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  • ORNL/TM-2012/107

    HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    May 2012

    Prepared by S. J. Ball D. E. Holcomb S. M. Cetiner

  • DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY

    Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source. National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD 703-487-4639 Fax 703-605-6900 E-mail info@ntis.gov Web site http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm

    Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) representatives, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source. Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Telephone 865-576-8401 Fax 865-576-5728 E-mail reports@osti.gov Web site http://www.osti.gov/contact.html

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

  • ORNL/TM-2012/107

    Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    HTGR MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS

    S. J. Ball, D. E. Holcomb, and S. M. Cetiner

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    May 2012

    Prepared by

    OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6165

    managed by

    UT-BATTELLE, LLC

    for the

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

  • iii

    CONTENTS

    Page

    LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................................... v

    LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................................... vii

    ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................................... ix

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................. xi

    1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 1

    2. HTGR MEASUREMENT OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 3 2.1 Safety Instrumentation Requirements ....................................................................................... 3 2.2 Normal Operation ...................................................................................................................... 4

    2.2.1 Background .................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.2 Measurement of neutronic variables .............................................................................. 6 2.2.3 Measurement of process variables ................................................................................. 7

    2.3 Accident Monitoring ............................................................................................................... 10 2.3.1 Anticipated operational occurrences ............................................................................ 11 2.3.2 Heat removal accidentspressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC) ............... 12 2.3.3 Primary system rupture accidents ................................................................................ 13 2.3.4 Air ingress .................................................................................................................... 16 2.3.5 Steam/water ingress ..................................................................................................... 18 2.3.6 Reactivity events and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) .......................... 22

    3. MODERN HTGR INSTRUMENTATION ARCHITECTURE ......................................................... 25 3.1 Conceptual Digital Network Topology Overview .................................................................. 26 3.2 Redundancy, Diversity, and Separation .................................................................................. 27 3.3 Wireless ................................................................................................................................... 27 3.4 Instrumentation Power Scavenging ......................................................................................... 29 3.5 Aging and Obsolescence ......................................................................................................... 30 3.6 Deployment and Access Issues ............................................................................................... 31 3.7 Decision Aid Tools .................................................................................................................. 32

    4. NEW AND EMERGING HTGR SENSORS ..................................................................................... 33 4.1 Temperature............................................................................................................................. 33

    4.1.1 Gold-platinum thermocouple ....................................................................................... 33 4.1.2 Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) ............................................................................... 34 4.1.3 Vacuum microtriodes ................................................................................................... 35 4.1.4 Ultrasonic guided wave ................................................................................................ 35 4.1.5 Distributed fiber-optic Bragg thermometry ................................................................. 37

    4.2 Flow ......................................................................................................................................... 38 4.2.1 Hot wire anemometry .................................................................................................. 38 4.2.2 Heated lancegamma thermometer-type probe ......................................................... 38 4.2.3 Projection Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) ............................................................ 39

    4.3 Pressure ................................................................................................................................... 40 4.3.1 SiCN internally self-referenced composite ceramic .................................................... 40 4.3.2 Liquid metal impulse line ............................................................................................ 41 4.3.3 Polarization rotation ..................................................................................................... 41 4.3.4 Extrinsic Fizeau cavity ................................................................................................. 42

  • iv

    4.4 Nuclear .................................................................................................................................... 42 4.4.1 High-temperature fission chamber ............................................................................... 42 4.4.2 Gamma thermometers .................................................................................................. 43 4.4.3 Micropocket fission chambers ..................................................................................... 44

    4.5 Primary System Gases ............................................................................................................. 44 4.5.1 Optical absorption ........................................................................................................ 44 4.5.2 Capacitive shift ............................................................................................................ 46 4.5.3 Resonant frequency shift .............................................................................................. 47

    4.6 Confinement Gases .................................................................................................................. 47 4.6.1 Helium ......................................................................................................................... 47 4.6.2 Combustion products ................................................................................................... 47 4.6.3 Oxygen ......................................................................................................................... 48

    4.7 Tritium ..................................................................................................................................... 48 4.8 Fuel Qualification ................................................................................

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