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History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc S. Levoy Computer Science Department Stanford University CS 178, Spring 2011

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Page 1: History of photography (part 3): photography as art · PDF fileHistory of photography (part 3): photography as art ... History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc Scheimpßug

History of photography (part 3):photography as art

Marc S. LevoyComputer Science DepartmentStanford University

CS 178, Spring 2011

Page 2: History of photography (part 3): photography as art · PDF fileHistory of photography (part 3): photography as art ... History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc Scheimpßug

History of photography (part 3):photography as art

Marc Scheimpflug LevoyComputer Science DepartmentStanford University

CS 178, Spring 2010

Page 3: History of photography (part 3): photography as art · PDF fileHistory of photography (part 3): photography as art ... History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc Scheimpßug

History of photography (part 3):photography as art

Marc Stewart LevoyComputer Science DepartmentStanford University

CS 178, Spring 2010

Page 4: History of photography (part 3): photography as art · PDF fileHistory of photography (part 3): photography as art ... History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc Scheimpßug

! Marc Levoy

Outline

! photography as an aid to artists

! genres• allegory• still life

! Naturalism

! Pictorialism

! profile: Alfred Stieglitz

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Page 5: History of photography (part 3): photography as art · PDF fileHistory of photography (part 3): photography as art ... History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc Scheimpßug

! Marc Levoy

Photography as an artistic medium

5William Talbot, The Open Door, 1843

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Photography as an aid to artists

6Eugène Durieu, Figure Study, 1853

Eugène Delacroix, Dante and Virgil in Hell, 1822

• Delacroix collaborated with Durieu on these figure studies

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Photography as an aid to artists

7Thomas Eakins’s students, 1883

Thomas Eakins, The Swimming Hole, 1883

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Photography as an aid to artists

8Maxfield Parrish, illustration for Life, 1923

Kitty Owen (granddaughter of William Jennings Bryan)

(Ludwig)

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! Marc Levoy

Planning a photograph

9 Henry Peach Robinson, Carrolling, 1887

pre-production sketch

photograph

(Newhall)

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! Marc Levoy

Photography struggles for respect

10Gaspard Tournachon (“Nadar”), from Le Journal Amusant, 1857

“Photography asking for just a little place in the exhibition of fine arts.”

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Francois-Joseph Heim, The Exhibition of 1824

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! Marc Levoy

Photography struggles for respect

12Gaspard Tournachon (“Nadar”), from Le Journal Amusant, 1857

“Photography asking for just a little place in the exhibition of fine arts.”

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! Marc Levoy

Genres

! allegory

! still life

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Thomas Cole, The Vogage of Life (1842) I: Childhood

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Thomas Cole, The Vogage of Life (1842) II: Youth

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Thomas Cole, The Vogage of Life (1842) III: Manhood

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Thomas Cole, The Vogage of Life (1842) IV: Old Age

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! Marc Levoy

Allegorical collage

18Oscar Rejlander, Two Ways of Life, 1857

• huge print (31” wide) • composite of 30 negatives• widely denounced as mechanical• made the artist rich and famous

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! Marc Levoy

One-frame movie

19Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858

• perfectly healthy 14-year old girl • photograph as theatrical narrative • 5 differently exposed negatives, hence early example of HDR!

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! Marc Levoy

The Dutch still life

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Willem Claesz Heda, Still Life with Oysters, Rum Glass, and Silver Cup, 1634

• balanced composition • variety of textures• specular highlights (white if glass, colored if metal)• interreflections• reflected windows

(Gardner)

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! Marc Levoy

Vanitas

21Willem Claesz Heda, Still Life - Vanitas, 1628

• intended to symbolize the transience of life, the futility of pleasure, and the certainty of death• common symbols are a skull, clock or candle, pipes for blowing bubbles, leaning glass, rotting fruit

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Hans Holbein,The Ambassadors,1533

• anamorphic image of skull

• to view without distortion, stand near lower-left corner of painting

• salvation is represented by crucifix in upper-left corner

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! Marc Levoy

Memento mori (“Be mindful of death”)

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Caravaggio, St. Jerome, 1606

Lawrence Olivier in Hamlet, 1948,“Alas, poor Yorick!

I knew him, Horatio.”

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! Marc Levoy

Photographic still life

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Hermann Krone, Still Lifeof the Washerwoman, 1853

(Rosenblum)

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Charles Aubry,Leaves, 1864

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Dead nature

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Adolphe Braun, Still Lifewith Deer and Wildfowl, 1865

(Rosenblum)

(Rosenblum)

Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Hare, Sheldrake,Bottles, Bread and Cheese, 1742

(Baxendall)

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! Marc Levoy

Genres: still life

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Adolphe Braun, Still Lifewith Deer and Wildfowl, 1865

Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Le Pâté, 1743(at the S.F. Palace of Legion of Honor)

(Rosenblum)

(Rosenblum)

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Ansel Adams,Still Life, 1932

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! 2010 Marc Levoy

Still life photographs from CS 178

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Nora Willett, Memento Mori (2009)

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Tatiana IskandarVanitas (2009)

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Wajahat QadeerHeart Ring (2009)

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ChangWhan Yea,Caustics (2010)

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! Marc Levoy

Naturalism

33 Frank Sutcliffe, Water Rats, 1886

(Rosenblum)

• reaction against the artificiality of genre photographs

• blend of Romanticism, lyricism, and early Impressionism

• importance of pose, camera vantage point, and atmosphere

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! Marc Levoy

Naturalism

34 Frank Sutcliffe, Water Rats, 1886

George Caleb Bingham, Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, 1845

(Rosenblum)

(Honour)

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! Marc Levoy

35 Lidell Sawyer, In the Twilight, 1888

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Naturalism

36 Lidell Sawyer, In the Twilight, 1888

Édouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe, 1863

(Rosenblum)

(Gardner)

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! Marc Levoy

Pictorialism

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• photography needed to emulate the art of painting

• extreme manipulation of the photograph

• photographic Impressionism

Edward Steichen,The Flatiron,1904

(Daniel)

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! Marc Levoy38

Edward Steichen,The Flatiron,1904

(Daniel)

Claude Monet, The Thames and the Houses of Parliament, 1871

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! Marc Levoy

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James Craig Annan, A Black Canal, 1894

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Pictorialism

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James Craig Annan, A Black Canal, 1894

(Rosenblum)

Claude Monet, La Grenouillère (The Frog Pond), 1869

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! Marc Levoy

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E.J. Constant Puyo, Summer, 1903

(Rosenblum)

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! Marc Levoy

Pictorialism

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E.J. Constant Puyo, Summer, 1903

(Rosenblum)

Claude Monet, Poppy Field near Vétheuil, 1879

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! Marc Levoy

Animating pictures[Chuang SIGGRAPH 2005]

43 Claude Monet, Bridge at Argenteuil, 1874

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! Marc Levoy

Animating pictures[Chuang SIGGRAPH 2005]

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Page 45: History of photography (part 3): photography as art · PDF fileHistory of photography (part 3): photography as art ... History of photography (part 3): photography as art Marc Scheimpßug

! Marc Levoy

Animating pictures[Chuang SIGGRAPH 2005]

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! Marc Levoy

Alfred Stieglitz (1864 - 1946)

! began as a Pictorialist

! became a Realist as he addressed social themes, then a Modernist as he photographed urban landscapes

! photographed (and married) painter Georgia O’Keeffe

! first of the “heroic age” ofartist photographers

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Sun’s Rays - Paula, Berlin, 1889

(Rosenblum)

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Venetian Canal,1897

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Miss Thompson, 1907 (collaboration with Clarence White)

Leonardo, Mona Lisa (detail), 1503-1519example of sfumato

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The Terminal, 1893 (printed 1913)

(Daniel)

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The Steerage, 1907

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Portraits ofGeorgia O’Keeffe

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19181907

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Spiritual America, 1923

(Daniel)

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From the Shelton Westward, New York, 1931

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! Marc Levoy

Slide credits! Newhall, B., The History of Photography, Little, Brown & Co., 1982.

! Rosenblum, N., A World History of Photography (4th ed.), Abbeville Press, 2007.

! Ludwig, C., Maxfield Parrish, Watson-Guptill, 1973.

! Baxandall, M., Shadows and Enlightenment, Yale University Press, 1995.

! Tanser and Kleiner, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages (10th ed.), Harcourt Brace, 1996.

! Honour and Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History (4th ed.), Harry Abrams, 1995.

! Daniel, M., Stieglitz, Steichen, Strand, Yale University Press, 2011.

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