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<ul><li><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS</p><p>English-French versionVersion Anglais-Franais</p><p>CRACK &amp; DEFORMATIONFISSURE &amp; DFORMATION </p><p>DETACHMENT DETACHEMENT</p><p>FEATURES INDUCED BY MATERIAL LOSSFIGURES INDUITES PAR UNE PERTE DE MATIRE</p><p>DISCOLORATION &amp; DEPOSITALTRATION CHROMATIQUE ET DPT</p><p>BIOLOGICAL COLONIZATIONCOLONISATION BIOLOGIQUE</p><p>ICOMOS-ISCS :Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns</p><p>Glossaire illustr sur les formes daltration de la pierre</p><p>MONUMENTS AND SITESMONUMENTS ET SITES XV</p></li><li><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS</p></li><li><p>RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEST PRINTING RESULTSRECOMMANDATIONS POUR UN MEILLEUR RENDU L'IMPRESSION</p><p>This 86 pages glossary is meant to be printed recto-verso in full colours. When the book isopen, each definition should appear on the left page, and the corresponding illustrations onthe right page.Ce glossaire comporte 86 pages. Pour qu'il soit comprhensible, il faut l'imprimer en pleinescouleurs et en recto-verso. Lorsque le livre est ouvert, chaque dfinition doit figurer sur lapage de gauche, et les illustrations correspondantes sur la page de droite.</p><p>PURCHASING INFORMATIONPURCHASING ORDER</p><p>A limited number of the printed version of this publication can be purchased from the ICOMOS-International Documentation Centre,Un nombre limit de la version imprime de cette publication est vendue par le centre dedocumentation d'ICOMOS International :49-51, rue de la fdration 75015 Paris, France - verrier@icomos.org, Fax : +33 1 45 66 06 22 :</p><p>Postage Rate ICOMOS member Non memberEconomy 20 Euros 25 EurosPriority 25 Euros 30 Euros</p><p>Name / Prnom : ............................................................................ Date : ...............................</p><p>Family name / Nom de famille : ................................................................................................</p><p>Company / Compagnie : ...........................................................................................................</p><p>Address / Adresse : ...................................................................................................................</p><p>...................................................................................................................................................</p><p>Tel : .................................. Fax : .................................. e-mail : ................................................</p><p>Payment should be made in Euros by / Merci d'effectuer le paiement en Euros par :Credit Card / Carte bancaire (VIA, Eurocard, Mastercard, American Express)Pay Pal : to verrier@icomos.orgBank transfert to / Virement :</p><p>CRDIT DU NORDIBAN: FR76 3007 6023 5211 5890 0020 018BIC: NORDFRPP</p><p>Cheque : Only cheques from French Bank accounts are accepted / Cheque : Seuls les chques tablis sur une banque franaise sont accepts.</p><p>ICOMOS-ISCS :Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patternsGlossaire illustr sur les formes daltration de la pierre</p><p>MONUMENTS AND SITESMONUMENTS ET SITES XV</p><p>A dcouper et retourner ICOMOS International - 49-51, rue de la fdration - 75015 Paris, France</p></li><li><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS</p></li><li><p>CONTRIBUTORS /CONTRIBUTIONS(Alphabetical order / Ordre alphabtique)</p><p>English version / Version Anglaise</p><p>Tamara Anson Cartwright, Ministry of Culture, Toronto, Canada; Elsa Bourguignon,Conservation scientist, France; Philippe Bromblet, CICRP, Marseille, France; Jo Ann Cassar,Institute for Masonry and Construction Research, Msida, Malta; A. Elena Charola, Universityof Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Eddy De Witte, KIK-IRPA, Brussels, Belgium; JoseDelgado-Rodrigues, LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal; Vasco Fassina, SPAS-Veneto, Venice, Italy;Bernd Fitzner, RWTH, Aachen, Germany; Laurent Fortier, LRMH, Champs-sur-Marne, France;Christoph Franzen, IDK, Dresden, Germany; Jos-Maria Garcia de Miguel, ESM UPM,Madrid, Spain; Ewan Hyslop, British Geological Survey, Edinburgh, UK; Marie Klingspor-Rotstein, Skanska, Stockholm, Sweden; Daniel Kwiatkowski, Skanska, Stockholm, Sweden;Wolfgang E. Krumbein, ICBM, Oldenburg, Germany; Roger-Alexandre Lefvre, UniversityParis XII, Crteil, France; Ingval Maxwell, Historic Scotland, Edinburgh, UK; AndrewMcMillan, British Geological Survey, Edinburgh, UK; Dagmar Michoinova, NIPCMS, Prague,Czech republic, Tadateru Nishiura, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan; Kyle Normandin,Wiss, Janney Elstner Associates Inc., New York, New York, USA; Andreas Queisser, EPFL,Lausanne, Suisse; Isabelle Pallot-Frossard, LRMH, Champs-sur-Marne, France; Vasu Poshyanandana, Office of National Museums Bangkok, Thailand; George W. Scherer,Princeton University, USA; Stefan Simon, Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Staatliche Museen zuBerlin, Germany; Rolf Snethlage, Bayerisches Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege, Munich,Germany; Francis Tourneur, Pierres et Marbres de Wallonie, Namur, Belgium; Jean-MarcVallet, CICRP, Marseille, France; Rob Van Hees, TNO, Delft, Netherland; Myrsini Varti-Matarangas, IGME, Athens, Greece; Vronique Vergs-Belmin, LRMH, Champs-sur-Marne, France; Tomas Warscheid, MPA, Bremen, Germany; Kati Winterhalter, Architect,Helsinki, Finland; David Young, Heritage consultant, Campbell, Australia.</p><p>Translation and adaptation into French / Traduction et adaptation en FranaisP. Bromblet, J.-M. Vallet, V. Vergs-Belmin.</p><p>Edition / Coordination : V. Vergs-BelminLay out / Maquette : Nadine Guyon</p><p>ISBN : 978-2-918086-00-0 EAN : 9782918086000Impression septembre 2008, Ateliers 30 Impression, Champigny/Marne, France </p><p>ICOMOS-ISCS :Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patternsGlossaire illustr sur les formes daltration de la pierre</p><p>MONUMENTS AND SITESMONUMENTS ET SITES XV</p></li><li><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS</p></li><li><p>The ICOMOS International Scientific Committee forStone (ISCS) is providing a forum for the interchange ofexperience, ideas, and knowledge in the field of stoneconservation. ISCS aims at facilitating the publication,dissemination and presentation of state of the artreviews on pre-identified issues. Simplification anddemystification of scientific information for practitio-ners are also part of the main goals of the group.</p><p>In studies on stone deterioration and conservation, ter-minological confusions lead to major communicationproblems between scientists, conservators and practi-tioners. In this context, it is of primary importance to setup a common language; if degradation patterns can beshown, named and described, then they can be recogni-sed and compared with similar ones in a more accurateway in further investigations.</p><p>The ISCS glossary constitutes an important tool forscientific discussions on decay phenomena and proces-ses. It is also an excellent basis for tutorials on stonedeterioration. It is based on the careful examination ofpre-existing glossaries of English terms. It does not aimat replacing these glossaries, often set up originally in alanguage other than English, and for most of them doneto a high standard.</p><p>As President of ICOMOS I would like to congratulate theInternational Scientific Committee for Stone and itsPresident Vronique Verges-Belmin for the results ofyears of research presented in this publication. Stoneconservation is a crucial topic in monument conserva-tion and many of our National Committees all over theworld hope for advice and help from the specialistsfamiliar with traditional and modern methods ofconservation. The Illustrated Glossary on StoneDeterioration Patterns offers a wide range of sugges-tions and practical advice. Probably, after the English-French version becomes avaible the Glossary will alsobe translated into other languages. In view of the acce-lerating decay of our stone monuments worldwide thisis an exemplary contribution which will promote theinternational cooperation so important in this field.</p><p>Prof. Dr. Michael Petzet, President of ICOMOS</p><p>Le comit scientifique International de lICOMOS (ISCS)constitue un forum dchanges dexpriences, dides etde connaissances dans le domaine de la conservationde la Pierre. LISCS a pour but de faciliter la publication,la dissmination et la prsentation de revues sur unchoix de problmes. Il sattache aussi simplifier,dmystifier linformation scientifique pour les prati-ciens.</p><p>Dans les tudes sur la dtrioration et la conservationde la pierre, les confusions terminologiques conduisent des problmes de communication majeurs entreconservateurs, restaurateurs et scientifiques. Dans cecontexte, ltablissement dun langage commun est pri-mordial. Si les figures daltration peuvent tre mon-tres, nommes et dcrites, elles peuvent tres recon-nues et compares de faon exacte avec dautres dansdes investigations ultrieures. Le glossaire illustr delISCS constitue ainsi un outil important pour les discus-sions interdisciplinaires sur les phnomnes et proces-sus de dgradation. Sa version publie sur Internet estgalement une excellente collection dimages pour lescours sur la conservation de la pierre.</p><p>Le glossaire ISCS est construit partir dun examenattentif de glossaires prexistants en anglais. Il ne pr-tend pas sy substituer car ces derniers, pour la plupartoriginellement tablis dans dautres langues que lan-glais, sont pour la plupart trs bien faits.</p><p>En tant que Prsident de l`ICOMOS, j`aimerais fliciter lecomit international Pierre et son prsident VroniqueVerges-Belmin pour le rsultat des annes de recher-ches prsent dans cette publication. La conservationde la pierre est un sujet crucial dans le domaine de laconservation monumentale, et nombreux sont de par lemonde les comits nationaux qui esprent obtenir aviset aide de la part de spcialistes familiers avec lesmthodes de conservation modernes et traditionnelles.Le Glossaire ISCS offre une large palette de suggestionset avis pratiques. La version franco-anglaise du glossai-re est probablement une tape vers des versions dansd`autres langues: vu le rythme qu`atteint l`altration denos monuments en pierre au niveau mondial, ce glos-saire constitue une contribution exemplaire qui va pro-mouvoir la coopration internationale si importantedans ce domaine.</p><p>Prof. Dr. Michael Petzet, Prsident de l`ICOMOS</p><p>PREFACEPRFACE</p><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS 11</p></li><li><p>CRACK &amp; DEFORMATIONFISSURE &amp; DFORMATION CRACK . FISSURE DEFORMATION . DFORMATION&gt; </p><p>SUMMARY . SOMMAIRE</p><p>Fracture . Fracture</p><p>Star crack . Fissuration en toile</p><p>Hair crack . Microfissure</p><p>Craquele . Craquellement</p><p>Splitting . Clivage</p><p>Exfoliation . Exfoliation</p><p>DETACHMENT DTACHEMENT BLISTERING . BOURSOUFLURE BURSTING . ECLATEMENT DELAMINATION . DLITAGE &gt; </p><p>FEATURES INDUCEDBY MATERIAL LOSSFIGURES INDUITES PARUNE PERTE DE MATIRE</p><p>ALVEOLIZATION . ALVOLISATION EROSION . ROSION MECHANICAL DAMAGE . DGT MCANIQUE </p><p>Differential erosion .Erosion diffrentielle</p><p>Loss . Perte :of components .de constituantsof matrix . de matrice</p><p>Rounding .Erosion en boule</p><p>Roughening .Augmentation de rugosit</p><p>Coving . Creusement Impact damage . Trace dimpact</p><p>Cut . Incision</p><p>Scratch . Rayure</p><p>Abrasion . Abrasion</p><p>Keying . Bchage</p><p>&gt; </p><p>Colouration . Coloration</p><p>Bleaching . Dcoloration </p><p>Moist area . Assombrissement d lhumidit</p><p>Staining . Tache </p><p>Black crust .Crote noire</p><p>Salt crust .Crote saline </p><p>Concrtion . Concrtion</p><p>DISCOLORATION&amp; DEPOSITALTRATION CHROMATIQUEET DPT</p><p>CRUST .CROTE</p><p>DEPOSIT .DPT </p><p>DISCOLOURATION .ALTRATION CHROMATIQUE </p><p>EFFLORESCENCE .EFFLORESCENCE&gt; </p><p>ENCRUSTATION .ENCROTEMENT </p><p>BIOLOGICALCOLONIZATIONCOLONISATIONBIOLOGIQUE</p><p>BIOLOGICAL COLONIZATION . COLONISATION BIOLOGIQUE ALGA . ALGUE &gt; </p><p>10page</p><p>12page</p><p>14page</p><p>28page</p><p>44page</p><p>46page</p><p>48page</p><p>50page</p><p>42page</p><p>64page</p><p>66page</p><p>30page</p><p>32page</p><p>16page</p><p>18page</p><p>REFERENCES . RFRENCES</p><p>BACKGROUND GLOSSARIES . GLOSSAIRES DE REFERENCE</p><p>INDEX . INDEX</p><p>6page</p><p>76page</p><p>78page</p><p>GENERAL TERMS TERMES GNRAUX ALTERATION . ALTRATION DAMAGE . DGRADATION DECAY . DGRADATION &gt; </p><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS</p><p>GLOSSARY OVERVIEW . APERU GNRAL DU GLOSSAIRE 4page</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>DISINTEGRATION . DSAGRGATION</p><p>Crumbling . Emiettement</p><p>Granular disintegration . Dsagrgation granulaire</p><p>Splintering . Fragmentation en esquilles</p><p>Chipping . Epaufrure</p><p>Flaking . Ecaillage</p><p>Contour scaling . Contour scaling</p><p>FRAGMENTATION . FRAGMENTATION PEELING . PELAGE SCALING . DESQUAMATION </p><p>Powdering, Chalking . Pulvrulence, FarinageSanding . Dsagrgation sableuseSugaring . Dsagrgation saccharode</p><p>Spalling . Desquamation en plaque</p><p>MICROKARST . MICROKARST</p><p>Gap . Trou</p><p>MISSING PART . PARTIE MANQUANTE PERFORATION . PERFORATION PITTING . PITTING </p><p>FILM .FILM</p><p>GLOSSY ASPECT .ASPECT LUISANT</p><p>GRAFFITI .GRAFFITI</p><p>PATINA .PATINE</p><p>SOILING .ENCRASSEMENT</p><p>SUBFLORESCENCE .SUBFLORESCENCE </p><p>MOSS . MOUSSELICHEN . LICHEN MOULD . MOISISSURE PLANT . PLANTE</p><p>Iron rich patina .Patine ferrugineuse</p><p>Oxalate patina .Patine doxalates</p><p>52page</p><p>54page</p><p>56page</p><p>58page</p><p>60page</p><p>62page</p><p>68page</p><p>70page</p><p>72page</p><p>74page</p><p>34page</p><p>36page</p><p>38page</p><p>40page</p><p>20page</p><p>22page</p><p>24page</p><p>26page</p><p>DEGRADATION . DGRADATION DETERIORATION . DGRADATION WEATHERING . ALTRATION MTORIQUEpage</p><p>ICOMOS International Scientific Committee for Stone (ISCS) . Comit scientifique international Pierre de lICOMOS</p><p>ICOMOS-ISCS :Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns . Glossaire illustr sur les formes daltration de la pierre</p><p>8</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>The seventh document (Franke et al. 1998) is a multi-authored book published as a deliverable of a FP5European Commission research program. The documentis an Atlas and a classification of brick masonry deterio-ration. It deals both with deterioration of the material(bricks, joint and pointing mortars), and with degrada-tion of the whole masonry. It was developed togetherwith an expert system, of which the acronym is MDDS,which stands for "Masonry Damage DiagnosticSystem". In fact all damage types contained in thedocument are to be found in the expert system (VanHees et al 1995), aiming at helping decision makers todiagnose the origin of deterioration and select appro-priate methods and materials for brick masonry restora-tion.The most recent document has been set up by a groupof experts from Germany (VDI 3798. 1998) VDI standsfor "Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, i.e. Association ofGerman Engineers". This document is quite close to astandard, and it is composed of a list of 14 terms inGerman, with a translation into English, accompaniedby a definition and illustrations. A proposal for graphicrepresentation of the decay patterns is also provided, asin the Italian Standard and in the Fitzner system.Although we did our best to gather all the availableinformation, we have obviously missed a number ofdocuments. One of them is an illustrated glossary of 30terms edited by the Queens University of Belfast(U.K.). On its website (http://www.qub.ac.uk) one canfind a comprehensive weathering features tutorial,which includes both degradation patterns of monu-ments and natural outcrops,...</p></li></ul>

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