Implementations of m-learning

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<p>Implementations of M-Learning in Higher Education in IndonesiaAndry Alamsyah, Gadang RamantokoInstitut Manajemen Telkom</p> <p> Abstract: Mobile phone experiencing unprecedented growth of technology and usability inIndonesia. The very high penetration, mobility, ubiquity and its flexibility make it as a natural choice for learning tool in higher education. Mobile learning (m-learning) is an extension of electronic learning (e-learning), which is part of a learning management system that widely used in universities today. In addition, the nature of m-learning and the advantages of newer technology will draw interest, engagement and higher rate of adoption among young generation including students. The purpose of this research is to determine the elements of forming and supporting of implementations of m-learning in higher education in Indonesia.</p> <p>Keywords: m-learning, e-learning, ubiquitous, pedagogy, university The revolution of mobile device technology in the past 10 years changes 3 basic things in our everyday communications, connected to anywhere in the world, anytime anyplace connectivity, and resources can be accessed anywhere and anytime. We sum up those three points into three keywords for mobile device characteristic mobility, ubiquity and flexibility. These characteristics drive mobile devices as a natural choice for mobile learning. Indonesia have high penetration of mobile phone user, it is 85,9 % from 254 million population as march 2011 and 34 million internet users according data from Mobile Network Operator [1] and Asia Digital Marketing Association [2]. The number indicates unprecedented growth of mobile device, which contributed by the fact that mobile phone, has been part of many Indonesian lifestyles. The characteristics of mobile phone that show ubiquity and personalized device is also another advantage as a learning tools comparing to other devices. Mobile learning (m-learning) itself is an extension of electronic learning (elearning), which is part of a Learning Management System (LMS) that widely used in universities today. A successful e-learning implementation drives the development of mlearning, because the nature of m-learning itself and the advantages of newer technology will draw interest, engagement and higher rate of adoption among young generation including students. Pachler et al [3] illustrate mobile devices as resources for learning, adoption trends, characteristics, constraints and challenge. By understanding trend and pattern of mobile usage, we conclude that mobile adoption for learning is an inevitable for the future. In Task Force</p> <p>Report of National Science Foundation of America on Cyberlearning Borgman et al [4] traces the historical advances learning in ICT for human interaction [Fig. 1]. They discern five waves of resources, which increase complexity of the media from basic, physical interaction around transient oral communication towards social networking and Web 2.0 characteristic by cybernetic mediation, cloud computing, sensor networks, etc. The report argues that the set of actions and interactions possible has changed with each new waves of mediating technologies. Mobile technologies and devices very much have to be seen as part of this development trajectory.</p> <p> Fig. 1. Advances of Communication and Information Resources for Human Interaction</p> <p> Woodill et al [5] explain the business drivers for mobile learning, we apply those drivers factor into education perspective and we conclude: 1. Widespread deployment or higher penetration of mobile computing means that infrastructure for mobile learning is already in place and cost of mobile access to the internet is being reduced each year. 2. On modern perspective, teaching and learning are not fixed in the class, these processes can happen anytime, anywhere while students are on the move. 3. The technology allows student to work on their task away from the campus, and submit their work to the teacher by email, chat, FTP, web, SMS, etc. 4. Students and young people have higher rate of adoption to new technology. Mobile communication is firmly embedded in their personal lives, they are quickly learn and use mobile technology and expected the technology is also part of their learning process.</p> <p>Mobile Learning Ecosystem</p> <p>Fig. 2. Mobile Learning Ecosystem</p> <p>In today context, mobile learning is the ability of any given person to use networked mobile technology to access relevant information or store new information, regardless of their physical location. A more precise, according Woodill et al [5], technical definition might look like this: mobile learning is personalized learning that unites the learners context with cloud computing using a mobile device. Mobile learning is the opposite of learning that takes place in a traditional classroom where the learner sits, immobilized, paying attention to an instructor who stands at the front of the room. The networked mobile technology system that supports mobile learning is a complex mix of multiple forms of mobility, many different mobile technologies, a diversity of carriers, a variety of learners, a multitude of learning contexts, teachers with all levels of experience with mobile learning, and many approaches to the design of mobile content and teaching methods. To understand this complex system, it helps to think of it as a mobile learning ecosystem made up of people embedded in a particular cultural context using mobile technologies on a network to access or store information as part of a learning experience. Illustration of mobile learning ecosystem is shown at [Fig. 2]. By observations, we identify mobile learning ecosystem adapted to higher education in Indonesia condition divided into 6 categories as follows:</p> <p>1. Devices: Practically many of the newest mobile gadgets fall into this category.</p> <p>Smartphone, tablet, e-book reader have all the capabilities to support m-learning activities. Some devices are developed beyond their initial objective with help of mobile applications, for example: location-based services application developed using GPS technology. 2. Infrastructures: Mobile technology infrastructures is consist of several development of telecommunication technology such as 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, GSM, TDMA, LTE or Wimax. The mobile network operator in Indonesia today is supported mobile speed up to 3.5G/HSDPA, therefore it may be the major limitation to support full multimedia or 2 ways teleconference in m-learning. Smart implementation of infrastructures to overcome bandwidth limitation for mobile service is one of big challenge for m-learning implementation. 3. Concepts: Several concepts are adaptable to support m-learning activities such as Near Field Communication for tagging, collecting data, student identification and personalize content, Augmented Reality for providing sense, visualization and increasing user experience for learning content. 4. Content: Learning content could be in different forms start from simple form such as SMS or text based messaging service to interactive multimedia. The implementation of every form chosen is depend on the necessity and the budget, the more advanced form the more bandwidth needed. 5. Platforms: The development of mobile application to support m-learning have to consider mobile operating system platform. Several platforms that widely used today notably are Android, iOS, and blackberry. The right decision about what platform should be used for development based is important, as the development cost is high. 6. Tools: Many tools are available to support development system for m-learning, its all depend on what type of application to build. Today, HTML5 is the promising tool to support interactive multimedia and with the help of application converter, we can convert HTML5 document into mobile application native language, it will help us to cut learning curve with native language and create more application easily. The ecosystem is important mapping to understand how we implement m-learning to higher education in Indonesia. By understanding the ecosystem, we can identify the specific need, determine our concept and use the right technology, tools, and platform to deliver mlearning content material.</p> <p>Learning Management SystemAs we stated before, e-learning is a part of Learning Management System (LMS) in university. E-learning is widely used as added value or extension of pedagogies or teaching</p> <p>methods. Universities with comprehensive e-learning system support enrichment of their intellectual property / knowledge management. Logically, with all course materials, curriculum, publications, and other important information are integrated, easy to access, then it would be easier to link universities and industries. In other aspects, webometric, which is system for the universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received, it means webometric measures openness access to university resource, industry connectivity and international activities. In Indonesia, there are no common rules and guidance in The Ministry of Education on how e-learning should be implemented, but practically many universities have implemented LMS in different level of adoption. From about 3070 private and public higher education, its only around 50 higher education registered their e-learning system in Direktorat Jendral Perguruan Tinggi (http://elearning.dikti.go.id, as per March 2012). We observe and gathering data how is the implementation of e-learning and LMS in general. We observe and interviews two universities as our case study, Bina Nusantara University and ITB. implement e-learning and gained positive feedback of their LMS. Bina Nusantara University (Binus) is a private university that has strong commitment and tradition in ICT implementation. Their LMS is called BINUSMAYA, started in 2002 in form of e-Management, experiencing several development evolution, their latest version is a combination of e-learning and Academic Information System (AIS). BINUSMAYA system is designed to support specific studies via Multi Channel Learning (MCL) where students can study in their own time, and not reliant on face-to-face with their lecturer, and also student can access the entire range of resources available to them online. Binus Online Learning (BOL) is a program degree offer flexibility in learning method offered to students who has the limitation of following regular class schedule. Learning and studying activities are not bounded by specific times or place, while different methods applied, they have to maintain similar pedagogy and learning quality between this program and regular class program. By using multimedia and intuitive system, increasing learning experience, and diminish gap between face-to-face and non face-to-face activities. BOL process can be illustrated as in [Fig. 3], the key characteristics of this degree are: Online Discussion Forum for visual interaction between students with their group work and lectures. This forum divides into three types: class room, personal room, and team room. Class Conference, a real-time virtual class interaction between students and lecturer. Both universities</p> <p>Fig. 3. Binus Online Learning process illustration</p> <p>ITB is one of the best public universities in science and technology. They also have implemented LMS, although their LMS and AIS are on separated application and nonintegrated each other. LMS and e-learning can be accessed from http://kuliah.itb.ac.id and AIS can be accessed from http://akademik.itb.ac.id. The AIS system consists of public information and private information. Public Information is open information such as: rules and general information regarding university activities, course schedule, class list and course list, announcement for students, etc. Students, lecturer and other civitas academica can access this information freely as long as they are inside the campus network, if they are outside campus network they need to use Virtual Private Network application for security measures. Private information is close information such as: student registering, list of student advisory on particular lecturer, student grade, and other confidential information. Access to private information use account information and password, on each type of account whether its student or lecturer can be opened anywhere as long as they have correct login and password. The LMS in ITB is not officially implemented, based on the interview, it is still in beta status or try out period. ITBs LMS scope is still limited to putting course material online, there is no online interactivity between student-lecturer. Majority of lecturers in ITB itself is not aware of the LMS system, some of them have their personal method to deliver their course online via blog or email, resulting little integration / standardization in LMS ITB. The comparison between two case studies shows us different level implementation of LMS in universities in Indonesia. Both universities are representation of university with strong commitment in building ICT infrastructures to support their education system. In order to have the same vision among civitas academica about LMS, the need of socialization,</p> <p>policy and integrated implementations is important. Implementation reward and punishment method is also another possibility to make the system is used effectively.</p> <p>ICT implementations in Higher EducationWe categorize three level of implementation Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in universities in Indonesia to support their learning management system (LMS) and academic information system (AIS). Some universities are in low-level adoption using internet to deliver schedule or course material by email. Information such as course, lecturer, student, schedule, etc. are saved into non-integrated database system, for example saving the information to excel, access or other small database type, this is common practice for small scale campus with around a hundred students. Learning activities is done by faceto-face in the class and oral communication. Class activities, course schedule, and grade information shown physically in the information board is the most updated information comparing digital information. Borrowing books process and other library activities, such as catalog searching is done manually. The next level is the medium-level. It is the most adapted to many universities in Indonesia. In this level adoption, the universities has already implement the following facilities: Computer network connected to internet, wired or wireless University services and information published using web publishing Learning management system and academic information system connected to database integrated Global sea...</p>