history of computers

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A presentation about history of computers,generations and all the necessary information which helps you to gain the knowledge about history of computers.

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  • By Anne Perera
  • The first man-made computing device is the Abacus The abacus, also called a counting frame. The Chinese abacus was developed about 5000 years ago. Addition, subtraction, division and multiplication can be performed on a standard abacus.
  • John Napier, a Scotland national, found the Logarithms to the world in 1617. Using John Napiars logarithm concepts, the slide rule was designed in England in 1632.
  • Around 1642, a French mathematician called Blaise Pascal invented the adding machine that helped mathematical calculations. Additions and subtractions could be done easily by using it. Pascals machine was one of the first mechanical calculating machine.
  • An Englishman called Charles Babbage designed the first model required for a mechanical computer in 1822.
  • Charles Babbage designed the 'Analytical Engine' in 1833. Components required for data input, storage, processing and output had been designed inside. Computers designed later were greatly influenced by these concepts of Babbage and that is why Babbage is considered to be the Father of computers.
  • A friend of Babbage called Ada Augusta Lovelace was keen on preparing programmes required for his engine. Such programmes are considered to be the first attempt of computer programming. Ada Augusta Lovelace is considered to be the first computer programmer in the world. The computer language which was used later for military purposes was named Ada to pay respect for her.
  • Herman Hollerith adopted the punched card concept. Early method of data storage used with early computers. Punch cards also known as Hollerith cards and IBM cards.
  • A computer can be classified as follows: 1) Based on the generations 2) Size 3) Purpose 4)Design technology / Computational method /Type
  • 1. First Generation Computers (1939-1958) Vacuum tubes
  • Based onVacuumTubes Used magnetic drums for main memory.
  • Can solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. First generation computers based on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers
  • Disadvantages Very large in size. Consumed a large amount of energy. They heated very soon due to thousands of vacuum tubes.
  • Disadvantages They were not very reliable. Constant maintenance was required. Very slow in speed. Used magnetic drums which provide very less data storage.
  • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) - worlds first electronic digital computer in 1946
  • UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) -The first commercial computer
  • 2. Second Generation Computers (1954-1959) Transistors
  • The second generation of computers used transistors for the internal operations. They used magnetic core for the memory Still based on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
  • The first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. Used symbolic, or Assembly language, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.
  • Advantages: Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers. Computers were more reliable Used less energy and were not heated.
  • Advantages: Better portability as compared to the first generation computers. Used faster peripherals like tape drives, magnetic disks, printers etc. Used Assembly language instead of Machine language. Accuracy improved.
  • Disadvantages Cooling system was required Constant maintenance was required Commercial production was difficult
  • Disadvantages Only used for specific purposes Expensive Punch cards were used for input.
  • 3.Third Generation Computers (1959-1971) Integrated Circuits (IC)
  • These computers used integrated circuits on silicon chips. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors. Eg:- IBM 370, IBM System/360, UNIVAC 1108 and UNIVAC AC 9000
  • Advantages Smaller in size as compared to previous generations. More reliable. Used less energy Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations. Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds. Used fan for heat discharge to prevent damage.
  • Advantages Totally general purpose Could be used for high-level languages. Good storage capacity. Less expensive Better accuracy Commercial production increased. Used mouse and keyboard for input.
  • Disadvantages Air conditioning was required. High technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips.
  • 4. Fourth Generation Computers (1971- Present) Microchips Microprocessors
  • Use microprocessor chips. The Microprocessor contains thousands of ICs. The technology of integrated circuits improved rapidly. The LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit andVLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuit was designed. Reduced the size of computer.
  • The size of modern Microprocessors is usually one square inch. It can contain millions of electronic circuits. Examples :- Apple Macintosh & IBM PC. Can be linked together to form networks, which led to the development of the Internet. Introduced GUIs and hand-held devices.
  • Advantages More powerful and reliable than previous generations. Small in size Fast processing power with less power consumption Fan for heat discharging and to keep cold. Totally general purpose
  • Advantages Commercial production Less need of repair. Cheapest among all generations All types of High level languages can be used in this type of computers
  • 5. Fifth Generation computers (Present - Beyond) Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Based on the technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Computers can understand spoken words & imitate the human. Can respond to its surroundings using different types of sensors.
  • Scientists are constantly working to increase the processing power of computers. IBM Watson computer is one example for a 5th generation computer. There are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
  • Computers can be classified according to their sizes too. Mainframe computers Mini computers Micro computers
  • There are different types of Micro computers. Some of them are, Personal Computers (PC) Laptop Computers Palmtop computers Workstations Server computers Super computers
  • Computers can be categorized into two types based on their purpose. 1)General Purpose Computers Computers used for usual and day - to - day activities. 2) Special Purpose Computers Computers used for special purposes such as scientific experiments, air traffic control systems etc.
  • 1) Digital computers Computers designed by using the binary /digital number system are called digital computers. A digital computer can count and accept numbers and letters through various input devices.
  • 2) Analog computers Computers which are designed considering the physical data such as temperature, sound, and pressure etc. Analog computers process data input in a continuous form.
  • 2) Analog computers Data such as voltage, temperature are represented in the computer as a continuous, unbroken flow of information. Analog computers are used in engineering and scientific applications.