identifying species targets at the landscape/ seascape scale
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DESCRIPTIONIdentifying Species Targets at the Landscape/ Seascape Scale. Identify species outcomes for hotspot or high-biodiversity wilderness area. Identify and delineate key biodiversity areas for globally threatened and geographically concentrated species. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Identifying Species Targets at the Landscape/ Seascape Scale
Why do we need Species Targets at the Landscape/ Seascape ScaleEnsures that we are focused on our end-goal of biodiversity conservationEnables us to prioritize sites and actionsEnables us to measure and evaluate our successEnables us to communicate and engage effectively with partners and stakeholders
Targets of Corridor ConservationPersistence of:
Globally threatened spp. Key biodiversity areas Critical ecological processes .
that cannot be effectively conserved at the spp or site scale alone
Overview of the ProcessIdentify species outcomes for hotspot or HBWA.Identify and delineate key biodiversity areas.Identify species outcomes that cannot be achieved at the site scale alone and require conservation action at the landscape/ seascape scale.Define targets for minimizing extinction riskDefine population requirements to meet targetDefine area requirements to meet targetDefine connectivity requirements to meet target
Identify species outcomes for hotspot or high-biodiversity wilderness area
Identify and delineate key biodiversity areas for globally threatened and geographically concentrated species
spp. with large home ranges and nomadic speciesspp. that occur at low densitiesspp. that move between key biodiversity areas and other migratory speciesspp. that now occur in small isolated subpopulations due to habitat fragmentation spp. that depend on ecological processes that cannot be maintained through protection at the site scale
Identify globally threatened and geographically concentrated species that cannot be conserved at the site scale alone and require conservation action at the landscape/ seascape scale
Species with large home ranges and nomadic speciesPopulation with X mature individuals requires more area than in any of the Y largest KBAs identified for the species or in which the species occurs
Species that occur at low densitiesPopulation with X mature individuals requires more area than in any of the Y largest KBAs identified for the species or in which the species occurs
Species that move between key biodiversity areasDispersal: Sub-adult dispersal patterns cannot be accommodated within any of the Y largest KBAs identified for the species or in which the species occurs;Migratory species: Populations regularly move between KBAs.
Species that now occur in small isolated subpopulations due to habitat fragmentationAll subpopulations have less than X mature individuals with limited probability of recolonization due to habitat fragmentation
Species that depend on ecological processes that cannot be maintained at the site scale
Quantifying Species Targets for Minimizing Extinction Risk at the Landscape/ Seascape Scale
Population type targets
Population reduction less than 30% over 10 yrs or 3 generationsPopulation greater than 10,000 mature individualsAt least one subpopulation containing more than 1,000 mature individualsMature individuals spread across more than one subpopulationMore than 10 locationsProbability of EW less than 10% over 100 years
Area type targetsNo continuing decline in Extent of OccurrenceArea of Occupancy greater than 2,000 km2No continuing decline in area/ extent/ quality of habitat
Connectivity type targetsNo severe fragmentation (i.e. not the case that most of the population found in small relatively isolated populations)
Source: Russ (2000)
Assessing Area and Connectivity Requirements for Species Targets at the Landscape/ Seascape Scale
Assess area requirements to meet area type targetsExtent of Occurrence: minimum area requirement = current extent of occurrenceArea of Occupancy: minimum area requirement = area of occupancy greater than 100/ 2,000 km2 or current area of occupancyHabitat: minimum area requirement = current area/ extent of habitat, with quality maintained
Assess connectivity requirements to meet connectivity type targets
Fragmentation:Map fragments of suitable habitat within Area of Occupancy;Estimate potential populations of largest fragments;If no fragment holds suitable habitat for a sub-population of 1,000 mature individuals, then identify options for connecting fragments to achieve sufficient interconnected habitat to support target subpopulation;Check that increased connectivity does not reduce number of locations/ subpopulations to less than 10.
Assess connectivity requirements to meet connectivity type targets
Fragmentation example: Tapirus pinchaque (EN)
Population density is 1 per 5.51-5.87 km2 in protected areas;In Colombia, only 5-6 fragments large enough to support 150 individuals (estimated minimum for viable population in the short-term);Remaining patches could play an important role in conservation of the species if connected to larger patches. Source: Lizcano et al (2002)
Assess connectivity requirements for species that move between sitesMovement requirements:Determine movement requirements.Determine movement/dispersal ability and assess possible limitations.Characterize and map current connectivity within landscape/ seascape. Quantify/ specify connectivity requirements.
Assess connectivity requirements to meet connectivity type targetsMovement example:For some subpopulations, female migration to upstream nesting sites up to 80km from normal estuarine habitat.Main threat to migration is dam construction which block routes.Target = connectivity between nesting and foraging sites (i.e. absence of dams or adequate mitigation measures such as turtle ladders)
Identify threats that indicate area/ connectivity requirements
Type of ThreatAreaConn.Ecol.PPolicyOther
1: Habitat Loss/ DegradationY?
2: Invasive alien species??
3: Harvesting [hunting/gathering]??
4: Accidental mortality??
7: Natural disasters?
8: Changes in native spp. dynamicsY
9: Intrinsic factors???
10: Human disturbance??
Assess area requirements to meet population type targetsDefine habitat and specific resource requirements;Estimate mean population densities (of mature individuals) and estimate total area of suitable habitat required;Map appropriate habitats and specific resources;Identify any critical habitats and/ or specific resources that can be protected at the site scale and ensure these are incorporated in KBAs;Quantify any additional habitat/ resource requirements to meet population targets.
Assess area requirements to meet population type targetsExample: Casuarius casuarius (VU)Mean population density = 0.5-2 per km2 so population of 10,000 individuals would require 5,000-20,000 km2.Habitat and resource requirements: Rainforest and associated habitats requires access to water points and mixture of habitats in areas with seasonal variation in food supply (fruit-bearing trees).
Map appropriate habitats
Identify critical habitat/ resources for site-scale protection in KBAs
Do we have any slides on the importance of targets already?See Dave Holes presentationDetermine global population target and population target within hotspots/ hbwa.Identify species' current distribution and abundance within hotspot/ hbwa.Review hotspot/ hbwa population target based on species' current distribution and abundance. Note: first target here needs better definition (e.g. all subpopulations have less than 50 mature individuals with limited probability of recolonization due to habitat fragmentation).
What about connectivity required for dispersal and nomadic/ migratory species?
EO: map and quantify extent of occurrenceAO: map and quantify area of occupancyHabitat: map, quantify and describe area, extent and quality of habitat
Note: presumably relatively few species that require action at the corridor scale will actually fall into this category..
Map fragments of core habitatDetermine movement/dispersal ability and assess possible limitations.Characterize and map current connectivity within landscape/ seascape. Quantify/ specify connectivity requirements.
Determine movement requirements.Determine movement/dispersal ability and assess possible limitations.Characterize and map current connectivity within landscape/ seascape. Quantify/ specify connectivity requirements.
Note: this base case is the most basic approach to setting area requirements designed for the most data deficient species the minimum data requirement is an estimate of the population densities (of mature individuals); where more data/ research resources are available, this base case can be supplemented with analysis that better reflects variation in population densities and patterns of habitat and resource use.can cross short stretches of open land, but is not found in small fragments.