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Higher Education Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India (office: 15 August 1947 27 May 1964), initiated reforms to promote higher education, science, technology in India. The Indian Institute of Technology conceived by a 22 member committee of scholars and entrepreneurs in order to promote technical education was inaugurated on 18 August 1951 at Kharagpur in West Bengal by then minister of education Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Beginning in the 1960s, close ties with the Soviet Union enabled the Indian Space Research Organization to rapidly develop the Indian space program and advance nuclear power in India even after the first nuclear test explosion by India on 18 May 1974 at Pokhran. India accounts for about 10% of all expenditure on research and development in Asia and the number of scientific publications grew by 45% over the past five years.[5] However, according to India's science and technology minister, Kapil Sibal, India is lagging in science and technology compared to developed countries. India has only 140 researchers per 1,000,000 populations, compared to 4,651 in the United States. India invested US$3.7 billion in science and technology in 20022003. For comparison, China invested about four times more than India, while the United States invested approximately 75 times more than India on science and technology. Despite this, five Indian Institutes of Technology were listed among the top 10 science and technology schools in Asia by Asiaweek.[8] One study argued that Indian science did not suffer from lack of funds but from unethical practices, the urge to make illegal money, misuse of power, frivolous publications and patents, faulty promotion policies, victimization for speaking against wrong or corrupt practices in the management, sycophancy, and brain drain. However, the number of publications by Indian scientists is characterized by some of the fastest growth rates among major countries. India, together with China, Iran and Brazil are the only developing countries among 31 nations with 97.5% of the world's total scientific productivity. The remaining 162 developing countries contribute less than 2.5%.[10] Jawaharlal Nehru aimed "to convert Indias economy into that of a modern state and to fit her into the nuclear age and do it quickly." science and technology in India.[2] Nehru's Planning Commission (1950) fixed investment levels, prescribed priorities, divided funds between agriculture and industry, and divided resources between the state and the federal[2]

Nehru understood that India had not been at the

forefront of the Industrial Revolution, and hence made an effort to promote higher education, and

governments.[2] The result of the efforts between 19471962 saw the area under irrigation increase by 45 million acres (180,000 km2), food production rise by 34 million metric tons, installed power generating capacity increase by 79 million kilowatts, and an overall increase of 94 percent in industrial production.[2] The enormous population rise, however, would balance the gains made by Nehru.[2] The economically beleaguered country was nevertheless able to build a large scientific workforce, second in numbers only to that of the United States and the Soviet Union.[2] Education provided by the government of India was free and compulsory up to the Age of 14.[11] More emphasis was paid to the enhancement of vocational and technical skills.[11] J. P. Naik, member-secretary of the Indian Education Commission, commented on the educational policies of the time:[

On 18 August 1951 the minister of education Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, inaugurated the Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur in West Bengal.[3] Possibly modeled after the Massachusetts Institute of Technology these institutions were conceived by a 22 member committee of scholars and entrepreneurs under the chairmanship of N. R. Sarkar.[3] The Sino-Indian war (1962) came as a rude awakening to Nehru's military preparedness.[4] Military cooperation with the Soviet Union partially aimed at developing advanced military technology was pursued during the coming years.[4] Defence Research and Development Organisation was formed in 1958. Radio broadcasting was initiated in 1927 but became state responsibility only in 1930.[12] In 1937 it was given the name All India Radio and since 1957 it has been called Akashvani.[12] Limited duration of television programming began in 1959, and complete broadcasting followed in 1965.[12] The Indian Government acquired the EVS EM computers from the Soviet Union, which were used in large companies and research laboratories.[13] Tata Consultancy Services established in 1968 by the Tata Group were the country's largest software producers during the 1960s

Higher education

Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts in the country, higher education enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 per cent of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicised and have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favouritism and corruption. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007[46]

The Auditorium at Indian Institute of Management Calcutta,Kolkata.

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.

VESIT, Engineering College under Mumbai University

The social sciences and business management departments are housed at the Alipore campus ,University of Calcutta in Kolkata After passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general degree programs such as bachelor's degree in arts, commerce or science, or professional degree programs such as engineering, law or medicine.[47] India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States.[48] The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state.[49] Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission.[50] In India, education system is reformed. In future, India will be one of the largest education hub. As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 33 institutes which are of

national importance.[49] Other institutions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions.[49] The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology.[51] Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes.[52] Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher education system.[52] Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have been globally acclaimed for their standard of undergraduate education in engineering.[52] The IITs enroll about 10,000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India.[53] However the IIT's have not had significant impact on fundamental scientific research and innovation. Several other institutes of fundamental research such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science(IACS), Indian Institute of Science IISC), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Harishchandra Research Institute (HRI), are acclaimed for their standard of research in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce world class universities both in the private sector or the public sector.[54] Besides top rated universities which provide highly competitive world class education to their pupils, India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the sole objective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. Indian Government has failed to check on these education shops, which are run by big businessmen & politicians. Many private colleges and universities do not fulfill the required criterion by the Government and central bodies (UGC, AICTE, MCI, BCI etc.) and take students for a ride. For example, many institutions in India continue to run unaccredited courses as there is no legislation strong enough to ensure legal action against them. Quality assurance mechanism has failed to stop misrepresentations and malpractices in higher education. At the same time regulatory bodies have been accused of corruption, specifically in the case of deemeduniversities.[55] In this context of lack of solid quality assurance mechanism, institutions need to step-up and set higher standards of self-regulation.[56] Government of India is aware of the plight of higher education sector and has been trying to bring reforms, however, 15 bills are still awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament. [57] One of the most talked about bill is Foreign Universities Bill, which is supposed to facilitate entry of foreign universities to establish campuses in India. The bill is still under discussion and

even if it gets passed, its feasibility and effectiveness is questionable as it misses the context, diversity and segment of international foreign institutions interested in India.[58] One of the approaches to make internationalization of Indian higher education effective is to develop a coherent and comprehensive policy which aims at infusing excellence, bringing institutional diversity and aids in capacity building

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