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(CANCER RESEARCH 46, 1513-1520, March 1986]
Human Pharmacokinetics, Excretion, and Metabolism of the AnthracyclineAntibiotic Menogaril (7-OMEN, NSC 269148) and Their Correlation withClinical Toxicities1
Merrill J. Egorin,2 David A. Van Echo, Margaret Y. Whitacre, Alan Forrest, Lawrence M. Sigman,
Kathrin L. Engisch, and Joseph Aisner
Divisions of Developmental Therapeutics [M. J. E., K. L. E., A. F., L. M. S.] and Medical Oncology [D. A. V. E., M. Y. W., J. A.], University of Maryland Cancer Center,Baltimore, Maryland 21207
In a Phase I study, menogaril (7-OMEN) was administereddaily for 5 days/course, every 21-28 days. Dosages of 3.5, 7,11.5, 17, and 31.5 mg/m2 were infused over 1 h, and dosagesof 42,50, and 56 mg/m2 were infused over 2 h. Pharmacokinetics
was studied at all dosages. Plasma and urine samples werecollected from 24 patients, and bile samples were also collectedfrom 2 patients. 7-OMEN and metabolites were measured byhigh performance liquid chromatography. 7-OMEN was the major
plasma fluorescent species at all times, with only trace amountsof N-demethyl menogaril observed. 7-OMEN disappeared from
plasma biexponentially with f./, a 0.19 0.04 (mean SE) h andtv, 13.22 1.54 h. Plasma pharmacokinetics of 7-OMEN waslinear from 3.5-56 mg/m2; area under the curve increased pro
portionally with dosage. Total body clearance of 7-OMEN was28.18 3.33 liter/nf/h, Vcwas 224 30.8 liter/m2, and Vsswas370 25.7 liter/m2. Plasma pharmacokinetics of 7-OMEN stud
ied on multiple days of a given course were similar. Urinaryexcretion of 7-OMEN and fluorescent metabolites accounted for
5.4 0.4% of the daily dose. Parent compound still represented>80% of urinary drug fluorescence after 24 h. W-demethyl men
ogaril was the only other fluorescent drug species detected inurine. In two patients with biliary tract drains, biliary excretion ofdrug fluorescence accounted for 2.2-4.2% of the daily dose.Only 7-OMEN and A/-demethyl menogaril were detected in bile
by high performance liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. 7-OMEN was the major fluorescent biliary species,but, by 24 h, A/-demethyl menogaril accounted for approximately
40% of biliary drug fluorescence. When considered in light ofeach patient's observed toxicities, excellent relationships were
observed between the plasma area under the curve of 7-OMEN
and the percentage of decreases in WBC and absolute neutrophilcount. These latter findings should be useful in developing moreprecise and intelligent dosing schemes for 7-OMEN.
Anthracycline antibiotics, of which doxorubicin and daunorub-
icin (Fig. 1) are the most important representatives, are a majorclass of antitumor agents. However, these two agents produce
Received 6/27/85; revised 11/8/85; accepted 11/11/85.The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of
page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement inaccordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.
'This work was supported in part by Contract NO1CM27541, and Grant
IP50CA32107 awarded by the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health andHuman Services, Bethesda, MD 20205.
2To whom requests for reprints should be addressed.
considerable toxicity and have limited efficacy against manyneoplasms. Therefore, the search continues for anthracyclineantibiotics with improved therapeutic indices, altered spectra, oractivity of both (1).
7-OMEN3 is a semisynthetic derivative of the anthracycline
antibiotic nogalamycin (Fig. 1), a drug with significant experimental antitumor activity but prohibitive toxicity in animals (2). 7-
OMEN has been introduced into Phase I clinical trials based onits broad spectrum of in vivo activity against animal tumors, itsdemonstrated activity after p.o. as well i.v. administration (2, 3),and its reduced cardiotoxic potential (4).
The mechanism of action of 7-OMEN may differ from that ofdoxorubicin. 7-OMEN is most toxic to cells in d phase, whereas
doxorubicin is most toxic to cells in S phase (2). In addition,while doxorubicin interacts strongly with DNA, 7-OMEN interactsonly weakly with DNA and is highly cytotoxic at concentrationswhich do not inhibit nucleic acid synthesis (2, 5). Finally, whenvarious tumor lines are incubated in vitro with 7-OMEN ordoxorubicin, 7-OMEN fluorescence is localized mainly in the
cytoplasm, whereas doxorubicin fluorescence accumulates primarily in the nucleus (2, 6). Previous studies have described theplasma pharmacokinetics of 7-OMEN in beagle dogs (7), rabbits
(8), and mice (9, 10), while our laboratory has defined the organdistribution of 7-OMEN in mice and rabbits (8, 9), and the urinaryand biliary excretion of 7-OMEN by rabbits (8).
During the performance of a Phase I study at our center, wehad the opportunity to define the human plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of 7-OMEN and its metabolites at
multiple dosages, and to investigate the biliary excretion of thesecompounds in two patients with biliary drains. Finally, when weanalyzed these plasma pharmacokinetic data and comparedthem with the toxicity observed in each patient, an excellentrelationship was apparent between the plasma pharmacokineticsof 7-OMEN in any patient and the pharmacodynamics resultingfrom 7-OMEN therapy of that patient. This paper presents these
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Patient Selection. All patients entering this trial had to fullfill thefollowing criteria: histological proof of malignant disease which had failedconventional chemotherapy or for which no conventional therapy existed,recovery from all toxicities from prior treatments and passage of at least4 weeks from any prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy, a minimal life
3The abbreviations used are: 7-OMEN, menogaril; HPLC, high performanceliquidchromatography;TLC, thin layerchromatography;AUC,areaunder the curveof plasmadrug concentration versus time; Vc,volume of the central compartment;V,steady-state volumeof distribution.
CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 46 MARCH 1986
on July 15, 2018. 1986 American Association for Cancer Research. cancerres.aacrjournals.org Downloaded from
7-OMEN PHARMACOKINETICS AND TOXICITIES
Fig. 1. Structures of doxorubicin, daunorubicin, nogalamycin, 7-OMEN, andsome metabolites of 7-OMEN. Nogarene (Nogarol') corresponds to 7,8-9,10-
expectancy of 12 weeks, a Karnofsky performance status >60%, adquate bone marrow function (WBC >3,500 cells//!),and platelet count>100,000/--l,adequate liver function (bilirubin 45% at
rest. Objective measurable disease was desirable, but not required.Written informed consent in accordance with Federal and institutionalpolicies was obtained from all patients prior to their entry onto study.
Before entry onto study, each patient had a detailed history taken anda physical examination performed. Tumor measurements were madeand performance status was assessed. Laboratory studies relevant tothis paper included pretreatment and weekly complete and differentialblood counts and platelet counts.
Dosage Preparation and Administration. 7-OMEN (NSC 269148),was supplied in freeze-dried dosage form by the Investigational DrugBranch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. 7-OMEN was recon
stituted by adding 10 ml of sterile water for injection (DSP) to each vial.The resulting solution contained 50 mg of 7-OMEN, 100 mg of mannitol,and 16.6 mg of L-lactic acid. This was further diluted with sterile 5%dextrose in water. Dosages of 3.5 to 31.5 mg/m2 were diluted to 150 mland were infused i.v. over 1 h, while dosages of 42, 50, and 56 mg/m2
were diluted to 250 ml and were infused over 2 h. 7-OMEN was admin
istered i.v. on 5 consecutive days with courses repeated after 4 weeks.Sample Acquisition. Heparinized blood samples were obtained before
and at multiple times during and after the 7-OMEN infusion. Specifically,on day 1 of the 5-day course, blood was obtained prior to and at 0.5-hintervals during the 7-OMEN infusion. In addition, samples were obtained
at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h aftercessation of the infusion. Blood samples were also obtained before the7-OMEN infusion on days 2,3,4, and 5 of each course. In some patients,
a repeat of the intensive sampling scheme performed on day 1 was alsoperformed on day 4 or 5 of a course to investigate whether the phar-
macokinetics on later days of a course were similar to that on the firstday. Blood samples were immediately centrifuged at 1000 x g for 10min, and the resulting plasma supernatant was immediately removedand frozen at -20C until analyzed. During the first 24 h after drug
administration, urine was collected as voided and stored as 4-h aliquotsin opaque containers at 4C. Subsequently, a portion of each 4-hcollection was frozen and stored at -20C until analyzed.
Two of the patients on this study had indwelling biliary tract drainsand provided the opportunity to collect and analyze the biliary excretionof 7-OMEN and its metabolites. The first of these patients had completelynormal serum liver function tests (bilirubin, 0.8 mg/dl; aspartate amino-
transferase, 35 units/liter; alanine aminotransferase, 7 units/liter; lactate
dehydrogenase, 136 units/liter; alkaline phosphatase, 292 units/liter;total protein, 6.9 g/dl; and albumin, 4.2 g/dl). The sec