new century,it accounts for only 30%, eventhough production has more thandoubled in those years.

Of more concern, is the heavyuse of malathion and otherpesticides used in commercialmushroom cultivation. Organicproduction is on the way!

Studies by Gruter et al.,(1990) indicate that ethanolextracts from Button mushroomscontain anti-mutagenic substancesthat are heat stable.

Work by Yu-LuGang et al.,published in the 1999 Journal ofBiological Chemistry, 1999,274;8,found a lectin with potent anti-proliferative effect, but no apparentcytotoxicity. This Ga1 beta1-NAcalpha lectin effect appears dueto a consequence of lectintrafficking to the nuclearperiphery; where it block NLSdependent protein uptake into thenucleus.

Decoctions of the driedfruiting bodies have been used indiabetes.

Champex, a patented field

(This article on Medicinal Mushrooms will continue in

our first issue of the new year. Provided through the

courtesy of Robert Rogers, author of Medicinal

Mushrooms of the Prairies. Robert teaches plant medicine

and can be reached through Earth Medicine Consulting at

[email protected])

Agaricus(continued from page 11)

Photos courtesy: Loretta Puckrin