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  • 1. History ofMusic VideosBy Larelle Benjamin- Forrester

2. 1894 George Thomas, an1894 electrician and many others were hired to promote sales of the song The Little Lost Child by sheet music publisher Joe Stern and Edward B. Marks. The illustrated song was the first step towards music videos and would later become a popular type of entertainment. He created this by projecting a sequence of still images on a screen which was synchronized to live performances, using a magic lantern. A magic lantern is one of the earlier types of image projectors that was developed in the 17th century. 3. 1926 In 1926, sound films with incorporated synchronized dialogue came about. These were called talking picture better known as talkies (among people of the early 1930s) which resulted in numerous musical short films being produced. They were exclusively shorts which were played in cinemas before the feature film and were around 6 minutes long. Example: St Louis Blues (1929) was a video that ran in cinemas till 1932 with Blues singer Bessie Smith appearing in it. 4. 1920s-1930s Screen Songs is a series of singalong shorts that were are acontinuation of the earlier Fleischer Cartoons series Song Car-Tunes. It wasintroduced in 1929 by animationartist Max Fleischer. It took popular songs of the day andadded a "bouncing ball" followingthe lyrics in order to encourageaudience sing longs. This is similarto what you would see on a modernkaraoke machine and is still usedtoday by people such as HighSchool Musical and Thats SoRaven for younger audiences. Popular musicians performed theirhit songs on camera in live actionsections during cartoons of theearly 1930s. Films that featuredthis were Walt Disneys animatedFantasia and Silly symphonies(shorts) which were built aroundmusic. They both hadinterpretations of classical pieces. 5. Cartoons Cartoons such as Merrie Melodies and Looney Tunes by Warner Brothers were originally formed aroundspecific songs from upcoming Warner Brother musicalfilms such as the Jazz Singer (1927). 6. 1930 to 1970The Influence of Musical Films Music films was another item that came before music videos which is why it is so important and influential. As a result, classic Hollywood musicals from 1930s to the 1970s have been imitated. These consist of: Daddy Long Legs, 1955 Damn Yankees, 1958 Pennies from Heaven, 1981 7. Music & Television The term music video wasinvented by disk jockey-singer J.P.The Big Popper Richardson. Eventually these were distributedto and played by the US and UKtelevision stations. One example ofthis is Tony Bennetts recordingStranger in Paradise (1953) whichhe played whilst being filmedwalking along The Serpentine inHyde Park, London. This songbegan his career as aninternational artist. As television grew and becamemore popular, it allowed new starsto be exposed that before wouldnthave due to Hollywood, normallyrequiring established acts. Thisgave more people a betteropportunity to be successful andattract an audience to the box office much like proven acts wouldhave. 8. The Beatles (1964)The Beatles was one of the most commercially successful and significantly praised acts in the history of popular music. The English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.The Beatles starred in their first feature film A Hard Days Night in 1964. It was directed byRichard Lester and shot in black and white. It contained:1. A loosely structured musical composition of free/improvisatory nature2. Distribute musical sequences with comedic and dialogue ones3. A sequence with furnished basic templates It was also a direct model for the Monkees (successful US TV series) which consisted ofsimilar film segments that were created to accompany various Monkees songs.In contrast, the 1965 feature Help was filmed in London as well as on internationallocations. It was also in colour except from the title track sequence that was filmed inblack and white. Help contained the following features:1. Contrasting close ups and long shots2. Unusual shots and angles3. Rhythmic cross-cutting4. And a shot whereby it shows both a sharp focus in the background and a completely outof focus figure in the backgroundOverall, there second feature was very extravagant and had been really developed from theirfirst feature, A Hard Days Night. 9. Promotional Clips (1965-1967) In 1965, The Beatles started makingpromotional clips (filmed inserts) in order topromote their record releases without beingpresent. This would be distributed and broadcastedin other countries (mainly the USA). In theUK, many promotional clips were aired onTop of the Pops. Later examples of promotional clips were incolour. Those made in early 1967 such asStrawberry Fields Forever and PennyLane were directed by Peter Goldman andtook promotional film format to a whole newheight. The advanced techniques used (andadded in post production) included: Dramatic lighting Colour filtering Reversed film and slow motion Unusual camera angles and shotsThese were borrowed from underground and Avant Garde Film. These studio masterpieces, were impossible to be performed live by the group so instead their psychedelic mini films portrayed the films in a generalized way - rather than imitating the appearance of the performance. 10. Another Promotional Clip Bob Dylan Subterranean Homesick Blues was a monochrome clip, filmedby D. A. Pennebaker in 1966. This was a technique whereby it displayedimages in black and white or in varying tones of one colour only. Filmed inserts at this time, were produced by UK artists and so couldtherefore be screened on TV when the artist was unable to appear live. He deliberately avoided imitating performances or presenting a narrativewhich is why he showing key words from the song lyrics. 11. Late 1970s - Top of the Pops1964 - Top of the Pops was a British music chart television programme. It began playing music videos in the late 1970s however, they limited the amount of videos they could use.This effectively, would make viewers want to see the videoagain and in the long run, increase song sales. 12. Promo Videos Promo videos are videos made in order to promote the artist. Two very successful promo videos are: David Bowie Ashes to Ashes Madness Ashes to ashes was directed by David Mallet in 1980 and was Bowies first UK number one. Madness constructed their clips as micro-comedic short films that were shot on 16mm and 35mm. 1975: The promo video for Queens Bohemian Rhapsody is notable for being entirely edited and shot on videotape. It was made by Bruce Gowers and shown on Top of the Pops. 13. 1980s - MTV MTV was launched on 1st August1981 at 12.01am with the wordsLadies and gentlemen, rock androll. It showed footage of the launch ofApollo 11 as well as the first space Its launch began an era of 24/7shuttle launch countdown withmusic on television and airedJohn Lacks voice spoken over it.Video Killed the Radio Star. By the mid 80s music videos would The original MTV theme song wasgrow to play a dominant role inplayed after with numerous popular music marketing.photos of Apollo 11 landing withthe flag featuring MTVs logochanging various colours, textures Important Acts of this period were:and designs. 1. Duran 2. Madonna This was used as excessive prideby MTV producers Fred Seibert3. Michael Jacksonand Alan Goodman. They 4. Bon Joviassociated MTV with the most 5. Princefamous moment in world TVhistory. 14. 1980s Improvements/DevelopmentsIn the development of the modern music videos, there were two key improvements whichwas: Video recording and editing equipment Visual effects This was very beneficial as the video recording and editing equipment, were both easyto use and inexpensive. The arrival of high-quality colour portable video cameras andvideotape recorders resulted in promotional videos for pop acts to be produced cheaplyand quickly. Whereas, film was very cost effective. Some however, did continue to mixfilm and video, whilst others preferred using 35mm film throughout the developmentof the field.1983 Michael Jackson Thriller was released on 30 th November 1982 and with it came a 14 minute long video that cost $500,000 to film. It was very successful as well as influential and set new standards for production. Videos such as this and Michael Jacksons Billie Jean and Beat It influenced MTV to play videos by African Americans. However, this would have been rare when MTV had just launched as it was primarily a rock music orientated channel.Successful Videos 1985: Dire Straits Money for Nothing: Good use of computer animation made it an international hit 1986: Peter Gabriel: Sledgehammer: Good use of animation and special effects techniques made it a phenomenal success. 15. 1980s Improvements& Developments The development of music videoscontinued as directors alongside musicartists: Used more sophisticated effects Mixed film and video Included a storyline and plot Looked at the form and style of thegenre in depth There was also some non representationalform videos whereby the music artistwas not shown however these wererare as the video was intentionallymade to promote the artist. Examples of these are: Queen Under Pressure Duran Duran The Chauffeur George Michael Freedom 16. 1990s - MTV The early 90s showed MTV in a different light as they played a range of music that brought upon new forms of music video that were artistic, creative, amusing and technically accomplished compared to those in the 80s.The music varied from: RnB groups Boyz II Men & Bell Biv Divoe Metal and Hard rock acts Guns N Roses, Metallica & Nirvana Pop singers New Kids on the Block, Michael Jackson & MadonnaAs well as introducing rappers MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice 1991-2001 Napster a peer to peer file sharing service which allowed people to share their video files. 1992 Film Directors got their start by MTV listing their names at the bottom of the credits thanks to t