HUMS 2000 First Semester (Complete)
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Reason and Revelation
Short answer describe key terms (typically latin and greek).
Short answer explain what's going on in a particular passage
Essay topic will be given ahead of time
Cosmos completely connected and complete whole
Each thing is by nature suited to a task, each thing has a place in the universe.
This place is pre-appointed for it.
Mythos vs. Logos
Mythical thinking requires a figure (be it a person or a text) which explains how you think. Why? Because he said so.
Logos a way of thinking which exists within philosophy.
Why? Because it can be proven based on a premise that everyone can agree on, and be deduced and inferred from these universal premises.
Anyone in principle, of sound mind, can consent to a philosophical proposition philosophy is democratic and universal.
However, philosophical thinking is open to criticism and open ended thinking.
Philosophy can be a source of freedom, however.
How is it that we can know the universe?
Why is it that the logos in our mind reflects or corresponds to reality?
Why is the order accessible to us?
The fundamental assumption of philosophers is that the universe is not alien to us, it has a connection to us, and so, we can know it.
All things were made through our mind.
Therefore the principles of all things are the same as the principles in our mind
Our minds are reflections of a mind that did create all things, and that's why there is an affinity between our minds and objects.
In 399 BC, Socrates went around curropting the youth with all sorts of philosophical questions
Many people became his students
Often these inquiries revealed that the rhetoricians and sophists exposed themselves as knowing nothing, and unable to justify their positions
Though Socrates didn't intend to riddicule, but that's how it came off to his followers
When he asked a question, a simple answer was never enough
Because it was how it was done in the past was not good enough
When he asked to justify their opinions, they often could not, looking foolish in front of ther peers.
It also became apparent that Socrates had more questions than answers, and his unrelenting questions tended to break down the city brick by brick
His questions made him seem as someone currpot and dangerous, and undermining the order of the city
Plato wants us to be aware that philosophy is dangerous, because it opposes anything limited or finite, which includes the city wihtout which there is no life...
Many of the tentions in Athens had been underground
This is what constituted the threat of the city Socrates created no tensions, but he did inflame them
Socrates often speaks of eros such as the eros of the soul.
Just as the body seeks wholeness, so does the soul.
In dialectic, Socrates brought forth little speeches, the speeches of philosophy, just as the body brings forth babies.
It's eros has the same hunt for satisfaction and pleasure as does the body
Says that there is a parallell to the body and the soul
We search for what is beautiful and good, and when we find it, want it to be forever
Death, however, takes away such things
We overcome mortality of the body by producing babies, and the mortality of the soul is overcome by speeches
Authorities of the city, saw Socrates as a threat to the city, (wounded pride?)
Socrates out of sync from his fellow citizens, a currptor of the city, a 'holier than thou' person.
A city must assure law and justice, show homage to the gods that protect the city, and the city concerns itself by encouraging freedom, and the love of honour, things important to the fucntion of the city
A tension between the city and philosopher, that the philosopher tells noble lies, ensuring that the city is stable so that they can think within it.
On the outside, the philosopher speaks for the city, but on the inside is the search for knowledge and the progression of their own agenda. (Freemasons?)
Socrates has a kind of 'esoteric' teaching, because he realizes how important philosophy is, but it can have a terrible corrupting existence, because the love of wisdom can never be actualized.
Socrates hides things.
The wisdom he teaches turns out to be that you can proceed toward wisdom, you can get pieces of it, but you can never completely grasp Truth.
There are the wise and unwise, and nothing is going to change it.
For Socrates, what is all important is to find peace and openness so that he can philosophize.
But all he has is the city.
Socrates also doesn't think he is wise.
From the perspective of the city he was seen as strange, subversive.
The city needs to provide law, justice, protection, homage to the gods
The philosopher cannot be an accomplice, spokesperson of the city, without having to compete with the city, and particularly those people who have taken on authoritative roles in the city, and see Socrates as a threat, and a madman.
The relationship with the city is complicated.
Socrates also needs to use rhetoric to support his arguments, which makes him ironic...and that pisses people off, because we want sincerity.
Because of the risk to the philosopher and the risk to the city, he does not tell the complete truth
Fundamental distinction between the many and the one
Philosopher needs the city because of the requirements of everyday life, and people who he can teach and mould.
Plato in all of his 26 dialogues does not portray Socrates talking with another philosopher.
Role is reserved to the very few
Rival to religion because it replaces beliefs with knowledge
Socrates and Euthephro (sp?)
Socrates has been charged with curopting the young, and not believing in the city's gods, and making up his own ones.
Euthyphro claims he has some kind of knowledge. It makes one sense that E could be an accuser of Socrates, because he himself is not famous for his piety.
For E, only revelation reveals humans as they truly are.
Without revealed knowledge, life is incomplete
E is about 50yrs old, bringing a charge against his father about an event that took place 5yrs earrlier.
One of his servants had become drunk and killed a slave. His father had him bound, and he as neglected and died.
E had only recently become a seer, and had all the enthusiasm of a convert.
He gives no sense that he has any sense of politics
Obsessed/preoccupied with the impiety of killing, so much so that he's taking his father to court.
E doesn't know that Socrates has been charged.
E is a Zealous person, and he seems unsure of what exactly he is prosecuting his father for.
He may have had an entirely personal motive for his actions
He claims to know something, which enables him to go against certain things....like going against his father.
Socrates proposes to become E's student.
Socrates is made visible, remaining still, immobile, whereas E is very mobile, and says that his words are the 'statue of Deadalus'.
Socrates compares E to Proteus who continually changes his shape.
Socrates is driven by a practical intent a demonstration of philosophy at work.
A love of wisdom (zetesus), of searching....
Unwilling to accept solutions that produce political agitation
Socrates attempts to use philosophy to order E's soul.
Socrates in action is coming up against these young agitators who could very easily subvert the city, and he attempts to silence them, often with confusion
Life is in constant motion
Section 5D 10-11
Offers a definition of piety following the law, immitating the gods. Zeus who punished his guity father
Socrates goes what I want is one idea of piety, not examples and illistrations, he wants an argument, a rational account of what piety is. Wants the essence of piety
What makes a thing pious?
E is very literal, so for him, the above is true piety.
In platonic dialogues, we are often asked whether Socrates is charged correctly in corrupting the young...well, he does.
Revelation relies on human judgement, insight, and so on....
God's commandments, there is disagreement between god's commandments. Philosophy is the only alternative to reveelation.
We can acquire knowledge of the good through reason alone Socrates
The pious believer thinks that philosophy is vicious
The philosopher says that the religious believer chooses to conform to the gods in blind decision.
Socrates draws E into a discussion about piety in a philosophical manner to try and prove to him otherwise.
Socrates goes on to correct E's opinion, acknowledges that piety conflicts with filial piety, and this is why revelation has to be super-seeded with philosophy
All piety can be measured and corrected through knowledge
E's expectations are an expression of his selfishness and self interest.
True piety lies in not following the gods, but sitting in quiet contemplation and understanding?
Maybe philosophizing is the truest form of piety.
What is dear to the gods seems arbitrary to humans
The action that he's embarked upon is impious.
Justice is not merely enforcing the law, following the gods.
Piety is not simply expecting the love and care of the gods for our use...
Origin of the good things whether things are good and holy because they are commanded by the gods, or they are holy and good because they are commanded?
There is an order which only philosophy can provide, can let us know what is higher.
What does piety demand?
The obligation of perusing justice has expanded, and the pursuit of piety has been absorbed into justice.
In E he shows how much Socrates really does corrupt the young
Socrates will claim he did not corrupt the young, but the young are corrupted by the city by leaving citizens too low, or too high with no need for laws and constitutions
The judgement that you need to develop to be a good citizen is within yourself, and not within the rules or the gods.
Discover this through the language of philosophy, and discover good from bad, truth from untruth.
Pity = orthopraxy
Phidippiddes knows Socrates
Arrogant son who gambles
Father wants to go to Socrates' think-tank, and his students begin to reveal things.
Strepsiddies joins into the art of geomoetry and astronomy
Socrates above, must have airy thoughts to discover things how they are.
Clouds are goddesses who can take on any appearance and morph
They woship the vortex who is king
Pleased that there are no costs to crime?
Strepsidies is captivated
Zeus has been expelled by Vortex
The clouds bribe the judges bringing lawlessness to everything
descent into shamelessness
In the last violation of the mother, who is beaten,
Socrates had a thinkery in Aristophanes, a person who had great concern about Socrates
There was a view that Socrates taught something occult, and somehow engaged 'cathonic' forces, deep dark forces, which he somehow was able to employ and use.
The thinkery is shown to be an extremist group of paganists.
People think that Socrates is up to magic, and up to impious means to live a life of completel self indulgence.
In this thinkery, these forces that Socrates live by, are all efforts to overcome law, regulation, moral restraint, political order
This is the main theme of the Clouds
If you are going to look for religious life, it becomes confusing whether this life praises the void, the vortex, infinite power...how does that click with the notion of a well-ordered soul that is part of a larger cosmos? Microcosm of the cosmos? That is maintained and educated through the virtues.
The point of time is where Athens is getting bored....
Athens is wanting to stir the pot, break outside the barriers of convention, to indulge vices more. Tyranny is wanted almost.
They wanted to explore the deepest mysteries that conjoined violence and radical trancendance and deep disorder....
Socrates and Aristotle both have to fight this phenomenon
For the ancient greeks, the big problem was the emergence of tyrants, who wanted to assume that there is no cosmic order.
We can recreate the conditions of reality and the soul, what constitutes happiness,
This play provides a startling insight into what is the boredom in Athens, the boredom with orthodoxy and tradition
Expressed through a love of tyranny and a regection of the cosmic order
MY NOTES ON EUTHYPHRO
Euthyphro and Socrates meet in front of the 'agora', the central marketplace of Athens, in front of what seems to be a courthouse of sorts.
They get to talking, and E learns that Socrates has been charged with corrupting the young, and Socrates learns that E has filed a case against his father for the (accidental) murder (murder by neglect) of a slave, who in turn is a murderer himself, having killed a servant in the household.
Euthryphro seems to see himself and Socrates in the same level
Both in receipt of divine intuition, and both at the ridicule of the public
E is very adamant on his position, thinking that his 'pious justice' must be carried out regardless of whom the offender is
The sin is all the worse when it's your own family. He seems to think that he is purifying himself by prosecuting his father.
Socrates comes to the conclusion that because E is going so far as to prosecute his father, then his knowledge of 'piety', and what it means to be pious, must truly be a good and accurate one
E agrees saying: I should be of no use, Socrates, and Euthyphro would not be superior to the majority of men if I did not have accurate knowledge of all such things
Socrates wants to become his pupil to learn what piety is
Thinks that by learning the true definition of piety, it will help him win his own case wherein he is accused of creating his own gods
Again, a demonstration of how Socrates does not consider himself wise
In this case, unlike other dialogues, he seems genuinely willing to listen to E, and to learn what the other man has to say he is not testing out one of his own arguments/ideas which he has already thought out in advance
Sincerity in his speaking
Tell me then, what is the pious and what the impious, do you say?
Euthyphro's Definition of Piety
To prosecute the wrongdoer, despite the fact that said wrongdoer may be related to you
To not prosecute is impious
Uses the example of Zeus, the highest of gods, who killed his father as a form of punishment
Seems to disregard E's example of Zeus, because one cannot know the gods
Asks his question again, because E's answer was limited o...