IA Tagung 2005: Card Sorting

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<ul><li> 1. Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Card Sorting forInformation Architecture Usage Areas, Methodsand Samples Steffen Schilb (Steffen@cardsort.net)</li></ul><p> 2. Outline Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Card Sorting: The Standard Method </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-Based Card Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Card Sorting Variants </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and Discussion </li></ul><p> 3. Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb 1 Introduction 4. Introduction: Why do People browse the Internet? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb 5. Introduction: Why do People browse the Internet? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Typical User Behaviour(Wodtke, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Search for specific Information </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a Task </li></ul><ul><li>Browsing around </li></ul><p>Problem Information cannot be found 6. Introduction:Why does this happen? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Hierarchy, Navigation Scheme No intuitive Navigation Scheme, Hierarchy People expect Content somewhere else 7. Introduction:Why does this happen? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Misunderstood Wording Inconsistent Terms English Vs. German Ambiguous Terms 8. Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb How can this be improved? 9. Introduction: How can this be improved? Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>With Card Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Users group the Contents and develop a Hierarchy themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to understand how Users group Information </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide insight into mental Model </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as helpful Input to specify IA </li></ul><p> 10. Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Benfits of Card Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, Cheap, Quick </li></ul><ul><li>Established </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Users </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Provides good Results </li></ul><p> 11. Introduction Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Usage Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Designing a new Site </li></ul><ul><li>Designing a new Area of a Site </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigning a Site </li></ul><ul><li>Early Stages of Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Large Websites </li></ul><p> 12. Card Sorting: The Standard Method Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb 2 Card Sorting: The Standard Method 13. Card Sorting: The Standard Method Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Preparation 14. Card Sorting: The Standard Method Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Write each Content on a Card </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Cards should be manageable </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Cards should be manageable (30-100) </li></ul><ul><li>Label is extremely important </li></ul><p> 15. Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Same Level of DetailPolitics Album Charts 16. Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Cover one distinguished ContentTennis Icehockey 17. Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Describe the Content in a unambiguous Way Inspiration Opening Hours 18. Card Sorting: Preparation Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Before the Exercise starts... </li></ul><ul><li>Define Test Conditions (Single, Group,...) </li></ul><ul><li>Select Participants</li></ul><ul><li>Invite Participants </li></ul><p> 19. Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Conducting theExercise 20. Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Card Sorting Method </li></ul><ul><li>Give Instructions </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sorting out Cards </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sorting into multiple Categories </li></ul></li></ul><p> 21. Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Step 1: Sorting the Cards 22. Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Step 2: Finalizing the Sorting 23. Card Sorting: Conducting the Exercise Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Step 3: Labeling the Clusters 24. Card Sorting: Closed Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Variant: Closed Card Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Categories are predefined </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign/Relaunch of Websites </li></ul><p> 25. Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb (Manual) Analysis 26. Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Analysis Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Documention </li></ul><ul><li> Data-Eyeballing </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>(Clusteranalysis) </li></ul><p> 27. Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Data-Eyeballing </li></ul><ul><li>Look for dominant Organization Schemes (Patterns) </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust Scheme to make kinds of Categories consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Set asside the odd Categories that dont match </li></ul><p> 28. Card Sorting: Data-Eyeballing Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Result: Simple Taxonomy Sport Fussball 1. Bundesliga 2. Bundesliga ... Tennis Weltrangliste ATP-Turniere ... Basketball NBA ... Politik Aktuelles Aus aller Welt Deutschland ... Innenpolitik News ... Auenpolitik Europa ... Wirtschaft Deutschland News ... Weltweit News ... Brse News DAX Dow-Jones ... 29. Card Sorting: Data-Eyeballing Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Attributes of Data-Eyeballing </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Easy and fast </li></ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><li>Highly subjective </li></ul><p> 30. Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Spreadsheet Analysis 31. Card Sorting: Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Spreadsheet Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>More information can be found at </li></ul><ul><li>Boxes and Arrows:</li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing Card Sort Results with a Spreadsheet Template </li></ul><p> 32. Cluster Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb 3 Cluster Analysis 33. Cluster Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Cluster Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Analysis Method for identifying Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Most common Analysis Method </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly done with Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Step 1: Distance Matrix </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Step 2: Tree Diagram </li></ul></li></ul><p> 34. Cluster Analysis Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix 35. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Example Participant 1 Projekte AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studentisches Fachbereiche Insitute Campus Lageplan Anreise Participant 2 Aktivitten AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studium Fachbereiche Institute Allgemeine Infos Lageplan Anreise Participant 3 Aktivitten AGs Studium Fachbereiche Aktuelle Projekte Institute Informationen Lageplan Anreise 36. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix P1 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Anreise 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Lageplan 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 Insitute 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Fach-bereiche 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 Aktuelle Projekte 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 AGs Anreise Lageplan Institute Fach-bereiche Aktuelle Projekte AGs 37. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix P1 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Anreise 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Lageplan 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 Insitute 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Fach-bereiche 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 Aktuelle Projekte 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 AGs Anreise Lageplan Institute Fach-bereiche Aktuelle Projekte AGs 38. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix P1 + P2 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Anreise 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Lageplan 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 Insitute 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Fach-bereiche 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 Aktuelle Projekte 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 AGs Anreise Lageplan Institute Fach-bereiche Aktuelle Projekte AGs 39. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Example Participant 1 Projekte AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studentisches Fachbereiche Insitute Campus Lageplan Anreise Participant 2 Aktivitten AGs Aktuelle Projekte Studium Fachbereiche Institute Allgemeine Infos Lageplan Anreise Participant 3 Aktivitten AGs Studium Fachbereiche Aktuelle Projekte Institute Informationen Lageplan Anreise 40. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix (P1+P2)+P3 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Anreise 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Lageplan 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.67 1.00 Insitute 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.67 1.00 Fach-bereiche 1.00 1.00 0.67 0.67 1.00 0.33 Aktuelle Projekte 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.33 1.00 AGs Anreise Lageplan Institute Fach-bereiche Aktuelle Projekte AGs 41. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb How to calculate K F (A F /B F ) = K t (A t /B t ) T t=1 T K:Relative Coordinate A:Relative X-Coordinate B: Relative Y-Coordinate F: Final Matrix T: Number of Participants t: Participant 42. Cluster Analysis: Distance Matrix Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>From Distance Matrix to Tree Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Single Linkage Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Linkage Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Average Linkage Algorithm </li></ul><p> 43. Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Distance Matrix 1.00 0.86 0.81 0.83 Alumni 0.86 1.00 0.92 0.42 Aktuelle Projekte 0.81 0.92 1.00 0.69 ASTA 0.83 0.42 0.69 1.00 AGs Alumni Aktuelle Projekte ASTA AGs 44. Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Pair (Aktuelle Projekte/AGs) is most frequently grouped together (58%) </li></ul><ul><li>Combine Pair to one Cluster and calculate new Distances </li></ul><ul><li>d(E; CE1 + CE2) = min{d(E;CE1), d(E;CE2)} </li></ul><ul><li>d(ASTA; AGs + Aktuelle Projekte) = min{d(ASTA;AGs), d(ASTA; Aktuelle Projekte)} =</li></ul><ul><li>min{0.69, 0.92}= 0.69 </li></ul><p> 45. Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb New Distance Matrix 1.00 0.81 0.83 Aktuelle Projekte 0.81 1.00 0.69 ASTA 0.83 0.69 1.00 AGs+ Aktuelle Projekte Alumni ASTA AGs+ Aktuelle Projekte 46. Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>AGs+Aktuelle Projekte0.42 </li></ul><ul><li>(AGs+Aktuelle Projekte)+ASTA0.69 </li></ul><ul><li>((AGs+Aktuelle Projekte)+ASTA)+Alumni0.81 </li></ul><p> 47. Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb Final Dendogram AGs Aktuelle Projekte ASTA Alumni 0.00 0.50 1.00 0.42 0.69 0.81 48. Cluster Analysis: Single Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>min{0.69;0.92}=0.69 </li></ul><ul><li>Nearest-Neighboor-Method </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum-Distance Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Chaining Phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Isolates Outliners (Most important Attribute) </li></ul><p> 49. Cluster Analysis: Complete Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>max{0.69;0.92}=0.92 </li></ul><ul><li>Furthest-Neighboor-Method </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of small Groups are formed </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups are mostly formed at the End </li></ul><ul><li>Does not identify Outliners well </li></ul><p> 50. Cluster Analysis: Average Linkage Algorithm Card Sorting for Information Architecture: Usage Areas, Methods and Samples IATagung Frankfurt :: 28./29.05.2005 :: Steffen Schilb </p> <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>0,5x(0.69) + 0,5x(0.92) = 0.80 </li></ul><ul><li>Takes mean Distance </li></ul><ul><li>No Chaining Phenonemon </li></ul><p> 51. Computer-Based Card Sorting Card Sorting for Information Archite...</p>