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LEADERSHIP STYLESPrepared by: Lester R. Paradillo,
E -A - D - E - R - S - H - I - P -
LEADERSHIPLeadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.
The process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives .
LEADERSHIP CONT..• Alan Keith stated that, "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen.
THE ESSENCE OF LEADERSHIP Leadership refers to ability of one individual to
influence others. The influence is exercised to change the behaviour of
others. Change of behaviour is caused with an objective of
achieving a shared goal. The person influencing others(leader) possesses a set
of qualities or characteristics with which he or she to influence others
Leadership is a group phenomenon. It involves interaction between two or more people.
Administer Maintain Innovate
Control Develop Inspire Long term view
Ask what & why Do things right Initiate
Do right things Short term view Ask how & when Accept the status quo Originate Do things right
Challenge the status quo
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGERS & LEADERS
MANAGERS LEADERSAdminister Innovate
Short term view Long term view
Ask how & when Ask what & why
Accept the status quo Challenge the status quo
Do things right Do right things.
3 MAIN TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLES
1. The Autocratic or Authoritarian Leader2. The Democratic or Participative Leader3. The Laissez-faire or Delegative Leader
2 OTHER STYLES
• The Charismatic Leader• The Servant Leader
THE AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN LEADER
• Given the power to make decisions alone, having total authority.
• Closely supervises and controls people when they perform certain tasks.
AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN STYLEUnder the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making
powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictator leaders.
They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager.
It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to himself until he feels it is needed to be shared with the rest of the group.
High degree of dependency on the leader
May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
NOT ALL BADSometimes the most effective style to use when:•New, untrained staff•Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions•Staff do not respond to any other leadership style•Limited time in which to make decision•A leader’s power challenged by staff
SHOULD NOT BE USED When :
•Staff becomes tense, fearful, or resentful•Staff expect their opinions heard•Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage
• Advantages: • (i) Autocratic leadership style permits quick decision-
making.• (ii) It provides strong motivation and satisfaction to
the leaders who dictate terms.• (iii) This style may yield better results when great
speed is required.
• Disadvantages: • (i) It leads to frustration, low moral and conflict
among subordinates,• (ii) Subordinates tend to shirk responsibility and
THE DEMOCRATIC OR PARTICIPATIVE LEADER
• Includes one or more people in the decision making process of determining what to do and how to do it. • Maintains the final
decision making authority.
PARTICIPATIVE OR DEMOCRATIC STYLE
The democratic leadership style favours decision-making by the group .
They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively.
The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them.
Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken
Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct.
CARLOS GHOSN• Carlos Ghosn (born March 9,
1954), President and Chief Executive officer, Renault, France; President and Chief Executive Officer, Nissan, Japan
• Ghosn was very reasonable with his subordinate. He provided them challenges to perform better and at the same time made them realized that he trusted them and their capabilities.
• He believed in empowering his employees to take decision.
• He also believed that change in the organizational culture should come from the bottom level and not be forced from the top management.
MOST EFFECTIVEWhen:•Wants to keep staff informed about matters that affect them•Wants staff to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties•Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction•A large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve•Wants to encourage team building and participation
SHOULD NOT BE USEDWhen: •Not enough time to get everyone’s input•Easier and more cost-effective for the leader to make decision•Cant afford mistakes•leader feels threatened by this type of leadership
Advantages: •(i) Exchange of ideas among subordinates and leader improves job satisfaction and morale of the subordinates.•(ii) Human values get their due recognition which develops positive attitude and reduces resistance to change.•(iii) The quality of decision is improved.
Disadvantages: •(i) Democratic style of leadership is time consuming and may result in delays in decision-making.•(ii) It is less effective if participation from the subordinates is for name sake.•(iii) Consulting others while making decisions go against the capability of the leader to take decisions.
VIDEO• Democratic leadership - the avengers..mp4
THE LAISSEZ-FAIRE OR DELEGATIVE LEADER
• Allows people to make their own decisions.• Leader is still responsible for
the decisions that are made. • This style allows greater
freedom and responsibility for people. • However, you need competent
people around you or nothing will get done.
Laissez-faire is a French phrase
meaning “let do”
LAISSEZ –FAIRE OR FREE REIN STYLE A free rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group
entirely to itself such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates, i.e. they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods.
1. Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important
2. Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life
3. Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction
4. Relies on good team work.5. Relies on good interpersonal relations.
SHOULD NOT BE USEDWhen:
•Staff feels insecure at the unavailability of a leader•The leader cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing•Leaders unable to thank the staff for their good work•The leader doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her.
Advantages: •(i) Positive effect on job satisfaction and moral of subordinates.•(ii) It gives chance to take initiative to the subordinates.•(iii) Maximum possible scope for development of subordinates.
Disadvantages: •(i) Under this style of leadership, there is no leadership at all.•(ii) Subordinates do not get the guidance and support of the leader.•(iii) Subordinates may move in different directions and may work at cross purpose which may create problem for the organisation.•Free rein style of leadership may be appropriate when the subordinates are well trained, highly knowledgeable, self-motivated and ready to assume responsibility.
BASED ON TASK VERSUS PEOPLE EMPHASIS
High relationship and low-task [ supporting style ]
High task and high relationship
[ participative style]
Low-task and low relationship [ free rein style ]
High task and low relationship
[ autocratic style ]
Low High Task Emphasis
What leadership styles do you think Martin Luther King, Jr. used?
WHAT LEADERSHIP STYLES DO YOU THINK
FERDINAND MARCO USED?
WHAT LEADERSHIP STYLES DO YOU THINK
PRES. RODRIGO DUTERTE USES?
QUESTIONS1. Which leadership style do you think is the most
effective? Why?2. Which leadership style do you think is the least
effective? Why?3. Which style do you like leaders to use when the leader
is in charge of you? Why?4. What leadership style best describes you?
CONCLUSIONThree factor that influence which leadership style to use.
1. the manager’s personal background: what personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have?2. Staff being supervised: staff individuals with personalities and backgrounds; what he or she respond best?3. the organization: the tradition, values, philosophy, and concerns of the organization influence how a leader acts.
CREDITS• Some material used in this presentation was taken
from a PowerPoint found at http://www.slideshare.net/DanHrstich/leadership-style-presentation by Daniel Hrstich