immersion versus bilingual literacy instruction
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DESCRIPTIONIMMERSION VERSUS BILINGUAL LITERACY INSTRUCTION. Which is a better solution for our non-English speaking students?. Susana Pinto Spring 2010. TABLE OF CONTENTS * Introduction / Statement of the Problem * Review of Literature - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Which is a better solution for our non-English speaking students?*Susana PintoSpring 2010
Statement of the ProblemThere is a lot of controversy over which method of instruction is better for English Language Learners (ELL) with regards to Literacy. Should schools use the immersion programs where a students native language plays little or no role or should they use bilingual literacy education where instruction is given in the native tongue?
This study is intended to see which is a better solution. *
Review of Literature PROS CONSTeachers need to help learners identify skills that can help facilitate their learning (Reyes, 2007).Use Gardners multiple intelligence theory to achieve best results (Gardner, 1983).Students must possess both skill and will to read (Wei, 2007).Provide learners with new experiences to generate new ideas (Reyes, 2007).To non-English speaking students series texts with pictures is important (Avalos, 2007).
Leave politics out of the classroom (Mitchell, 2005).
Attention needs to be paid to the professional development (Fitzgerald, 2000)
Maybe the focus should be on the quality of the education and not the instruction (Shin, 2008).
Racist and against basic freedoms (Mora, 2007).
Making Our Own Reading CampIncrease the learners self-esteem
Have interesting and manageable reading materials (Balakrishnan, Hashim, 2006).
Create awareness by showing them strategies they can use (Balakrishnan, Hashim, 2006).
Develop good reading habits.
Find on-line technology that will help with this literacy dilemma (Balakrishnan, Hashim, 2006).
Statement of the HypothesisHR1 - Implementing an intensive language learning instructional environment with English language learners and ESL students over a six week period will increase their reading skills more so than the group that is being taught in a bi-lingual environment.
MethodsParticipantsTwo 2nd grade classrooms in 2 schools (PS X and PS Y) located in the Bronx.They are all Spanish speaking immigrant students.The area that they live in is known to be a low economic area.There are 4 boys and 3 girls between the ages of 7-9.
InstrumentsConsent letters to the principal and parentsSurvey for studentsSurvey for parents Pre-testPost-testComputers with internet accessLibrary reading books
Research DesignNonequivalent Control Group Design:Two groups are pretested, exposed to a treatment (x), and post tested (o).
Symbolic design: O X1 OO X2 O
Threats to Internal ValidityHistory: During allotted time there may be distractions, i.e. weather, phone in classroom, fire drills, etc.
Maturation: Students over time may lose interest or may be embarrassed to be in the group and not pay attention.
Testing/Pre-test Sensitization: Students can expect what will be on the post-test since there will be a pre-test to asses the students.
Instrumentation: Students might get bored of taking the surveys or parents might not fully understand what is being asked.
Mortality: Students might be absent or move away.
Differential Selection of Subjects: Each group is in a different school. One group will be given material in their native language and the other group will only be given English material.
Threats to External ValidityEcological Validity: The results of this study can be generalized with other students that are facing the same language barrier.
Selection Treatment Interaction: Students were not randomly selected. Both groups were selected because they are learning to read the English language.
Multiple Treatment: The researcher is using two treatments, immersion / bilingual lesson plans.
Experimenter Effects: Researcher does present a threat due to the fact that they have a personal connection with the topic.
Reactive Arrangements/Participants Effects: This could possibly be a threat to the study because since this is new for the students they will do better than on ordinary circumstances, i.e. Novelty Effect.
ProcedureMarch 2010 Consent letters were given to parents.
Late March 2010 Student and parent surveys were completed and collected.
Late March 2010 Pre-test was administered to the 7 students.
Mini Project was handed out for students to do during spring break. It was a list of sight words for them to cut out and use as flash cards.*
ProcedureResearcher met with the two groups twice a week for approximately a half hour Group A with 3 students was the English Only group. Group B with the 4 students was the Bilingual group.
Some days were spent reading stories and then testing comprehension skills, others were spent on the computer doing interactive reading games.
Students also completed fun activities like crossword puzzles or used the half hour just to hold a conversation.
During the last week the post-test was administered.
Results Pre-test & Parent SurveyFor my comparison data I used a survey question that was given to parents:How often do you read to your child in English?Possible Answers1 never read to my child in English.2 I read to my child once a week in English.3 I read to my child twice a week in English.4 I read to my child 3 times or more in English.
Results Pre-test Scores & Parent Survey Answer*
ParentsSurvey Results for questionStudent score on pre-test# 11 - I never read to my child in English50% - student # 1# 21 - I never read to my child in English60% - student # 2# 31 - I never read to my child in English50% - student # 3# 44 I read to my child 3 times or more 100% - Student # 4# 52 I read to my child once a week 75% -student # 5# 64 I read to my child 3 times or more 90% - student # 6# 71 - I never read to my child in English65% - student # 7
Pre-test & Parental Survey ResultsDo parents reading to their child in English help literacy skills?*PARENT RESPONSES FROM SURVEY
*From the previous Bar Graph we can see that the more a parent reads to their child in English the higher the pre-test score is. This is a good indication that immersing the student in English language has higher benefits than bi-lingual instruction.
Also, our correlation chart shows a high positive correlation. The Rxy is 0.94. Pre-test Data Analysis & Correlation
Results Continued ** The scores in green were the English only groupAVERAGE OF PRE-TEST** English only group - average of pre-test 80%
** Bi-lingual group average of pre-test 65%*AVERAGE OF POST-TEST
** English only group average of post-test 86.66%
** Bi-lingual group average of post-test 85%
*** Greatest gain was by Bi-lingual group. Scores were 20% higher.
Results Continued*Researcher used an assessment question to poll students and analyzed the post-test scores.I do my work well even though everything is in English.
1. Strongly agree 2. Agree 3. Strongly disagree 4. disagree
Our chart shows a negative relation and no correlation between the two. The Rxy is -0.02.
Student Survey Answers
Student Post-test Scores
DiscussionEven though the initial study began in favor of immersing a student in English, further data analysis suggested that a child does better in literacy when assisted in their native language.
Also, as per the literature review maybe the basis of the study shouldnt be which method is better, but finding new ways for teachers and staff to help identify new skills for literacy and ELL/ESL children.
- More research needs to be completed.- Larger sample size is needed- Study needs to be over a longer period of time
**Sink or Swim approach isnt good either.**One of the articles described a program called the Language Camp ******