i. us involvement in indochina vietnam (laos, cambodia) all part of indochina – region between...

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  • I. US involvement in Indochina Vietnam (Laos, Cambodia) all part of Indochina region between India and China Note The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence begins with We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain rights, among these life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness (Ho Chi Minh in August 1945)
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  • a. French and Bao Dai Fear was a French defeat would lead to the communist dominating Asia May 1954, Dien Bien Phu, epic battle, France got stomped, ended French occupation, but certainly not hostilities b. South Vietnam becomes a republic Headed by Ngo Dinh Diem, Tyrant Free elections to be held, Ngo had no chance to get elected (vs. Ho Chi Minh) Much opposition Ngos leadership (Buddhist monk self-immolations)
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  • c. Divided along the 17 th Parallel North and South divided at the 17 th parallel Free passage North/South, to any who wanted to migrate (many more migrated South than to the Communist North) d. Domino Theory and the US US sends advisors Mostly Green Berets Special forces who train others within their own country to carry on their own revolution http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LH4-tOqLH94
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  • e. LBJ & the Escalation of the War Tonkin Gulf Incident alleged attack on US Navy vessels by North Vietnamese patrol boats, doubtful then, today, we know Tonkin Gulf Resolution, authorized the President to escalate troops in Vietnam (only 1 vote against) f. Viet Cong Viet Cong sang (or Vietnamese who are Communists) Insurgents in the South who fought against US presence
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  • g. A war of attrition Kill more of them than they kill of us, make them tire of the war Wars end, 58,000 Americans, over 1 million of the Viet Cong & North Vietnamese h. Early opposition College opposition, peace movement SDS Students for a Democratic Society; one of the lead organizers of war protests Much draft resistance, burning draft cards Some fled to Canada, draft dodgers
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  • i. Problems on the front My Lai; Lt. William Calley entered with troops, slaughtered everyone, men, women, children Agent Orange, a defoliant sprayed from planes to kill vegetation, making it easier to see combatants j. Tet Offensive Vietnamese New Year (1968) General uprising against US forces Military blunder, but political victory as it became clear to people at home, the war wasnt going well
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  • k. Vietnamization Nixon has a secret plan to end the war Planned to turn the responsibility of the war over to the Vietnamese (ARVN) ARVN, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, not noted for their bravery or willingness to fight l. Pentagon Papers Pentagon study of US and Vietnam, outlined the errors, proves administration lies and deceptions Daniel Ellsberg steals a copy, sells it to the New York Time for publication
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  • m. Credibility Gap Publication widens the gap between what the government says and what people believe Nixon administration becomes distrustful, even paranoid
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  • The End of Part 8

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