how reliable is eyewitness testimony?

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How reliable is eyewitness testimony? Concept - Leading questions can cause false or distorted recall…

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How reliable is eyewitness testimony?. Concept - Leading questions can cause false or distorted recall… . How reliable is eyewitness testimony?. - Describe the issue - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

How reliable is eyewitness testimony

Concept - Leading questions can cause false or distorted recallhellip

How reliable is eyewitness testimony

- Describe the issuebull An important issue because of the number of cases

where people are found guilty of crimes with no other evidence except for eyewitness testimonies

bull An eyewitness is a witness to a crime who must give their account of the event and possibly identify the criminal from an identity parade or appear in court

bull This can lead to a conviction so if the eyewitness testimony is wrong someone has been wrongly convicted of a crime they did not commit

How reliable is eyewitness testimony

bull Elizabeth Loftus is a leading expert in the area and has done a lot of research into the reliability of eyewitness testimonies

bull She has identified many useful factors bull For example eyewitnesses can be swayed by identity

parades (this is likely to be because they want to help so feel they must answer or might assume that the criminal has to be in the line-up)

bull They will be looking to find the nearest match to the person they saw not the actual person this can lead to wrongful convictions

Wrongful Convictionsbull Cornelius Dupreebull Convicted of rape and robberybull Exactly one week after the attack Dupree amp Anthony

Massingill were stopped by police as they walked along a street near the site of the incident

bull Police claimed they stopped them because they fit the general description of two other black men who were suspected in a separate sexual assault case

bull Both men were searched and although Dupree was unarmed Massingill had a handgun roughly similar to the one described in the recent attack

Wrongful Convictions

bull Both Dupree and Massingill were taken into custody and their photos were submitted for an identification lineup

bull Although the male victim did not identify them in the photo array the female victim picked both Dupree and Massingill when presented with the same photos

bull Later in the investigation police showed the photos to two women who worked at the store where the perpetrators tried to sell the fur coat and both women did not identify either Massingill or Dupree

Wrongful Convictions

bull On July 30 2010 the lab issued a report on the evidence which conclusively excluded both Dupree and Massingill as possible sources of the DNA found on the victimrsquos pubic hair samples

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 2: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

How reliable is eyewitness testimony

- Describe the issuebull An important issue because of the number of cases

where people are found guilty of crimes with no other evidence except for eyewitness testimonies

bull An eyewitness is a witness to a crime who must give their account of the event and possibly identify the criminal from an identity parade or appear in court

bull This can lead to a conviction so if the eyewitness testimony is wrong someone has been wrongly convicted of a crime they did not commit

How reliable is eyewitness testimony

bull Elizabeth Loftus is a leading expert in the area and has done a lot of research into the reliability of eyewitness testimonies

bull She has identified many useful factors bull For example eyewitnesses can be swayed by identity

parades (this is likely to be because they want to help so feel they must answer or might assume that the criminal has to be in the line-up)

bull They will be looking to find the nearest match to the person they saw not the actual person this can lead to wrongful convictions

Wrongful Convictionsbull Cornelius Dupreebull Convicted of rape and robberybull Exactly one week after the attack Dupree amp Anthony

Massingill were stopped by police as they walked along a street near the site of the incident

bull Police claimed they stopped them because they fit the general description of two other black men who were suspected in a separate sexual assault case

bull Both men were searched and although Dupree was unarmed Massingill had a handgun roughly similar to the one described in the recent attack

Wrongful Convictions

bull Both Dupree and Massingill were taken into custody and their photos were submitted for an identification lineup

bull Although the male victim did not identify them in the photo array the female victim picked both Dupree and Massingill when presented with the same photos

bull Later in the investigation police showed the photos to two women who worked at the store where the perpetrators tried to sell the fur coat and both women did not identify either Massingill or Dupree

Wrongful Convictions

bull On July 30 2010 the lab issued a report on the evidence which conclusively excluded both Dupree and Massingill as possible sources of the DNA found on the victimrsquos pubic hair samples

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 3: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

How reliable is eyewitness testimony

bull Elizabeth Loftus is a leading expert in the area and has done a lot of research into the reliability of eyewitness testimonies

bull She has identified many useful factors bull For example eyewitnesses can be swayed by identity

parades (this is likely to be because they want to help so feel they must answer or might assume that the criminal has to be in the line-up)

bull They will be looking to find the nearest match to the person they saw not the actual person this can lead to wrongful convictions

Wrongful Convictionsbull Cornelius Dupreebull Convicted of rape and robberybull Exactly one week after the attack Dupree amp Anthony

Massingill were stopped by police as they walked along a street near the site of the incident

bull Police claimed they stopped them because they fit the general description of two other black men who were suspected in a separate sexual assault case

bull Both men were searched and although Dupree was unarmed Massingill had a handgun roughly similar to the one described in the recent attack

Wrongful Convictions

bull Both Dupree and Massingill were taken into custody and their photos were submitted for an identification lineup

bull Although the male victim did not identify them in the photo array the female victim picked both Dupree and Massingill when presented with the same photos

bull Later in the investigation police showed the photos to two women who worked at the store where the perpetrators tried to sell the fur coat and both women did not identify either Massingill or Dupree

Wrongful Convictions

bull On July 30 2010 the lab issued a report on the evidence which conclusively excluded both Dupree and Massingill as possible sources of the DNA found on the victimrsquos pubic hair samples

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 4: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Wrongful Convictionsbull Cornelius Dupreebull Convicted of rape and robberybull Exactly one week after the attack Dupree amp Anthony

Massingill were stopped by police as they walked along a street near the site of the incident

bull Police claimed they stopped them because they fit the general description of two other black men who were suspected in a separate sexual assault case

bull Both men were searched and although Dupree was unarmed Massingill had a handgun roughly similar to the one described in the recent attack

Wrongful Convictions

bull Both Dupree and Massingill were taken into custody and their photos were submitted for an identification lineup

bull Although the male victim did not identify them in the photo array the female victim picked both Dupree and Massingill when presented with the same photos

bull Later in the investigation police showed the photos to two women who worked at the store where the perpetrators tried to sell the fur coat and both women did not identify either Massingill or Dupree

Wrongful Convictions

bull On July 30 2010 the lab issued a report on the evidence which conclusively excluded both Dupree and Massingill as possible sources of the DNA found on the victimrsquos pubic hair samples

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 5: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Wrongful Convictions

bull Both Dupree and Massingill were taken into custody and their photos were submitted for an identification lineup

bull Although the male victim did not identify them in the photo array the female victim picked both Dupree and Massingill when presented with the same photos

bull Later in the investigation police showed the photos to two women who worked at the store where the perpetrators tried to sell the fur coat and both women did not identify either Massingill or Dupree

Wrongful Convictions

bull On July 30 2010 the lab issued a report on the evidence which conclusively excluded both Dupree and Massingill as possible sources of the DNA found on the victimrsquos pubic hair samples

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 6: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Wrongful Convictions

bull On July 30 2010 the lab issued a report on the evidence which conclusively excluded both Dupree and Massingill as possible sources of the DNA found on the victimrsquos pubic hair samples

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 7: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police

at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 8: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Wrongful Convictionsbull Jean Charles de Menezesbull Brazilian man shot dead by the London Metropolitan police at

Stockwell tube station on the London Underground after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous days failed bombing attempts These events took place two weeks after the London bombings of 7 July 2005 in which 52 people were killed

bull Later police and media accounts contradicted each other specifically regarding Menezess manner and clothing as he entered the station and whether there had been any police warnings before they fired

bull He was misidentified and eyewitness testimony of shootings were incoherent

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 9: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

The issue with EWT bull Witnessing a crime etc will be emotional If you saw a

shooting would you think about yours or others lifesbull An eyewitness testimony will not be exact like a video

recordingbull So how reliable is itbull Witnesses can be swayed in line ups as they assume the

perpetrator is there bull Loftus and Ketcham (1991) found that innocent

individuals were wrongly convicted 45 of the time by eyewitness testimonies from the police cases they studied

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 10: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Application

bull Loftus and Palmer (1974) Studybull Aim To test their hypothesis that the language

used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory bull They aimed to show that leading questions

could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 11: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Procedure ndash Experiment 1bull Forty-five American students opportunity sample bull Laboratory experiment with five conditions only one of which was

experienced by each participant (an independent measures experimental design)

bull 7 films of traffic accidents ranging in duration from 5 to 30 seconds were presented in a random order to each group

bull After watching the film participants were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses

bull They were then asked specific questions including the question ldquoAbout how fast were the cars going when they (smashed collided bumped hit contacted) each otherrdquo

bull Thus the IV was the wording of the question and the DV was the speed reported by the participants

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 12: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Results

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 13: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Procedure ndash Experiment 2bull 150 students were shown a one minute film which featured a car

driving through the countryside followed by four seconds of a multiple traffic accident

bull Afterwards the students were questioned about the film bull The independent variable was the type of question asked bull It was manipulated by asking 50 students how fast were the car going

when they hit each other another 50 how fast were the car going when they smashed each other and the remaining 50 participants were not asked a question at all (ie the control group)

bull One week later the dependent variable was measured - without seeing the film again they answered ten questions one of which was a critical one randomly placed in the list ldquoDid you see any broken glass Yes or no There was no broken glass on the original film

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 14: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

Results

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 15: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

EWT can be affected

bull Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information

bull However research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

bull Anxiety Stressbull Reconstructive Memorybull Weapon Focus

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

bull Recall was about 50 higher than when it took place in the same environment as learning

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 and 114 for underwater learning and recalleq [figures can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

bull This contrasted with 84 mean recall in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

bull The study thus demonstrates how the environment can act as a contextual cue that helps recall and prevent forgettingeq

Craik and Tulving

ndash 80 semantic 50 phonemic and 18 of structurally processed words were recalledrecognised [percentages can be more or less similar and appropriately paired])

ndash The researchers had found that the deeper the processing the more durable the memoryeq

ndash This demonstrates elaborative rehearsal is more effective than pure maintenance rehearsal in improving memory recalleq

ndash Semantic processing involves the most cognitive work so thinking about the meaning of the words leads to them being remembered besteq

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Must be a strength not a weakness If more than one strength given mark all and credit the best

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer 1 mark per point elaborationStudy must be referred to at least once to access both marks

bull TE - If study in (a) is incorrect non cognitive study then no marks for strength in (c) If (a) is blank but answer in (c) focuses on an identifiable Cognitive study then full marks available If a strength of a cognitive study but a different one from the one given in (a) or if a lsquogenericrsquo strength then max 1 if the answer is appropriate

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Godden and Baddeley (1975) Strength bull The study can help students with their revision by

getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)

bull Eg Craik and Tulving Strength ndash The study does have a practical application to real life

giving meaning to material is one way of improving your memoryeq (1st mark) Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variableseq (1st mark) which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq (2nd mark)

Jan 2010 (5)bull There are three types of experiments (natural field and

laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as

bull validitybull reliability bull ethics

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory

experiments

bull Marking points are indicative not comprehensive and other points should be credited In each consider Or Words To That Effect (OWTTE) 1 mark per point elaboration

bull Credit use of appropriate examples which illustrate comparison eg Milgram and HoflingCredit can be given for similarities and or differences do not need both

There are three types of experiments (natural field and laboratory) Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments

bull Lab carried out in an artificial setting field is in a realistic environmenteq

bull Lab has low ecological validity field has higheq

bull Both involve manipulation of IV by the experimentereq bull Both aim to measure cause and effect eqbull Lab has greater control than field over extraneous variableseqbull Lab are easier to replicate and test for reliability of results as conditions are

controlled (1st mark) field less able to replicate due to lack of control over extraneous variableseq (2nd mark)

bull Demand characteristics are more likely to occur in lab due to the artificial environment (1st mark) less likely in field due to more natural environment where participants are less likely to know they are part of a study eq (2 marks)

bull For example in Milgrams lab exp pps were more likely to be influenced by cues around them than the nurses in Hoflingrsquos field experimenteq

Tests of difference

Participant design

Level of measurement

Nominal data Ordinal data Intervalratio data

Repeated measures or matched pairs Sign test Wilcoxon Matched Related t test

Independent groups chi-squared test Mann-Whitney Unrelated t test

Tests for relationship (correlations)

Ordinal data Nominal Intervalratio data

Spearmanrsquos Rank Correlation Co-efficient chi-squared test Pearsonrsquos Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient

eg if you have ordinal data with independent measures design and yoursquore looking for a difference you will use Mann-Whitney lsquoUrsquo

May 2010

bull Each of the approaches in psychology has main features (underlying concepts) that define it

bull Describe one or more main features of the Cognitive Approach in psychology (4)

bull Possible features include bull Information processing understanding of

memory understanding forgetting experiments computer analogy There are others [including not on the spec such as perception which are creditable if correct]

bull Information processing (possible ID mark) bull Similar to a computer we input information

process and provide an outputeq bull Eg The multi-store model of memory

receives retains and recalls information from the memory storeseq

bull We received information directly from our sensesbottom-up processingeq

bull Understanding memory (possible ID mark) bull We encode store and retrieve information

which makes up our memoryeq

bull [The following are not features as such but can be used as examples of featuresMulti store model levels of processing eye witness testimony cue dependency interference trace decay reconstruction repression and so on]

Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)

bull Memory is a consequence of how we process informationeq bull Information that is attended to on basis of how it looks is not bull very durableeq bull Most durable information is that which has been attended to

semanticallyeq bull The theory distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply

retains items for the time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memorieseq (2 marks)

bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting memory traceseq

bull The 3 levels of processing areStructural what something looks like Phonemicphonetic what something sounds like Semantic what something meanseq (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull What is meant by a survey (2)

Jan 2011bull What is meant by a survey (2)

bull 1113088 Surveys are questionnaires andor interviews to find out what people think about an issueeq

bull 1113088 There are two types of questionnaire using open questions or closed questionseq

bull 1113088 There are also two types of interview using a structured or unstructured set of questionseq

bull 1113088 A survey gathers information by asking questions of a large number of people using written questionnaires andor through face to face interviewseq (2 marks)

bull

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

Jan 2011

bull Write an open question you might ask participants in this survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How do you think the media your parents can help reduce the amount of junk food eateneq

bull 1113088 What advice would you give to a friend who was eating too much junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Why do you think some teenagers prefer junk food to more healthy foodeq

Jan 2011bull Write a closed question you might ask participants in this

survey about healthy eating (1)

bull How many times a week do you eat chips burgers junk foodeq

bull 1113088 Eating junk food is to blame for the obesity epidemic yes or noeq

bull 1113088 Parents should take responsibility for educating children about healthy eating strongly agree agree donrsquot know disagree strongly disagreeeq

bull 1113088 Do you eat five portions of fruitveg dailyeq

Jan 2011

bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

Jan 2011bull Outline two weaknesses of surveys in general (4)

bull Participants may not answer honestly because they do not take it seriouslydo not want the researchers to know their true beliefseq

bull Participants may give socially desirable answers based on what society expects them to say that are more favourable acceptable goodeq (2 marks)

bull Answers may be a result of demand characteristics where the interviewee tries to please the interviewer (1st mark) as it may be possibl guess from the questions the desired answereq (2nd mark)

bull Open ended questions are difficult and time consuming to interpret eqbull Closed ended questions offer little opportunity for explaining the responseeq bull Qualitative data obtained from unstructured interviews may not be easy to analyse

(1st mark) and may be subjective and open to misinterpretation (2nd mark) bull People who return questionnaires may be only those who have time to do so which

can lead to a biased sample (1st mark) which is not representative of the general population (2 marks)

Jan 2011

bull Evaluate the study you have used in (a) bull You might want to consider issues of- reliability

- validity- application to real life

- This is a possible question you could be asked so rememberhellip

Reliability

bull Refers to whether if the study were to be done again the same results would be found (how easy is it to replicate the study)

Reliability of studies -

bull Godden and Baddely (1975) ndash The situation is set up clearly and the context cues are clear making the study replicable and the results reliable

bull This included strong controls such as the times of the learning and the recall and the intervals between the conditions

bull You can always talk about reliability being a strength when there is an experiment with high controls

Reliability of studies -

bull Craik and Tulving (1975) ndash Experiments designed carefully with control and clear operationalisation of variables For example time of the words The study can therefore be replicated and the findings are likely to be reliable

Reliability of experiments (Lab)bull Laboratory experiments are replicable which means they

can be repeated This is because controls such as standardised instructions

bull It is often said that experiments are reliable when what is mean is that they are replicable They are only reliable if they have been repeated and the same resukts have been obtained Craik and Tulvings study is reliable as it was successfully repeated and the same results were found (this is what true reliability is) What about Godden and Baddely

bull Experiments are replicable so can be tested for reliability

Reliability of experiments (field)

bull Difficult to stay that a field study is reliable if we can not replicate (unless such as Godden and Baddely they do so and the results were reliable)

Validity

bull test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure

bull For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)

Validity in the studies

bull Godden and Baddely ndash The environment chosen by GampB was a deliberate choice it was not unfamiliar to the divers and therefore has some ecological validity

bull But were the results valid The two environments are very different and the task unnatural We do not normally perform such tasks in different environments so the conclusions may not be valid Although high in ecological validity to an extent the study may not be valid

Validity in the studies

bull Craik and Tulving ndash These were artificial tasks so could lack validity

Validity of Lab experiments

bull Lack ecological validity and conclusions lack validity

Validity of field experiments

bull High ecological validity as in real setting therefore conclusions are more valid than that of lab experiments

From the mark scheme

Eg Craik and Tulving

ndash 1113088 The study does have a practical application to real life giving ndash meaning to material is one way of improving your memory (1st mark) Eg students can

be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading to help them reviseeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 As a laboratory experiment the study has tight control of extraneous variables which also makes it more likely that the IV influenced the DVeq

ndash 1113088 Even shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctiveeq (1st mark) Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental imageeq (2nd mark)

ndash 1113088 There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effectiveeq (1st mark) ie material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeplyeq (2nd mark)

May 2011

bull Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied within cognitive psychology other than the cue dependent theory (4)

bull (Trace Decay)

Trace Decay answer (4)bull Learning causes a physical change in the neural network of

the memory system creating a memory trace or engrameq bull This neural path gives the memory a structural qualityeq bull Without rehearsal this will decay so it must be reinforced

repetition strengthens iteq bull Trace decay explains forgetting as a problem of availability bull information is forgotten through disuse and passage of time bull This is inevitable in STM due to its limited duration but

require a significant structural change in LTMeq

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of the theory described in (a) (4)

Strength

bull Peterson and Peterson argued that the forgetting they found over their 3 ndash 18 second time delay occurred through trace decay showing that preventing rehearsal caused information to decayeq (2 marks)

bull Studies tend to be lab based with good controls so replicable and tested for reliabilityeq

bull Biological evidence shows that traces are created over a period of days as memories are formedeq

Weakness

bull It could be that information has been interfered with than just simply decayed Waugh and Norman who set out to support trace decay actually concluded interference is the most likely cause of forgettingeq (2 marks)

bull The information may actually just not be accessible due to lack of cueseq

bull The theory is difficult to test as participants who are tested after different time periods could actually be rehearsing and strengthening the traceeq

May 2011

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

bull Define what is meant by natural experiment (2)

Natural experiment

bull It is a naturally occurring IV is not manipulated by the researchereq (adding natural environment gets an elaboration mark ndash 2 marks)

bull A cause and effect relationship is looked for between the IV and the DVeq

bull The researcher takes advantage of a naturallyreal life occurring situation (an event in the natural environment) as the IV - where the variable is changed for one group but not anothereq (2 marks)

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull Mrs Smith is to take over Mrs Jonesrsquos Psychology class in January as Mrs Jones is going on maternity leave Mr Brownrsquos class is not affected by staff change Researchers have decided to use this as a natural experiment to discover whether attendance is affected by staff change part way through the year

Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (DV) variable in this experiment (2)

bull independent variable ndash must have an element of change in class so no credit for ldquoMrs Jones going on maternity leaverdquo or ldquothe classes usedrdquo

eg bull Change of staffeq bull Having a new teachereq bull One class having the same teacher the other changing teachereq

bull dependent variable ndash must have an element of measurement bull eg

ndash Level of attendanceeq ndash Students amount of attendanceeq ndash Difference in attendanceeq

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendanceeq (1 mark)

bull egThere will be no difference in level of attendance between the two classes (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

bull egA change in teacher will make no difference to students level of attendance (any difference is due to chance)eq (2 marks)

Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this experiment (3)

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

bull There was a 12 increase in attendance in Mrs SmithJones class since a change in teachereq

bull There was a 15 difference in attendance between Mrs Smithrsquos class and Mr Brownrsquos class before the change in teachereq

bull This changed to a 1 difference in attendance from when Mrs Smith took overeq

bull Attendance to Mr Browns class dropped 2 from January onwards compared to before Januaryeq

Mrs Smithrsquos and Mrs Jonesrsquos class

Mr Brownrsquos class

Class attendance () before January

80 95

Class attendance () from January onwards

92 93

Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable in this experiment and suggest how it may have affected the results (2)

bull Suitable examplestime of lesson changesillness accounting for increase or decrease in attendance homework set or notholidays booked or notother winter exams accounting for increase or decrease in attendance

eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID mark)

bull if the lesson was first thing in the morning before xmas and is now last thing on a Friday in the new year attendance levels may be lowereq

bull if the lesson is now during the middle of the day but wasnrsquot before xmas attendance may naturally be higher as most students are in college at that timeeq

individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)

ndash Students who were unwell before xmas may now have much better levels of attendance after xmas as they are much better noweq

ndash Students who were well before xmas may now have much worse levels of attendance as they are unwell after xmas eq

whether any homework was due in (ID mark)

bull ndash A piece of homework due in for one class may put

some students off attending if they have not yet done iteq

ndash Whereas those students who have not had homework

ndash set may expect attend moreeq

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull No credit for pure description of Craik and Tulvingrsquos procedure bull Craik and Lockhart argued LOP is necessary to explain the transfer of information

into LTM without rehearsal bull Memory is a consequence of how we process information bull the deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered bull Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal produces longer lasting

memory traces bull The deepest level is semantic processing and the shallowest is structural

processing bull Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks (structural processing)

is not very durable bull Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper processing and

deeper processing results in a more durable memory bull It distinguishes between maintenance rehearsal which simply retains items for the

time being and elaborative rehearsal which expands upon material and creates more lasting memories

Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (12)

bull It must be the LOP model that is being evaluated eg cannot gain marks by exclusively evaluating Craik and Tulvingrsquos study However problems with research that undermine its legitimacy can be used if these then show that the theory lacks empirical support

bull Students can be taught to make notes which have meaning rather than just reading information that makes no sense to help them revise so the model does have applications to real life

bull The model has support from Craik and Tulvingrsquos study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than other shallow information

bull However this empirical support is laboratory based and therefore lacks ecological validity as both task and setting are artificial

bull There are too many problems with actually defining deep processing and why it is effective Eg Baddeley (1978) criticises it for being circular ie Material which has been deeply processed will be remembered better BUT you could say material is well remembered because it must have been processed deeply

bull Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) argue even shallow processing could lead to better processing IF the material was distinctive Eg you may see something so distinctive that it creates a mental image

bull Level 4 bull 10-12 marks

bull Candidate has attempted and answered both injunctions in the question very well

bull Description includes all 3 levels of processing defined well - and appropriate elaborationvery good explanation of process

bull Very good evaluation eg refers to methodological supporting studies and practical points in relation to actual theory

bull The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place Very few syntactical and or spelling errors may be found Very good organisation and planning Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012

bull Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

bull To see whether words would be recalled better in the same environment or in a very different environment (1st mark) in this case the environments were on dry land and underwater (2nd mark)eq

bull To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (2)

Jan 2012bull Using figuresdata outline the results of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975)

study (2)

bull Recall was (about) 50 higher when it took place in the same environment as learningeq

bull 40 more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment to original learningeq

bull Mean number of words recalled in the dry land learning and recall condition was 135 mean 37 and 114 mean 32 for underwater learning and recalleq

bull This contrasted with 84 mean 23 in the underwater learning and dry land recall and 86 mean 24 for dry land learning and underwater recalleq

Jan 2012

bull Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The study has practical applications for education advising students to improve recall by reinstating the learning context for examseq

bull It can also be used to help police investigations by getting them to interview witnesses in the same environment to the event they saweq

bull The study can help students with their revision by getting them to use cues to help learningeq (1st mark) Students can make use of contextual cues by learning and recalling in the same environment (2nd mark)

bull The study took place in a real life setting and so has greater ecological validity than laboratory researcheq

bull The experiment was conducted in a realistic open water environment for divers (1st mark) so has higher ecological validity and results relate to real life situationseq (2nd mark)

bull The study had practical applications as it was used to advise divers working on North Sea oil rigs how to develop strategies to recall information collected on the seabed when they got back on the rigs (1st mark)eq by using the same context when having to recall for example (2nd mark)eq

Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (1975) study (4)

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words is not an everyday task and so lacks ecological validityeq

bull There was a lack of control over some of the procedure including lack of standardisation and equipment failure (1st mark) which makes it improbable the study could be replicated and get the same resultseq (2nd mark)

bull Itrsquos possible that participants who did not have to change environments (conditions 1 and 2)were able to rehearse the word list moreeq

bull The procedure in learning unrelated words using all this technology is not an everyday task and so lacks (mundane) realismeq

bull The sample was small (18) which may not beis not representative of the population as a whole so cannot be generalisedeq

Jan 2012

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted an experiment

bull State the experimentalalternative hypothesis of your experiment and whether it is directional (one tailed) or non- directional (two tailed) (3)

bull We did this yesterday

Jan 2012bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor

carrying out your experiment (2)

bull What issues could you mention that you could further ellaborate on moving rooms Noise levels Cheating Demand characteristics is also a good one (students not working as hard in the library)

bull 2 marksAnswer clearly outlines one appropriate problem but candidate has also included some elaboration (which relates to (a) such as experiment may have suffered from demand characteristics and the candidate has explained what this means)

Jan 2012

bull Outline one problem you came across when planning andor carrying out your experiment (2)

bull How could you deal with cheating Or with demand characteristics

bull 2 marksAnswer shows a clearly appropriate solution to the problem given in (b) with clear elaboration and explanation

Jan 2012

bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

Jan 2012bull Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces

quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable (2)

bull Easier to analyse than qualitative data because data is in numbers (1st mark) this enables comparisons to be made between groups much more easily (2nd mark)eq

bull Produces more objective data than qualitative as involves little or no interpretationeq

bull More likely to be tested for reliability which may lead to generalisability to other situationseq

bull For example counting words in a memory experiment is more measurable than asking open questions in an intervieweq

bull Can be collected more quickly than qualitative data as tends to use closed rather than open questionseq

Jan 2012

bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

Jan 2012bull You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you

hear cries of lsquoThief Stop Helprsquo and look around to see a man running off with a bag The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently

bull Using theories of forgetting andor memory explain these differences in your recollections (5)

bull Concepts theories and research from cognitive psychology includeKey Issues (flashbulb memory cognitive interview)Concepts (leading questions weapon focus stress and anxiety)

bull MethodologyTheories of Memory Forgetting

Some examples

bull eg Information processingbull There may be individual differences in the way witnesses

bull input and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may lead to differences in recalleq

Some examples

bull eg Cue dependentbull Those interviewed in the queue itself will be aided by cues

bull (context and state) and so may recall more detail than others questioned elsewhereeq

Some examples

bull eg LOPbull Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember

bull more than those who used shallow processingeq

Some examples

bull eg Multi storebull Some may have though about and discussed what they saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer information from STM to LTMeq

Some examples

bull eg Reconstructive memorybull They were behind a barrier so did not see all the details

bull and therefore confabulated some of their evidence

June 2012

bull The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study

bull State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Allows large numbers of participants to be recruited quickly conveniently eq

bull Not as time consuming as other types eg stratified (as ps are available at any opportune moment)eq

bull Likely to be ethical as researcher can judge if participant is too busy etceq

State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general (2)

bull Unlikely to provide a representative sample as researcher may be biased in who is chosenusing who is available at the timeeq

bull More likely to suffer from demand characteristics as family and friends more likely to be choseneq

bull Only those available are used who may all share similar characteristicseq

Jan 2013

bull Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive Approach

bull Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour (4)

Cognitive approachbull Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a computereq bull Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in the braineq bull The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how the mind processes

informationeq bull It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recalleq bull Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or software disk Humans

receive information through their senseseq bull The computer then runs programs to process the information bull Humans process the information via the central nervous system and the braineq bull The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and humans give a wide

variety of outputs as behavioureq bull We encode store and retrieve information which makes up our bull memoryeq bull Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to availability

accessibility problemseq bull Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by external events and

internal mechanismseq

Jan 2013

bull Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out the most important points from theories you have studied

bull Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that you think are important

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg cues bull When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval

then bull forgetting may occureq bull Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information

that bull guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the bull contents page of a bookeq bull These memory cues may be necessary to access information bull that is available but not accessibleeq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg context cues ndash These are environmental cues such as your

classroomeq ndash For example when someone goes upstairs to get

something and ndash forgets what it was they might remember again

when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about iteq

Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting

bull eg state cues ndash These are cues internal to the person such as

being excited or ndash afraideq ndash For example if you learn something when in a

relaxed mood but ndash cannot recall it when in a tense moodeq

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (2)
  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions
  • Wrongful Convictions (2)
  • Wrongful Convictions (3)
  • Wrongful Convictions (4)
  • Wrongful Convictions (5)
  • The issue with EWT
  • Application
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 1
  • Results
  • Procedure ndash Experiment 2
  • Results (2)
  • EWT can be affected
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive practical
  • Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Evaluaiton
  • Evaluaiton (2)
  • Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure
  • Slide 29
  • Variable and hypothesis
  • Slide 31
  • Controls
  • Selecting participants
  • Design
  • Results (3)
  • Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks
  • Evaluative points
  • Level 3 ndash 5 marks
  • Jan 2009
  • May 2009
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be
  • Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table be (2)
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer
  • Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re
  • The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With re (2)
  • Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)
  • Jan 2010
  • Jan 2010 (2)
  • Godden and Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (2)
  • Outline one strength of the study you identified (a) (3)
  • Jan 2010 (5)
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora
  • There are three types of experiments (natural field and labora (2)
  • Slide 61
  • May 2010
  • Slide 63
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • Slide 66
  • Describe the Levels of Processing model of memory (5)
  • Jan 2011
  • Jan 2011 (2)
  • Jan 2011 (3)
  • Jan 2011 (4)
  • Jan 2011 (5)
  • Jan 2011 (6)
  • Jan 2011 (7)
  • Jan 2011 (8)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability of studies -
  • Reliability of studies - (2)
  • Reliability of experiments (Lab)
  • Reliability of experiments (field)
  • Validity
  • Validity in the studies
  • Validity in the studies (2)
  • Validity of Lab experiments
  • Validity of field experiments
  • From the mark scheme
  • Eg Craik and Tulving
  • May 2011
  • Trace Decay answer (4)
  • Slide 90
  • Strength
  • Weakness
  • May 2011 (2)
  • Natural experiment
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent (
  • Identify both the independent variable (IV) and the dependent ( (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2)
  • Write a suitable null hypothesis for this experiment (2) (2)
  • Using the table in Figure 1 describe the results of this exper
  • Slide 100
  • Identify one participant or situational (extraneous) variable i
  • eg time of lesson changes before xmas to the new year (ID ma
  • individual differences such as studentsrsquo health (ID mark)
  • whether any homework was due in (ID mark)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (2)
  • Describe and evaluate the Levels of Processing model of memory (3)
  • Slide 108
  • Jan 2012
  • Jan 2012 (2)
  • Jan 2012 (3)
  • Jan 2012 (4)
  • Jan 2012 (5)
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos
  • Outline one strength and one weakness of Godden and Baddeleyrsquos (2)
  • Jan 2012 (6)
  • Jan 2012 (7)
  • Jan 2012 (8)
  • Jan 2012 (9)
  • Jan 2012 (10)
  • Jan 2012 (11)
  • Jan 2012 (12)
  • Some examples
  • Some examples (2)
  • Some examples (3)
  • Some examples (4)
  • Some examples (5)
  • June 2012
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in
  • State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in (2)
  • Jan 2013
  • Cognitive approach
  • Jan 2013 (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (2)
  • Feature of cue dependent theory of forgetting (3)
Page 16: How reliable is eyewitness testimony?

bull However a study by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts the importance of stress in influencing eyewitness memory

bull They showed that witnesses of a real life incident (a gun shooting outside a gun shop in Canada) had remarkable accurate memories of a stressful event involving weapons

bull A thief stole guns and money but was shot six times and died

bull The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were re-interviewed five months later

bull Recall was found to be accurate even after a long time and two misleading questions inserted by the research team had no effect on recall accuracy

bull One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually closer to the event and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall

bull The Yuille and Cutshall study illustrates two important pointsbull 1 There are cases of real-life recall where memory for an anxious stressful

event is accurate even some months laterbull 2 Misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in

laboratory studies (eg Loftus amp Palmer)

bull The participants were all students they may not be representative of the population as a whole ndash Generalisability

bull The findings show that memory is easily distorted which has implications for eyewitness testimony in police statements and courts The evidence shows that leading questions can bias the eyewitnessesrsquo answers - Application

bull Order effects controlled by random sequence of presentation of films to each group Demand characteristics student participants may work out the aim of the research ndash confounding variables

bull Low ecological validity as it was conducted in a laboratory There would be differences between seeing a car accident on film and seeing it in real life (eg other distractions high emotional involvement) ndash Low ecological validity

bull This study was very well controlled For example in experiment 2 one group of participants were not asked the critical lsquobroken glassrsquo question Good control over variables is possible as it was conducted in a laboratory doing this study outside would lack control over all variables (but increase ecological validity) ndash Controls

bull What about the methodology

Cognitive practical

bull Big Brainbull Context Cue

Cue-dependent theory of forgetting Tulving 1975

bull This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory not the short-term store

bull It states that forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval

bull Tulving put forward this theory in 1975 stating that memory is dependent on the right cues being available and forgetting occurs when they are absent

bull Tulvingrsquos theory states that there are two events necessary for recall

1) a memory trace (information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event)

2) a retrieval cue (information present in the individualrsquos cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the environment at the time of recall)

bull For Tulving forgetting is about the memory trace being intact but memory failing because the cognitive environment has changed

bull There is no appropriate cue to activate the trace bull The most noticeable experience of this cue-

dependent forgetting is the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon (Brown and McNeill 1966)

bull This refers to knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it

bull Cues have been differentiated into 1) context-dependent cues ndash the situation or

context (Godden and Baddeley 1975)2) state-dependent cues ndash the personrsquos state or

mood

Evaluaitonbull The theory is supported by much anecdotal evidence (personal

experiences ndash most people have experienced the ldquoTip of the Tongue Phenomenonrdquo where you cannot quite recall what you know exists)

bull There is also a great deal of experimental evidence (provided by studies) which support the theory

bull A further strength is that the theory has practical applications which are related to cognition and improving memory and ability to recall information

bull Also the theory can be tested unlike theories such as trace-decay theory

bull Experiments can test the importance of cues as they are tangible and measurable unlike memory traces

Evaluaitonbull However one major weakness is that the tasks from all studies

supporting the theory are artificial most often learning words lists

bull Also it is only an explanation for forgetting from long-term memory it does not include anything about the short-term store

bull The theory may not be a complete explanation either as it cannot explain why emotionally-charged memories can be really vivid ndash even without a cue (such as posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD)

bull It is also hard to prove whether a memory has been revived from the cue or from the memory trace simply being activated therefore it makes the theory hard to refute

Applying this to the cognitive practical Procedure

bull 20 participants were asked to arrive at a classroom

bull At this point they were all given the right to withdraw

bull They were randomly allocated to cued and non cued groups by drawing names from a hat

bull Both groups were briefed about the aims and the procedure (given the right to withdraw assured confidentiality and anonymity)

bull Both groups were seated in the classroom and shown a list of 20 words one at a time via powerpoint

bull Each word was shown for 3 secondsbull Non-cued group asked to go to the library and the cued group

asked to remain seatedbull After 5 minutes the groups were given a blank piece of paper

and a pen top recall all the words they could remember in 5 minutes

bull Both groups were debriefed told the aims again and thanked They were given the right to withdraw a final time and told the results of the experiments would be made available

Variable and hypothesis

bull This experiment is investigating a cause and effect relationship between context and recall

bull IV ndash environmentbull DV ndash ability to recallbull Hypothesis ndash participants will recall fewer words when

they recall in an environment that is different from the learning environment than when learning and recall take place in the same environment

bull So here the direction has been clearly stated so this is a one-tailed directional hypothesis

bull Why have we used a one-tailed hypothesisbull This experiment is based upon an established

psychological theorybull If it was not what then we would use ahellipbull The null hypothesis (required for every experiment)

states that any difference is likely due to chance There will be no difference in recall of a word list recalled in the same of different environment and any difference found is due to chance

Controls

bull What variables must we considerbull Participants asked to refrain from talking to each

other throughout the studybull Mobile phones switched offbull Participants seated away from each other so not to

copybull Used a booked room which was quiet and posters put

up on door explain there was an experiment going onbull All times the same

Selecting participants

bull Cue-dependent is a common way of forgetting so no specific selection is required

bull 20 students opportunity sampling from around the schoolcollege

Design

bull Independent measures design used bull Why choose this over repeat measures

Results

bull Consider the results on page 65 ndash 66 of big brain

Jan 2011 ndash 5 marks

bull As part of the course requirements for cognitive psychology you will have conducted a practical using an experiment

bull Evaluate your experiment You may wish to look at

bull your sample bull how you controlled variables bull your research design decisions bull any ethical issues

Evaluative pointsbull Because the sample was opportunity we could have deliberately

picked people we knew had the desired characteristics bull We all used the same standardised instructions which increases

the reliability of our study bull It was carried out in a quiet classroom which is a natural setting

for the participant so increasing ecological validity bull Some participants may have told others about the study so they

may have tried to give us the results they thought we wanted bull All participants were 16 to 18 so we cannot generalise the results

to older people bull As it was an experiment so we dont know if the participantrsquos

behaviour was natural or a result of demand characteristics

Level 3 ndash 5 marks

bull A thorough answer giving very good strengths andor weaknesses comprehensively communicated

bull The candidate has referred to their own study in some way at least once

bull Given time constraints and limited number of marks full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed even if not all the information is present

Jan 2009bull Explain why it might be preferable to use a research method that produces

qualitative rather than quantitative data (4)

- If candidate explains why quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods then zero marksCandidate can gain credit for applying question to their own study (but does not have to) - Qualitative methods conducted in more natural circumstances tend to produce more

ecologically valid data as they are real life situationseq (2 marks)

- Quantitative data produces narrow unrealistic information which only focuses on small fragments of behavioureq - Qualitative methods produces more rich detailed type of informationeq - Qualitative methods enables the researcher to delve into the reasons behind their quantitative findingseq - Qualitative data can be broken down to quantitative data but not vice versaeq Look for other reasonable marking points

May 2009bull A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid recall A

student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in an ice rink Half the group were then taken to a library (control group) whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink Both groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible

bull The results are shown in the table below

bull Which design is being used in this study

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

bull Independent measures design

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study (2)

bull Explain why this design is appropriate for this study

- 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answerIf more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best

- There is no practicefatigue effecteq 1 markAs the participants either went to the library or the ice rinkeq 1 mark

- No order effectseq 1 markNo order effects as different participants are used in each conditioneq 2 marks

- Need two groups to compare the resultseq 1 markA comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had an effect on recalleq 2 marks

-Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table below

Control group (Library)

Experimental group (Ice rink)

Mean Number of Words Recalled

(out of 20)

10 16

The Mean

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer

Would this study have high or low validity Explain your answer (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer A suitable example would serve as elaboration MAX 1 mark if no reference made to the actual study

bull High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice rink)eq 1 markEven the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as those in the ice rink which would be high validityeq 1 mark

bull Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not carried out in everyday lifeeq 1 markLow (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may not be testing how memory normally workseq 1 mark

bull Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines With reference to this study explain two ethical guidelines they would

have to consider

bull 1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation bull NB 1 mark for ID second mark in each case must relate the study to the ethical guideline to gain

credit bull There are many guidelines that could be chosen If more than two are given mark all and credit the

best

bull Right to withdraw ID markThe ice hockey teamplayers had to know that they could pull out from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they had recalledeq

bull Debriefing ID markThe ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have participated ineq

bull Informed consent ID markThe ice hockey teamstudent team must give their permission to take part in the memory experiment after they are told what is involvedeq

bull Confidentiality ID markThe results and personal details of the ice hockey teamlsquogrouprsquo should not in any way be made public to anyone without their permissioneq

Outline one weakness of field experiments in general (2)

bull 2 marks for a complete answer 1 mark for a partial answer bull If more than one weakness mark all and credit the best

bull Eg Lack of full control over variableseq 1 mark

bull Difficult to replicate due to lack of full control over extraneous variables eq 2 marks

bull EgCould be lack of informed consenteq 1 mark

bull Informed consent is difficult to obtain as informing the participants they are being studied would disrupt natural behavioureq 2 marks

bull EgMay be more expensive and time consumingeq 1 mark

bull The researcher may require additional skills in arranging and setting up a field experiment compared to the skills required for a lab experimenteq 2 marks

Jan 2010

bull Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach

bull Craik and Tulving (1975)bull Godden and Baddeley deep sea divers

Jan 2010bull Describe the findings (results andor conclusions) of the study you identified

in (a)

bull Credit should be given for results andor conclusions drawn from the study only No marks should be given for procedure or aims 1 mark per pointelaboration of findings

bull TE If (a) is blankinsufficient for identification but findings in (b) are clearly identifiable as an appropriate study from the Cognitive Approach full marks can be given eg Loftus and Zanni

bull If the findings described do not relate to a study stated in (a) but are clearly identifiable as a study from the Cognitive Approach then max 2 marksIf (a) is incorrect eg from a different approach and the findings refer to (a) then 0 marks