hogan's history- civil rights movement

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1. The Civil Rights Movement 2. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Separate But Equal" Supreme Court ruled that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality. 3. Segregation and Jim Crow The separation of blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc. Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid- 1960s. Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid anti-black laws. 4. An African American man climbs stairs to a theaters colored entrance in Mississippi about 1939. The door on the ground level is marked white men only. 5. N.A.A.C.P. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Founded in 1909 to promote full legal equality and remove obstacles to voting. N.A.A.C.P.s magazine is called, The Crisis. 6. Roy Wilkins President of the NAACP during the 1950s and 1960s. He played a pivotal role in leading the nation into the Civil Rights movement and spearheaded the efforts that led to significant civil rights victories, including Brown v. Board of Education, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. 7. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Founded in 1942 to address civil rights issues concerning the many African Americans who served their country honorably during World War II, but still faced racial barriers at home. At first, only Blacks were allowed to join. Eventually, CORE broadened its reach in 1961 by allowing racially mixed groups of passengers on Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate buses. In 1964, it concentrated on organizing votes for Black candidates in states like Mississippi and Alabama. Three of its members were murdered in Mississippi during voter registration efforts in 1964's Freedom Summer. 8. Charles Hamilton Houston African American lawyer who played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws, which earned him the title The Man Who Killed Jim Crow. He is also well known for having trained future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall. 9. Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1948 In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation. Segregated Troops Desegregated Troops 10. Dixiecrats and Strom Thurmond Southern political party in 1948 that opposed desegregation. South Carolina governor, Strom Thurmond ran as the presidential candidate for the Dixiecrats in 1948. 11. 1948 Election Thomas Dewey, the republican candidate for president in 1948 almost defeated Harry Truman during the 1948 presidential election because of Trumans support of Civil Rights. 12. Jackie Robinson Became the first African American during the modern era to play baseball in the Major League. Before Robinson, black players could only participate in the Negro League. Played for the Dodgers from 1947 until 1956. "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me... All I ask is that you respect me as a human being." -Jackie Robinson 13. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) An organization founded in 1942 and devoted to social change through non-violent action. 14. Whitney M. Young and the National Urban League Young became Executive Director of the National Urban League. As executive director of the League, Young pushed major corporations to hire more blacks. 15. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) The acknowledged leader of the civil rights movement during the 1950s-1960s. Led peaceful marches, boycotts, sit-ins, and other non-violent demonstrations to protest racism in the South. Modeled after Mohandas Gandhis style in India. Martin Luther King Jr. borrowed many of his non-violent or passive resistance strategies from Indias Mohandas K. Gandhi. Both men were killed for peace and equality in which they both strongly believed. Mohandas GandhiMartin Luther King Jr. 16. Rosa Parks On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white person and was arrested. 17. The Montgomery Bus Boycott In December 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and lasted over a year until, in November 1956. UHUH Im Not Goin Your Way 18. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) The Supreme Court reversed the Plessey v. Ferguson decision and ruled that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. 19. Little Rock Central High School in 1957 In Little Rock, Arkansas, the governor tried to prevent *nine black students from entering a desegregated public school, prompting President Eisenhower to nationalize the Guard and escort the students to class. President Eisenhower sent in U.S. Federal troops to force the white only public school in Little Rock, Arkansas to admit black students. *Known as the Little Rock Nine. 20. Murder of Emmett Till Fourteen-year-old Emmett Till was visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi on August 24, 1955 when he reportedly flirted with a white cashier at a grocery store. Four days later, two white men kidnapped Emmett, beat him, and shot him in the head. The men were tried for murder, but an all-white, male jury acquitted them. The defendants were acquitted on all counts by an all-white jury. Months later they wrote an article for a magazine about how they did it for $4,000 21. George Wallace Governor of Alabama who opposed integration and attempted to prevent black students from gaining admittance to the University of Alabama. In 1972, while running for U.S. President, George Wallace was shot and paralyzed from the waist down. In later years he apologized for his anti-Civil Rights stance and asked for forgiveness from the black community. Segregationist Governor of Alabama, George Wallace did everything in his power to prevent Civil Right legislation. He his famous for his statement, Segregation today Segregation tomorrow Segregation forever! 22. James Meredith An African American who the University of Mississippi attempted to defy the Supreme Court and prevent James Meredith from enrolling at the university. The university finally admitted Meredith after President Kennedy sent federal authorities to deal with the situation. James Meredith I shall do everything in my power to prevent integration in our schools. Governor Ross Barnetts Sept 13, 1962 23. Robert F. Williams Williams was a key figure in promoting armed black self-defense in the United States. A self-professed Black Nationalist and supporter of liberation he and his wife left the United States in 1961 to avoid prosecution for kidnapping. Williams' book Negroes with Guns (1962), published while he was in exile in Cuba. 24. Medgar Evers Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a sniper who was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. 25. SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) Sought to unite leaders from the black community (particularly black ministers) in the cause of civil rights. 26. Letter from Birmingham Jail Martin Luther King Jr. King wrote the letter in April 1963 from the jail in Birmingham, Alabama, where he had been arrested following a peaceful civil rights protest. His letter was a response to several white ministers who wrote a statement arguing that the battle for civil rights should be waged in the courts rather than by protests. 27. Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) These students devoted themselves to the use of non-violent protests to demand civil rights for African Americans. 28. Sit-Ins Non-violent protests in which blacks sat in segregated places until they were served or arrested, often braving attacks by angry white mobs. Non-Violent Sit-Ins: Civil Right activists were subjected to all kinds of verbal and physical abuse at the hands of onlookers who did not agree with them. Police often did nothing to prevent such abuses. When the police did act, they often would arrest the Civil Right activists for unlawful assembly. There were many whites that demonstrated with their black counterparts and were subjected to the same abuses themselves. Members of the SNCC went through realistic training before participating in an actual sit-in to prepare them for what they may encounter. 29. Freedom Rides Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy sent U.S. Marshals to protect the Freedom Riders. Integrated bus trips in which civil rights advocates (both black and white) traveled south on buses to tests Supreme Court rulings requiring the integration of buses. 30. March on Washington, 1963 August 1963 over 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement. It culminated in Dr. King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech. In August 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous I Have A Dream, speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. This speech is considered one of the greatest in American history and ranks closely with Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address. A compassionate President John F. Kennedy watched the televised speech from the White House, only a few blocks away. 31. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" I Have A Dream 32. Nation of Islam Nation of Islam taught that Allah, the God of Islam, would bring about a Black Nation composed of all the non-white peo